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14 visualizações83 páginasResearch design and methodlolgy

May 16, 2017

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Research design and methodlolgy

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14 visualizações

Research design and methodlolgy

© All Rights Reserved

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Analysis

1. Feel for the Data

2. Testing Goodness of Data

3. Hypothesis Testing

Case : Excelsior Enterprise: P. 304-305

research?

2. What is the problem statement?

3. What are the variables? (D&I)

4. What kind of information do you

get from this case are related to

the employees?

1. Feel for the Data

Measures of Central Tendency:

The Mean, The Mode, The Median.

Measures of Dispersion: Range,

Variance, Standard Deviation

Relationships between variables:

Relationship between two nominal

variables ( Chi square X2 test),

Correlations (Pearson correlation)

2. Testing Goodness of Data

Validity

3. Hypothesis Testing

Next chapter

1. Feel for the Data

times various subcategories of a

certain phenomenon occur, from

which the percentage and the

cumulative percentage of their

occurrence can be easily calculated.

Ex. Excelsior Enterprise- frequencies

Percent Percent

Marketing 13 7.5 7.5 7.5

Production 49 28.1 28.1 35.6

Sales 44 25.3 25.3 60.9

Finance 5 2.9 2.9 63.8

Servicing 34 19.5 19.5 83.3

Maintenanc 5 2.9 2.9 86.2

e

Personnel 16 9.2 9.2 95.4

Public 3 1.7 1.7 97.1

Relations

Accounting 5 2.9 2.9 100.0

Total 174 100.0 100.0 100.0

Bar Chart

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Pie Chart

Production

Sales

Finance

Servicing

Maintenance

Personnel

Public Relations

Accounting

Frequencies for other

Gender

variables

Men Women

79.9% 20.1%

79.9% 20.1% 18%

16% 84%

than school degree degree Degree

high diploma

school

8% 39% 32% 20% 1%

1. Feel for the Data

The Mean, The Mode, The Median.

Measures of Central

Tendency

The Mean. The mean or the average is a measure of

central tendency that offers a general picture of the

data without unnecessarily inundating one with each

of the observations in a data set.

For example, the production department might keep

detailed records on how many units of a product are

being produced each day. However, to estimate the

raw materials inventory, all that the manager might

want to know is how many units per month, on an

average, the department has been producing over the

past 6 months. This measure of central tendency, that

is, the mean, might offer the manager a good idea of

the quantity of materials that need to be stocked.

Measures of Central

Tendency

The Median. The median is the central item in a group of

observations when they are arrayed in either an ascending

or a descending order.

Let us take an example to examine how the median is

determined as a measure of central tendency. Let us say

the annual salaries of nine employees in a department are

$65,000, $30,000, $25,000, $64,000, $35,000, $63,000,

$32,000, $60,000, and $61,000.

The mean salary here works out to be about $48,333, but

the median is $60,000. That is, when arrayed in the

ascending order, the figures will be as follows: $25,000,

$30,000, $32,000, $35,000, $60,000, $61,000, $63,000,

$64,000, $65,000,

and the figure in the middle is $60,000. If there are an even

number of employees, then the median will be the average

of the middle two salaries.

Measures of Central

Tendency

The Mode. In some cases, a set of observations would not lend

itself to a meaningful representation through either the mean or

the median, but can be signified by the most frequently

occurring phenomenon. F

or instance, in a department where there are 10 White women,

24 White men, 3 African American women, and 2 Asian women,

the most frequently occurring groupthe modeis the white

men. Neither a mean nor a median is calculable or applicable in

this case. There is also no way of indicating any measure of

dispersion.

As is evident from the above, nominal data lend themselves to

description only by the mode as a measure of central tendency.

It is possible that a data set could contain bimodal observations.

For example, using the foregoing scenario, there could also be

24 Asian men who are specially recruited for a project. Then we

have two modes, the White men and the Asian men.

dispersions.

Mode: The score that occurs most

frequently

Only statistic appropriate for nominal

data

Example:

2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8,Mode?

8, 8, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10,

10

Median: The score associated with the 50th

percentile

Scale of measurement:

Ordinal, interval or ratio

DO NOT use with nominal data

Methods of determination:

N = even

List scores from low to high

Median is the Mean of

N and N+1

2 2

N = odd

List scores from low to high

Median = N+1

2

Mean: Arithmetic average

Most common measure of central

tendency

Scale of measurement:

Interval or ratio

An instructor recorded the average number

of absences for his students in one semester.

For a random sample the data are:

2 4 2 0 40 2 4 3 6

Mean:

0 2 2 2 3 4 4 6 40

Mode: The mode is 2 since it occurs the most times.

Measures of Dispersion

There are three main measures of

dispersion:

The range

Variance

standard deviation

20

Measures of Dispersion

The measure of dispersion is also unique to

nominal and interval data.

Two sets of data might have the same

mean, but the dispersions could be

different.

For example, if Company A sold 30, 40, and

50 units of a product during the months of

April, May, and June, respectively, and

Company B sold 10, 40, and 70 units during

the same period, the average units sold per

month by both companies is the same40

unitsbut the variability or the dispersion in

the latter company is larger.

Measures of Dispersion

The three measurements of dispersion

connected with the mean are the

range, the variance, and the standard

deviation.

Range. Range refers to the extreme values

in a set of observations.

The range is between 30 and 50 for

Company A (a dispersion of 20 units), while

the range is between 10 and 70 units (a

dispersion of 60 units) for Company B.

Another more useful measure of dispersion

is the variance.

The Range

The range is defined as the

difference between the largest score

in the set of data and the smallest

score in the set of data, XL - XS

What is the range of the following

data:

4 8 1 6 6 2 9 3 6 9

The largest score (XL) is 9; the

smallest score (XS) is 1; the range is

X -X =9-1=8 23

When To Use the Range

The range is used when

you have ordinal data or

you are presenting your results to people

with little or no knowledge of statistics

The range is rarely used in scientific

work as it is fairly insensitive

It depends on only two scores in the set of

data, XL and XS

Two very different sets of data can have

the same range:

1 1 1 1 9 vs 1 3 5 7 9

24

Measures of Dispersion

Variance. The variance is calculated by

subtracting the mean from each of the

observations in the data set, taking the

square of this difference, and dividing the

total of these by the number of

observations.

In the above example, the variance for

each of the two companies is:

(30 40)2 + (40 40)2 + (50 40)2 /3

Variance for Company A = 66.7

(10 40)2 + (40 40)2 + (70 40)2 /3

Variance for Company B = 600

As we can see, the variance is much

larger in Company B than Company

A. It makes it more difficult for the

manager of Company B to estimate

how much goods to stock than it is

for the manager of Company A.

Thus, variance gives an indication of

how dispersed the data in a data set

are.

What Does the Variance Formula

Mean?

Variance is the mean of the squared

deviation scores

The larger the variance is, the more

the scores deviate, on average, away

from the mean

The smaller the variance is, the less

the scores deviate, on average, from

the mean

27

Measures of Dispersion

Standard Deviation. The standard

deviation, which is another measure of

dispersion for interval and ratio scaled

data, offers an index of the spread of a

distribution or the variability in the data.

It is a very commonly used measure of

dispersion, and is simply the square

root of the variance. In the case of the

above

two companies, the standard deviation for

Companies A and B would be 66.7 and

600 or 8.167 and 24.495, respectively.

Standard Deviation

Definition

Measures of dispersion are

descriptive statistics that describe

how similar a set of scores are to

each other

The more similar the scores are to each

other, the lower the measure of

dispersion will be

The less similar the scores are to each

other, the higher the measure of

dispersion will be

In general, the more spread out a 30

Measures of Dispersion

Which of the

distributions of 125

scores has the 100

larger dispersion? 75

50

25

The upper 0

distribution has 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

125

more dispersion 100

because the 75

50

scores are more 25

0

spread out 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

That is, they are less 31

similar to each other

Standard Deviation-

Variance

Standard deviation = variance

32

The relations between Means

and Deviations

1. Coefficient of Variation: is defined as

the ratio of thestandard deviationto the

mean.

The coefficient of variation should be

computed only for data measured on a

ratio scale, as these are measurements

that can only take non-negative values.

The coefficient of variation may not have

any meaning for data on aninterval scale

Skewness

The skewness for anormal distributionis zero,

and any symmetric data should have a

skewness near zero. Negative values for the

skewness indicate data that are skewed left

and positive values for the skewness indicate

data that are skewed right. By skewed left, we

mean that the left tail is long relative to the

right tail. Similarly, skewed right means that

the right tail is long relative to the left tail. If

the data are multi-modal, then this may affect

the sign of the skewness

Skewness

S.K

=

S.K

=

Example

restaurant is interested in how much

people spend at the restaurant. He

examines10randomly selected

receipts for parties of four and writes

down the following data.

44, 50, 38, 96, 42, 47, 40,

39, 46, 50

Example

Find the following:

1. Mean

2. Mode

3. Median

4. Range

5. Variances

6. St. Deviation

7. Coefficient of Variances (CV)

8. Skewness

Relationships

between

variables

1- Relation Between two nominal

variables: Chi-Square (X2 test )

2- Correlations

Chi-Square Analysis Details

Decide whether or not the result is statistically

significant.

The results are statistically significant if the p-value is less

than

alpha, where alpha is the significance level (usually =

0.05).

situation.

statistically significant. Reject the H0 Conclude

that (the two variables) are related.

The p-value is ______ which is > a, this result is NOT

statistically significant. We cannot reject the H0

Cannot conclude that (the two variables) are related.

Detailed Example

1. Ho: There is no relationship between the geographical area that

a

student grew up and whether or not that the student drinks

alcohol.

Ha: There is relationship between the geographical area that a

student

grew up and whether or not that the student drinks alcohol.

counts for

each cell.

E11 = (R1xC1)/n = (86x87)/825 = 9.07,

E12 = (R1xC2)/n = (86x738)/825 = 76.93,

Detailed Example

No Yes All

output 9.07 76.93 86.00

with the Observed and

Expected counts for Rural 11 130 141

each 14.87 126.13 141.00

cell. We can see that

SmallTow 18 198 216

the

22.78 193.22 216.00

conditions are satisfied!

Suburban 37 345 382

40.28 341.72 382.00

87.00 738.00 825.00

Detailed Example

2 = sum {(Observed Expected)2/Expected}

= (21-9.07)2/9.07+ (65-76.93)2/76.93

+ (11-14.87)2/14.87+ (130-126.13)2/126.13

+ (18-22.78)2/22.78+ (198-193.22)2/193.22

+ (37-40.28)2/40.28+ (345-341.72)2/341.72

= 20.091

df = (4-1)x(2-1) =3

p-value= P(X> 20.091) < P(X> 16.17) = 0.001 (Table A.4)

reject the null.

geographical area that a student grew up and whether or

not that the student drinks alcohol.

Correlation

A correlation coefficient

measures the extent to which

two variables tend to change

together. The coefficient

describes both the strength

and the direction of the

relationship.

1. Pearson product moment

correlation

The Pearson correlation evaluates

the linear relationship between two

continuous variables. A relationship

is linear when a change in one

variable is associated with a

proportional change in the other

variable.

Correlations: Measuring and

Describing Relationships

three aspects of the relationship:

the direction

the form

the degree

48

Correlations: Measuring and

Describing Relationships

measured by the sign of the

correlation (+ or -). A positive

correlation means that the two

variables tend to change in the same

direction; as one increases, the other

also tends to increase. A negative

correlation means that the two

variables tend to change in opposite

directions; as one increases, the 49

Correlations: Measuring and

Describing Relationships

relationship is a straight line or linear

relationship which is measured by

the Pearson correlation.

51

Correlations: Measuring and

Describing Relationships

strength or consistency of the

relationship) is measured by the

numerical value of the correlation. A

value of 1.00 indicates a perfect

relationship and a value of zero

indicates no relationship.

52

Discussion the result of

the analysis SPSS

T test )/( ):/(

Anove )/( 3

correlation

Regression

)( ) (

.

:

multiple Linear

Regression "

" "

" " " " "

" :

Correlation and Regression

...

r 1 . 1

1

1-

.

.

.

:

) : (Pearson

) : (Spearman

)

( ) 8

5 8 5(

.

) : (Kandell,s tau

.

) : (Phi

) (

) (.

) : (Cramers

) ( )

)

Correlations

Pearson Correlation 1 .959**

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000

N 10 10

Pearson Correlation .959** 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .

N 10 10

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level

(2-tailed).

tailed Significance = 0.000.2

r 0.959

=0.5

Correlations

Pearson Correlation 1 .959** .780** .833**

Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .008 .003

N 10 10 10 10

Pearson Correlation .959** 1 .746* .811**

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .013 .004

N 10 10 10 10

Pearson Correlation .780** .746* 1 .890**

Sig. (2-tailed) .008 .013 . .001

N 10 10 10 10

Pearson Correlation .833** .811** .890** 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .003 .004 .001 .

N 10 10 10 10

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

0.01

0.05

0.949

0.949

Correlations

Pearson Correlation 1.000 .949

.949 1.000

)Sig. (1-tailed . .000

.000 .

N 10 10

10 10

0.88

N Correlation Sig.

Pair Current Salary &

474 .880 .000

1 Beginning Salary

T-Test

: )(

:

: "

ANOVA ) Analysis

( 0f Variance ) ( Fisher

) ( Ttest

:

T

test

:

) ( ) (

.

) (

Independent Samples Test

Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

95% Confidence Interval of

Mean Std. Error the Difference

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper

Current Salary Equal variances

119.669 .000 -10.945 472 .000 -$15,409.86 $1,407.906 -$18176.40 -$12643.32

assumed

Equal variances

-11.688 344.262 .000 -$15,409.86 $1,318.400 -$18003.00 -$12816.73

not assumed

) (Leven,s test =F

9.669 Sig = 0.0

T

t= 1.688

Sig=0.0

Sig. (2- tailed) =

0.05 0.00

.

Paired Samples Test

95% Confidence Interval

Std. Std. Error of the Dif erence Sig.

Mean Deviation Mean Lower Upper t df (2-tailed)

Pair Current Salary -

$17,403.48 $10814.62 $496.732 $16,427.41 $18,379.56 35.036 473 .000

1 Beginning Salary

Analysis of

Variance

Types : Analysis of Variance

One Way ANOVAs

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

) ( One Way Manova

) ( Two Way Manova

Two Way

Analysis of Variance

.

.

Two Way ANOVA

) (

) (.

:

- ) (main effect

.

- ) (main effect

.

- ) (Interaction

Two Way Analysis of Variance

"

0.05

" "

"

"

"

"

.

Between-Subjects Factors

Value Label N

Gender f Female 216

m Male 258

Employment 1 Clerical 363

Category 2 Custodial 27

3

Manager 84

N

Descriptive Statistics

Gender Employment Category Mean Std. Deviation N

Female Clerical $25,003.69 $5,812.838 206

Manager $47,213.50 $8,501.253 10

Total $26,031.92 $7,558.021 216

Male Clerical $31,558.15 $7,997.978 157

Custodial $30,938.89 $2,114.616 27

Manager $66,243.24 $18,051.570 74

Total $41,441.78 $19,499.214 258

Total Clerical $27,838.54 $7,567.995 363

Custodial $30,938.89 $2,114.616 27

Manager $63,977.80 $18,244.776 84

Total $34,419.57 $17,075.661 474

Gender Sig. = 0.0

0.05

.

Jobcat

Sig. = 0.0 0.05

.

Sig. = 0.0 0.05

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Type III Sum

Source of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

Corrected Model 9.646E+10a 4 2.411E+10 272.780 .000

Intercept 1.773E+11 1 1.773E+11 2005.313 .000

GENDER 5247440732 1 5247440732 59.359 .000

JOBCAT 3.232E+10 2 1.616E+10 182.782 .000

GENDER * JOBCAT 1247682867 1 1247682867 14.114 .000

Error 4.146E+10 469 88401147.44

Total 6.995E+11 474

Corrected Total 1.379E+11 473

a. R Squared = .699 (Adjusted R Squared = .697)

Basic Objectives in Data

Analysis

1. Feel for the Data

2.Testing Goodness

of Data

3. Hypothesis Testing

Checking the Reliability of Measures:

Cronbachs Alpha

The inter item consistency reliability or

the Cronbachs alpha reliability

coefficients of the five independent and

dependent variables were obtained.

They were all above .80. A sample of the

result obtained for Cronbachs alpha test

for the dependent variable, Intention to

Leave, together with instructions on how

it is obtained is, shown in:

Reliability Coefficients 6 items

Alpha = .8172

The result indicates that the Cronbachs alpha

for the six item Intention to Leave measure is .

82. The closer the reliability coefficient gets to

1.0, the better. In general, reliabilities less

than .60 are considered to be poor, those in

the .70 range, acceptable, and those over .80

good. Cronbachs alpha for the other four

independent variables ranged from .81 to .85.

Thus, the internal consistency reliability of the

measures used in this study can be

considered to be good.

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