Você está na página 1de 38

Knit fabric defects

FP Technology

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 1
Skewing

Skewing or Bias : Line or design


running at slight angle across the cloth.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 2
05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 3
Bowing or Twisting
A line/design curve across the fabric .
Reason : Faulty take up mechanism on
knitting machine

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 4
Knots in knit fabric:

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 5
Needle line
Cause: due to defective needle, dirty needle
slot, improper lubrication of needle, needle
too tight or loose or bent needle
Remedies: replacing defective needle,
remove the fibers in tricks, remove bent
needle, checking the needle sequence

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 6
Hole
CAUSE REMEDIES
Due To Tight Knot Ensure uniform tension
Needle break due to slub Rate of yarn feed should be strictly
regulated

Due to high tension of yarn Eyelets, yarn guides, should not have
any fibres, fluff & wax etc

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 7
Oil Mark
Cause Remedy
Due to improper lubrication use oil as Fibres accumulated in needle tricks
lubricant

Fibre and fluff accumulated in the Remove all the needles and sinker of
needle trick, which remain soaked machine and clean it.
with oil

Cleaning the grooves of cylinder and


dial of machine.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 8
Slub ( Thick and thin place)
Cause Remedy
Uneven tension, uneven course, Mix Prevent count or lot mixing, maintain
count, lot mix in blow room uniform yarn tension

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 9
Ladder ( Fabric Run )
A run or ladder indicates a row
of dropped stitches in the wale.
Reason: Yarn carrier are not set
properly.
Stitch has been formed loosely

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 10
Ladder :Wales collapse in
straight line

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 11
Barre / Shade bar
A barre effect has the appearance of a stripe
with shaded edge .
It is horizontal in weft knit fabric & vertical in
warp knit fabric.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 12
05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 13
Reason of barre defect

Due to Yarn / Due to machine


Yarn related cause : Count variation, twist
variation, wrong yarn (size, color, blend ,twist
direction ) ,mixed yarn lots ,uneven oiling or
waxing ,improper conditioning .

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 14
Reason of barre

Machine related cause :


Different stich length ,Improper tension
Faulty dial & cylinder settings
Improper threading
Variation in take down or spreader system
Machine vibration
Dirt ,lint or yarn fragments in tricks
,needles ,sinkers or in cam system.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 15
Variation in oil content
Worn needles ,which generally produce
length direction streaks
Uneven cylinder height

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 16
Recommendation to minimize
barre`
Knit an entire dyeing lot in same knit
machine.
Same spinning lot for entire fabric.
Determine from quality control for same
quality of y.arn for entire lot

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 17
Fly yarn contamination

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 18
Fabric weight out of
tolerance

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 19
Dye Mark

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 20
Stain ( excessive oil or dirt )

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 21
Pin marks : poorly adjusted
Stenter pin

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 22
Spirality

This is very common problem in single jersey


fabric.
It is deformation of knit fabric due to yarn
twisting so that the vertical lines or wales are
no longer at right angle to horizontal lines
It does not appear in rib or interlock fabrics.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 23
05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 24
05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 25
Problems due to Spirality
In knitted garments the practical problem arise due to
spirallty.
Shifting of seams, Mismatching, Patterning and sewing
difficulties
These problem are often corrected by finishing steps
such as resin treatment,heat & steam ,so the wale line
are perpendicular to course line.
Such setting are not stable ,and after repeated washing
cycle it normally reoccurs.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 26
Spirality

It is caused by Unbalanced yarn.


Only option is to use replacement yarn
having balanced twist.(in finishing stage we
alleviate the problem but not permanently ).

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 27
Calculation
Percentage change in spirality can be
represented as follows.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 28
Facing up
It can be defined as unwanted surface fiber
leading to change in the appearance of the
garment.
Knit fabric made from woolen yarns generally
are finished to create fuzzy / hairy surface and
during wear/abrasion the reverse effect is
sometime an issue.
It can occur all over garment or in localized area.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 29
Facing up

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 30
Facing up
Reason : gradual withdrawal of fibers from
surface layer of yarns (migration) and can in
many cases lead to pilling.
Facing up tend to occur abrasion resistance are
such as during tumble drying.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 31
Facing up
The tendency to facing up depends upon several
factor ,very similar with pilling
Fiber length : short / broken fiber migrate easily.
Fiber diameter: finer fiber tends to be shorter & thus
more likely to migrate.
Yarn twist : low/irregular twist perform migration
Cover factor: high density increase inter fiber friction
Fabric softener: to much softener reduces inter fiber
friction and permit fiber migration .

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 32
Cockling & loop distortion
Cockling : An Irregular surface effect caused by loop
distortion.
In general its appear in localized groups of distorted
knitted loops which have twisted out of the symmetrical
configuration .
Generally on plain knit structure and specially in yarns
spun from animal fiber such as wool or mohair .
Worsted yarn is more prone to cockling because no
milling treatment is carried out in finishing .

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 33
Type of cockling

1. Rib / plain interface cockling :It caused by


difference in the relaxed width of 2 structure.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 34
Panel edge cockling :
Difference in the relaxed dimension of
neighboring structure.

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 35
Random all over cockling :

Almost always this can be assigned to using


unsuitable yarn,

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 36
Reason for cockling

Yarn count, twist play main role in yarn


irregularity.
Steaming: it causes setting of yarn &
increased rigidity in case of shrink resist yarn.
Crimp, dyeing method, cover factor.
Remedy: Finer wool ,regular or even yarn,
avoid package dyeing, more crimp yarn can
remove cockling.

janmayhada@gmail.com 37
Reason for cockling

crimp, Method of dyeing


Cover factor : lower the cover factor ,less
stable the resultant fabric and greater
possibility of cockling

05/15/17 janmayhada@gmail.com 38