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Introduction to

Research Methodology
The word research derives from the French
recherche.
Its literal meaning is:
The systematic process of collecting and analyzing
information (data) in order to discover new
knowledge or expand or verify the existing one
(observations- law- theory)
To do so, we require a ..

Scientific Method
To do successful research, you don't need to know everything, you
just need to know of one thing that isn't known.
Arthur Schawlow: He is best remembered for his work on lasers,
for which he was awarded Nobel Prize in 1981 .

That's the nature of research - you don't know what in hell


you're doing.
Harold "Doc" Edgerton: He is largely credited with transforming
the
stroboscope from an obscure laboratory instrument into a common
device :the electronic flash,

If we knew what it was that we were doing, it would not be called


research, would it?
Albert Einstein
The process of research can be looked at from three
perspectives:
application,
objectives and
the type of information sought.
From the point of view of the application of research,
there is applied and pure research.
Most of the research undertaken in the social sciences
is applied, the findings being designed either for
understanding a phenomenon/issue
Or
to bring-in change in a situation.
Scientific research is systematic,
controlled, empirical and critical
investigation of hypothetical
propositions about the presumed
relations among natural phenomena.

- Kerlinger (1973)
Inaccurate Observations
Overgeneralizations
Selective Observations
Illogical Reasoning.
Exploration
Description
Explanation

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Business decision-making
Project formulation
Policy formation
Economic & Business Environmental
Market study
Product development
Innovation
Customer satisfaction
Profit/ Promotion
Brand building.
A deductive approach is aimed at testing a
theory.

An inductive approach is concerned with the


generation of new theory emerging from the
data.
Arguments are deductive when their premises are
intended to provide rigorous, airtight, logical support
for conclusions.
If the Queen lives in Buckingham Palace, then she lives
in London.
Queen lives in Buckingham Palace
So the Queen lives in London.
A murder took place in the city last night.
Two people Salim and Shoeb were found at
the site.

Either Salim was the murderer, or Shoeb


was the murderer.
If Salim was the murderer, then traces of
cyanide should have been found on the
body.
No traces of cyanide were found on the
body.
At a picnic, Mike went for soft drink for Amy, Brian,
Lisa, and Bill, as well as himself. He brought back iced
tea, grape juice, Diet Coke, Pepsi, and 7-up.
Mike doesn't like carbonated drinks.
Amy would drink either 7-up or Pepsi.
Brian likes only sodas.
Lisa prefers the drink she would put lemon and sugar
into.
Bill likes only clear drinks.

What drinks did Mike bring for each person?


Mr. Green, Mr. Red, and Mr. Blue were at the Cafeteria
eating lunch. One of the men was wearing a red suit;
one man was wearing a green suit; and the other was
wearing a blue suit. Have you noticed, said the man
wearing the blue suit, that although our suits have
colours corresponding to our names, not one of us is
wearing a suit that matches our own names? Mr. Red
looked at the other two and said, Youre absolutely
correct.

What colour suit is each man wearing?


Inductive arguments simply claim that their conclusions
are likely or probable given the premises offered.

All managers that have ever been seen are human


beings;
therefore all managers are human beings.
The bank safe was robbed last night.
Whoever robbed the safe knew the safes combination.

Only two people know the safes combination: Mr. Dayal


and Mr. Dubey .
Dubey needed money to pay his debts.
Dubey was seen sneaking around outside the bank last
night.

It is reasonable to conclude, therefore, that Dubey robbed


the safe.
Alan is a father. Therefore, Alan is a male.

Sindhu is a six year old girl. Therefore, Sindhu cannot


run a mile in one minute flat.

So, which argument is deductive and which is inductive?


Alex is a Cardiologist. Therefore, Alex is a Doctor.

Jane is an Aunt. It follows that she is a woman.

All dinosaur bones discovered so far have been more than


65 million years old. Therefore, probably all dinosaur bones
are more than 65 million years old.

Eight months ago I met a Doctor from Pune, and he was


friendly. Five months ago I met a Car Mechanic from Pune,
and he was friendly. Three months ago I met a Waitress
from Pune, and she was friendly. I guess most people from
Pune are friendly.
1. Exploratory Research
Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature
of a problem
Does not provide conclusive evidence
Subsequent research expected

2. Descriptive Research
Seeks to answer who, what, when; where & how
Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon

3. Causal Research
Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships
Qualitative: A research approach that examines the
concepts in terms of their meaning and interpretation in
specific contexts of inquiry (Inductive).

Quantitative: A research approach that examines the


concepts in terms of amount, intensity or frequency
(Deductive).

Distinction is in fundamental theoretical orientation, not


in data or the analysis method used.
Purpose of research

Availability of data

Methods you choose suitable for exploration or


testing of hypothesis

To answer specific research question


Stages of Research

Problem Discovery Discovery and


and Definition Definition

Research and so on
Design Conclusions and
Report

Sampling
Data Processing
and Analysis
Data
Gathering

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1. Problem discovery and Problem definition
2. Research Design
3. Sampling
4. Data gathering
5. Data Processing and Analysis
6. Conclusion and Report

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Problem Selection of
Problem Discovery discovery
and Definition research
Sampling technique

Selection of
exploratory research
technique Probability Nonprobability

Secondary
Pilot Case Collection of
(historical) Survey Data
study study data
data Gathering (fieldwork)

Data Editing and


Problem definition coding
(statement of Processing
and data
research objectives)
Analysis
Data
Selection of processing
Research Design basic research
method Conclusions
and Report Interpretation of
findings
Experiment Survey
Secondary
Observation
Interview Questionnaire Data Study Report
Laboratory Field

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A problem statement is: a clear concise description of the issues that
need to be created , addressed and presented by the researcher.
lead to formulate research question/s or objectives

Objective: a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied. It


must define the domain , the variables, and its relationship .
lead to formulate Hypotheses

A hypotheses is: a specific statement of prediction. It describes in


concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect to happen in
your study.
A problem becomes known when a person observes
discrepancy between the way things are and the way
things ought to be.

Problems can be identified through:

Comparative/benchmarking studies
Performance reporting - assessment of current
performance against goals and objectives
SWOT Analysis assessment of strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats
Complaints
Surveys, etc.
Who is causing the problem?
Who? Who says this is a problem?
Who are impacted by this problem?
What will happen if this problem is not solved?
What? What are the symptoms?
What are the impacts?
Where does this problem occur?
Where does this problem have an impact?
Where
?
When does this problem occur?
When did this problem first start occurring?
When
?
Why is this problem occurring?
Why?
How should the process or system work?
How are people currently handling the problem?

How?
Independent Variable Dependent
(IV) Variable (DV)
Predictor Criterion

Presumed cause Presumed effect


Stimulus Response

Explanatory Consequence

Antecedent Measured outcome


Manipulated Explained

Regressor Regressed

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Mediating/Intervening: Its existence is inferred but
cannot be measured.

Moderating: This is second IV, included in research


because it is believed to have a significant contributory
effect on originally stated IV-DV relationship.

Control: They are used to control the impact of other


extraneous variables. They are not part of
measurement. They are not allowed to change. They at
times serve as standard for comparison.
Extraneous/Exogenous: They have little
effect, can be ignored at times.

Endogenous: Present within the system

Confounding: They intervene in IV-DV


relationship

Other variables: Dichotomous


Continuous
Discrete
A good hypothesis should be in a declarative sentence
form specifying the relationship between variables
It must be measurable and empirically testable, concise
and with specific meaning (clarity is obtained by means
of definitions)
It should be linked with some theoretical / conceptual /
analytical framework.

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The null hypothesis - predicts the results obtained are
due to chance.

It is also referred as no difference hypothesis

If the likelihood of the results occurring by chance is


remote, then the null hypothesis can be rejected and the
alternative/experimental hypothesis can be accepted.

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This can be described as being DIRECTIONAL, this
predicts the direction in which the results are expected
to occur.

This predicts that something other than chance has


played a part in producing the results obtained.

If the design of the investigation is highly controlled


there should be only one explanation for the results
THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

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Among students of the same age and intelligence, skill
performance is directly related to the number of practice
trials, the relationship being particularly strong among boys,
but also holding, though less directly, among girls.
This hypothesis indicates that practice increases learning.

Independent variable: number of practice trail


Dependent variable: skill performance
Control variable: age, intelligence
Moderate variable: gender
Intervening variable: learning
A fact without a theory
Is like a ship without a sail,
Is like a boat without a rudder,
Is like a kite without a tail.
A fact without a figure is a tragic final act,
But one thing worse in this universe
Is a theory without a fact.
William G. Zikmund
An hypothesis can be testing a concept or it can be
developed as a result of study:

A testing hypothesis is one that can be tested, i.e. you


can measure both what is being done (variables) and
the outcome.

A tested hypothesis is tested again with additional


research, such as in a research study in social science.
If a prisoner learns a work skill while in jail, then he
is less likely to commit a crime when he is
released.
If there is a relation between the wave length of light
and the photosynthesis rate, then light of different
colors will cause the plant to make different amounts
of oxygen.

If I raise the temperature of a cup of water, then the


amount of sugar that can be dissolved in it will be
increased.
Worker satisfaction increases worker productivity.

Amount of sun exposure will increase the


growth of a tomato plant.

Childhood obesity is tied to the amount of


sugary drinks injected daily.

A dog can be trained to alert a human if the


telephone is ringing.
Albert Einstein
General topic: Outsourcing

Focused Topic: What is the impact of outsourcing on the U.S. economy?

Research Questions:

1. What is outsourcing and why is it an issue?


2. Why do companies outsource?
3. What are some companies that outsource?
4. How many American jobs have been outsourced?
5. How does outsourcing benefit the U.S. economy?
a. Low prices for good and services
6. How does outsourcing hurt the U.S. economy?
a. Loss of jobs
7. After all that I have read, what are my conclusions about outsourcing?
Topic: Slow/Local Food Movement
Focused topic: What are the positive effects of the slow food/local food
movement?
1. What is the slow /local food movement and why is it an issue worthy of
inquiry?
2. What background information is necessary to understand this topic?
a. History of the slow food movement.
b. goals
3. What research demonstrates the movements positive effects?
a. Economic effects?
b. Health effects?
c. Social effects?
4. How about negative effects?
a. Is the movement to exclusive/expensive to be a realistic option for all?
5. Based on all I have read, what do I think about the slow food movement and
why?
How do elderly people living in an old age home
perceive their situation and how are they dealing with
it?

How does the image of the ideal man influences the


male population between the ages 20 and 35?

What kind of emotions and attitudes motivate


individuals to take part in mass events?
Increase in family income leads to an increase in
percentage of income saved.

Husbands and Wives agree in their perceptions of


their respective roles in purchase decisions.