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Knit fabric defects

FP Technology

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Skewing or Bias : Line or design

running at slight angle across the cloth.

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Bowing or Twisting
A line/design curve across the fabric .
Reason : Faulty take up mechanism on
knitting machine

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Knots in knit fabric:

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Needle line
Cause: due to defective needle, dirty needle
slot, improper lubrication of needle, needle
too tight or loose or bent needle
Remedies: replacing defective needle,
remove the fibers in tricks, remove bent
needle, checking the needle sequence

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Due To Tight Knot Ensure uniform tension
Needle break due to slub Rate of yarn feed should be strictly

Due to high tension of yarn Eyelets, yarn guides, should not have
any fibres, fluff & wax etc

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Oil Mark
Cause Remedy
Due to improper lubrication use oil as Fibres accumulated in needle tricks

Fibre and fluff accumulated in the Remove all the needles and sinker of
needle trick, which remain soaked machine and clean it.
with oil

Cleaning the grooves of cylinder and

dial of machine.

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Slub ( Thick and thin place)
Cause Remedy
Uneven tension, uneven course, Mix Prevent count or lot mixing, maintain
count, lot mix in blow room uniform yarn tension

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Ladder ( Fabric Run )
A run or ladder indicates a row
of dropped stitches in the wale.
Reason: Yarn carrier are not set
Stitch has been formed loosely

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Ladder :Wales collapse in
straight line

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Barre / Shade bar
A barre effect has the appearance of a stripe
with shaded edge .
It is horizontal in weft knit fabric & vertical in
warp knit fabric.

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Reason of barre defect

Due to Yarn / Due to machine

Yarn related cause : Count variation, twist
variation, wrong yarn (size, color, blend ,twist
direction ) ,mixed yarn lots ,uneven oiling or
waxing ,improper conditioning .

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Reason of barre

Machine related cause :

Different stich length ,Improper tension
Faulty dial & cylinder settings
Improper threading
Variation in take down or spreader system
Machine vibration
Dirt ,lint or yarn fragments in tricks
,needles ,sinkers or in cam system.

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Variation in oil content
Worn needles ,which generally produce
length direction streaks
Uneven cylinder height

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Recommendation to minimize
Knit an entire dyeing lot in same knit
Same spinning lot for entire fabric.
Determine from quality control for same
quality of y.arn for entire lot

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Fly yarn contamination

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Fabric weight out of

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Dye Mark

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Stain ( excessive oil or dirt )

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Pin marks : poorly adjusted
Stenter pin

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This is very common problem in single jersey

It is deformation of knit fabric due to yarn
twisting so that the vertical lines or wales are
no longer at right angle to horizontal lines
It does not appear in rib or interlock fabrics.

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Problems due to Spirality
In knitted garments the practical problem arise due to
Shifting of seams, Mismatching, Patterning and sewing
These problem are often corrected by finishing steps
such as resin treatment,heat & steam ,so the wale line
are perpendicular to course line.
Such setting are not stable ,and after repeated washing
cycle it normally reoccurs.

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It is caused by Unbalanced yarn.

Only option is to use replacement yarn
having balanced twist.(in finishing stage we
alleviate the problem but not permanently ).

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Percentage change in spirality can be
represented as follows.

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Facing up
It can be defined as unwanted surface fiber
leading to change in the appearance of the
Knit fabric made from woolen yarns generally
are finished to create fuzzy / hairy surface and
during wear/abrasion the reverse effect is
sometime an issue.
It can occur all over garment or in localized area.

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Facing up

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Facing up
Reason : gradual withdrawal of fibers from
surface layer of yarns (migration) and can in
many cases lead to pilling.
Facing up tend to occur abrasion resistance are
such as during tumble drying.

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Facing up
The tendency to facing up depends upon several
factor ,very similar with pilling
Fiber length : short / broken fiber migrate easily.
Fiber diameter: finer fiber tends to be shorter & thus
more likely to migrate.
Yarn twist : low/irregular twist perform migration
Cover factor: high density increase inter fiber friction
Fabric softener: to much softener reduces inter fiber
friction and permit fiber migration .

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Cockling & loop distortion
Cockling : An Irregular surface effect caused by loop
In general its appear in localized groups of distorted
knitted loops which have twisted out of the symmetrical
configuration .
Generally on plain knit structure and specially in yarns
spun from animal fiber such as wool or mohair .
Worsted yarn is more prone to cockling because no
milling treatment is carried out in finishing .

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Type of cockling

1. Rib / plain interface cockling :It caused by

difference in the relaxed width of 2 structure.

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Panel edge cockling :
Difference in the relaxed dimension of
neighboring structure.

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Random all over cockling :

Almost always this can be assigned to using

unsuitable yarn,

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Reason for cockling

Yarn count, twist play main role in yarn

Steaming: it causes setting of yarn &
increased rigidity in case of shrink resist yarn.
Crimp, dyeing method, cover factor.
Remedy: Finer wool ,regular or even yarn,
avoid package dyeing, more crimp yarn can
remove cockling.

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Reason for cockling

crimp, Method of dyeing

Cover factor : lower the cover factor ,less
stable the resultant fabric and greater
possibility of cockling

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