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Effective Bandwidth Utilization with Channel

Outage Using Cross-Layer Approach

Authors:
G.INDUMATHI
P.MANIKANDAN
K.MURUGESAN

July 26, 2010 1


OBJECTIVE:
A cross layer design has been formulated by considering the
users are delay sensitive and Channel State Information to meet
the delay requirements and throughput.
Steps:
MAC layer Scheduling.
OFDMA based Physical layer.
AMC Selector.
Mutual State Information.

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Outdated CSIT
Imperfect CSIT-Types:
Limited CSIT:
refers to the incomplete knowledge of
CSI at the transmitter.
Outdated CSIT:
refers to the delay from the CSI
estimation time to CSIT utilization time.

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• Under outdated CSIT, systematic packet
error occurs whenever scheduled data
rate exceeds the instantaneous mutual
information rate(channel outage).

• Considering above subcarrier is allocated


for only the packets satisfying the criteria
that the mutual information rate is higher
than the scheduled data rate.

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Cross-Layer- Introduction
*The layering principle has been long identified as a way to
increase the interoperability and to improve the design of
telecommunication protocols, where each layer offers services
to adjacent upper layers and requires functionalities from
adjacent lower ones.
*To overcome the limitations, a modification of the layering
paradigm has been proposed, namely, cross-layer design, or
“cross-layering.”
*Cross-Layer:
Utilization of Physical layer information by the
other higher layers.

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Cross-Layer- Architecture
Types:
*Interlayer signaling pipe
*Direct Interlayer Communication
*Central Cross-layer
*Network-wide Cross-Layer Signaling

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Block Diagram

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Encoding and Modulator at the
Transmitter

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OFDMA- Simulation Flow Chart

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IEEE Specifications

Service Class Delay(ms)


CBR 30-40
rt-VBR 40-90
nrt-VBR unbounded

ABR unbounded

UBR unbounded

*Link-Level Traffic Scheduling for Providing Predictive QoS in Wireless


Multimedia Networks ,Ekram Hossain, Member, IEEE, and Vijay K. Bhargava,
Fellow, IEEE.

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TRANSMISSION MODES AS SPECIFIED IN IEEE
802.16 STANDARD
MODE 1 2 3 4 5 6

Modulation QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Coding rate 1/2 3/4 ½ 3/4 2/3 5/6

Rn 1 1.5 2 3 4 4.5

(bits/symbol)

an 232.9242 140.7922 264.0330 208.5741 216.8218 220.7515

gn 22.7925 8.2425 6.5750 2.7885 1.0675 0.8125

3.7164 5.9474 9.6598 12.3610 16.6996 17.9629


γ pn (dB )

*Link-Level Traffic Scheduling for Providing Predictive QoS in Wireless


Multimedia Networks ,Ekram Hossain, Member, IEEE, and Vijay K. Bhargava,
Fellow, IEEE.
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Parameters Used
(WiMax specification)
Parameter Size
Users 5
No of Frames 5
Total packets Depends on user information

FFT length 256

Number of data subcarriers 192

Number of pilot subcarriers 5

Cyclic prefix 1/4

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Formulae Used
Mutual State Information

cij =log2 (1 + p ij H ij
2
/ σz2 )
Boundary Condition-Assignment
1  an 
γn = ln  , n =1,2,..., N
gn   Pt arg et


Spectral Efficiency
N
S e , physical = ∑Rn Pr ( n )
n =1

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Environment
Noisy environment(AWGN) with Rayleigh Fading Channel.
Parameter Size

Bandwidth 5MHz
Carrier Frequency 2GHz

Target BER 10^-6

Number of paths 8

Frame Size 44 OFDM data symbols

Frame Duration 2.5 milliseconds

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Results

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Analytical Results
AMC SCHEME Data bits per Modulation Coding rate Max.Throughput
frame
(Mbps)
1 4224 BPSK ½ 1.69

2 8448 QAM ½ 3.38

3 12672 QAM 3/4 5.07

4 16896 16-QAM ½ 6.76

5 25344 16-QAM ¾ 10.14

6 33792 64-QAM 2/3 13.52

7 38016 64-QAM 3/4 15.21

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Results Contd..

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Results Contd..

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Comparison of Numerical Results with Various Models utilizing
different Algorithms

Parameters FIFO **SLAA *GA Proposed Cross-Layer based


priority scheduling

Spectral 3.6219 0.5 1.05 3.8769


Efficiency (b/s)
Delay (ms) 23 sec 3 0 49 sec
Throughput 0.7576 2.6 1.2 13.52
(Mbps)

*Nan Zhou, Xu Zhu and Yi Huang (Aug 2009), ‘Genetic Algorithm Based Cross-
Layer Resource Allocation for Wireless OFDM Networks With Heterogenous
Traffic’, 17th European Signal Processing Conference (EUSPICO 2009).
**Song G (2005), “Cross-layer resource allocation and scheduling in wireless
multicarrier networks,” Ph.D. dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Comparison of Input Image and Output Image

Input Image Output Image

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Results Obtained for Transmission Mode 4
(16-QAM with Coding rate 1/2)

S.No Image Taken No. of pixels in the No. of pixels Variance


original image obtained without observed
error in the output
image

1. Fish.bmp 74522 74488 34

2. Baby.bmp 252474 252464 10

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THANK YOU

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