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Mid & Downstream Business Training

HYDROCARBON PROCESSING – AN OVERVIEW


Module
Upstream Mid and Downstream
LNG

GAS
PRODUCED WATER
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Feasibility Study

Trouble Shooting Process Design /


& Revamp Basic Engg.

Plant Design Cycle


Stable Operation
& Performance FEED
Testing

Pre-Commissioning Detail
& Commissioning Engg.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Feasibility Study: Module


 Conceptualization
 Process Simulation
 Development of Process Flow Scheme
 Cost Estimation
 Techno-Commercial Evaluation

Basic Engineering:

 Mass and Energy Balance


 Process Control Scheme
 PFDs and Basic Process P&IDs
 Sizing and Basic Spec. for Equipments and Instruments
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Front End Engineering Design (FEED):


Module
 BEP to Project Specific Package (Residual
Engineering)
 Verification of Process data for Critical items
 Preparation of Specifications
 Identification of Scope Splits
 Identification of applicable Codes & Standards

Commissioning:

 Pre-Commissioning
 Commissioning
 Startup and Feed charging
 Performance Guarantee test run
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Mid & Downstream Business Training
WORK FLOW DIAGRAM
Module REVIEW & COMMENTS PLOT PLAN

EQUIPMENT LIST
UHD PP
REVISED P&ID
LINE LIST
TQ TQ
PROCESS D/S FOR
EQ. LIST EQ. LIST EQUIPMENTS
UHD UHD
UTILITY UTILITY
EQUIPMENT LIST CV
SUMMARY SUMMARY
FLARE LOAD FLARE LOAD
EQUIPMENT LIST
SUMMARY SUMMARY
CHEMICAL CHEMICAL
UHD EL
REVISED P&ID
SUMMARY SUMMARY
HAZARDOUS
HAZARDOUS HAZARDOUS
SOURCE LIST
SOURCE LIST SOURCE LIST
REVIEW & COMMENTS VENDOR DOCUMENTS
REVISED P&ID REVISED P&ID

BDEP PE BDEP PC EQUIPMENT LIST


UHD ME
REVISED P&ID
LINE LIST LINE LIST
PROCESS D/S FOR
PROCESS D/S FOR PROCESS D/S FOR MACHINERY ITEMS
EQUIPMENTS EQUIPMENTS REVIEW & COMMENTS FABRICATION DWG.
UPDATED D/S FOR UPDATED D/S FOR
EQUIPMENTS EQUIPMENTS
EQUIPMENT LIST
UPDATED D/S FOR UPDATED D/S FOR
INSTRUMENTS
UHD EQ
INSTRUMENTS REVISED P&ID
PRECOMMISIONING PRECOMMISIONING PROCESS D/S FOR
MANUAL MANUAL EQUIPMENTS
OPERATING OPERATING EQUIPMENT LIST
MANUAL MANUAL UHD IN
REVISED P&ID

LINE LIST
UPDATED D/S FOR
INSTRUMENTS
Mid & Downstream Business Training

REVIEW STAGE:
Module

 Review of Contract Documents

 Preparation of TQs
Mid & Downstream Business Training

STAGE 0:
Module
 P&IDs mark up based on General Specifications,
Standards, Amendments etc.
 Updation of Process Datasheets based on PFD and other
documents
 Preparation of UHDs
 Sizing of Utility lines

 Preparation of Equipment list


 Preparation of Utility summary
 Preparation of Catalyst and Chemical summary
 Preparation of Tie-in summary
 Preparation of Line-list
 Preparation of Hazardous source list
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 P&IDs mark up based on General Specifications,
Module
Standards, Amendments etc.
Standard Details

Licensor P&ID
Mid & Downstream Business Training

As per the standards, Module


the control valve assembly with block
& bypass and Vent & Drain arrangement is shown in detail

Marked up P&ID
Mid & Downstream Business Training

 Updation of Process Module


Datasheets based on PFD and other
documents
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Updated Process Datasheets


Module
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Preparation of UHDsModule
Mid & Downstream Business Training

 Sizing of Utility linesModule


Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Preparation of Equipment List
Module

Equipment list
ISOMERISATION PROJECT
MUMBAI
TITLE : EQUIPMENT LIST
EQUIPMENT SERVICE NO. DIMENSIONS INTERNAL EQUIPMENT ERECTION MOC + C.A OPERATING CONDITION DESIGN CONDITION INSULATION
NO. REQD. (ID).X(TL-TL) TYPE THICKNESS WEIGHT PRESSURE TEMP PRESSURE TEMP. TYPE THICKNESS
(m) (mm) (Tons) SHELL & (kg/cm2g) (°C) (kg/cm2 g) (°C) (mm)
TRAYS
HEAD TOP BOTTOM TOP BOTTOM
COLUMNS
LNHT UNIT
Top = 2.0
Trays, Distributor
Bott om = 2.8 Internal baff les, Int : 15.82 232
DA-31701 STRIPPER 1 KCS + 3 mm TP 410 - - 91 171 IH 125
TL-TL = 27.9 Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 171

Top = 3.2
Trays, Distributor
Bott om = 4.0 Int : 4 147
DA-31702 DEPENTANIZER 1 Internal baff les, KCS + 3 mm TP 410 - - 70 119 IH 80
TL-TL = 36.9 Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 119

PENEX UNIT
Top =1.7
Trays, Distributor
Bott om = 3.2 Internal baff les, Int : 13.5 210
DA-32810 STABILIZER 1 KCS+3mm TP 410 - - 57 179 IH 120
TL-TL=26.2 Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 179

Trays, Distributor
Internal baff les, Int : 13.5 120
DA-32811 LPG STRIPPER 1 0.75 x 21 CS+3mm TP 410 - - 45 60 - -
Ext : FV 60
Vortex Breaker,
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Preparation of Equipment List (Continued)

Equipment List contains the information such as

• Equipment Number
• Service
• Dimensions
• Internals
• Material of Construction
• Operating and Design Conditions
• Insulation Details
• Other Special requirements
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Sample view of Equipment list

ISOMERISATION PROJECT
MUMBAI

TITLE : EQUIPMENT LIST


EQUIPMENT SERVICE NO. DIMENSIONS INTERNAL EQUIPMENT ERECTION MOC + C.A OPERATING CONDITION DESIGN CONDITION INSULATION
NO. REQD. (ID).X(TL-TL) TYPE THICKNESS WEIGHT PRESSURE TEMP PRESSURE TEMP. TYPE THICKNESS
(m) (mm) (Tons) SHELL & (kg/cm2g) (°C) (kg/cm2g) (°C) (mm)
TRAYS
HEAD TOP BOTTOM TOP BOTTOM
COLUMNS
LNHT UNIT
Top = 2.0
Trays, Distributor
Bottom = 2.8 Internal baffles, Int : 15.82 232
DA-31701 STRIPPER 1 KCS + 3 mm TP 410 - - 91 171 IH 125
TL-TL = 27.9 Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 171

Top = 3.2
Trays, Distributor
Bottom = 4.0 Int : 4 147
DA-31702 DEPENTANIZER 1 Internal baffles, KCS + 3 mm TP 410 - - 70 119 IH 80
TL-TL = 36.9 Ext : FV 119
Vortex Breaker,

PENEX UNIT
Top =1.7
Trays, Distributor
Bottom = 3.2 Internal baffles, Int : 13.5 210
DA-32810 STABILIZER 1 KCS+3mm TP 410 - - 57 179 IH 120
TL-TL=26.2 Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 179

Trays, Distributor
Internal baffles, Int : 13.5 120
DA-32811 LPG STRIPPER 1 0.75 x 21 CS+3mm TP 410 - - 45 60 - -
Vortex Breaker, Ext : FV 60
Mid & Downstream Business Training

 Preparation of UtilityModule
summary

 Utility Summary summarizes the consumption / generation of utilities in


all equipments.

 The utility data for consumption to be furnished with “- ve value”.


Similarly the utility data for generation to be furnished with “+ve value”.

 Following are the Utilities taken into account

• Electricity
• Steam
• Condensate
• Boiler Feed Water
• Cooling Water
• Service Water and Portable Water
• Instrument Air, Plant Air and Nitrogen
• Fuel Gas and Fuel Oil
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Sample View of Utility summary
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Preparation of Chemical summary

This document summarizes the consumption of Chemicals for the


process.

ISOMERISATION PROJECT L&T-CHIYODA LIMITED


BARODA, INDIA
TITLE : CHEMICAL SUMMARY Document No.: A-317-4012
Rev.: 0

Chemical Identification
First fill
Scope of
Sr. No. % Purity Chemical Service quantity
supply
required

1 DMDS -- As a sulfiding agent during stat-up 3200 kg MRPL

2 Caustic for LNHT reactor neutralisation 20% Wt Required to neutraiize reactor effluent gases 6.5 m3 MRPL

3 Soda Ash (Na2CO3) 100% For preparing neutralizing solution during regeneration 200 kg MRPL

4 Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) 100% For preparing neutralizing solution during regeneration 20 kg MRPL

5 Perchloroethylene (C2Cl4) 99.9 % Min. As a promotor for penex reactor catalyst 30 m3 MRPL

6 Anhydrous Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) -- Required during initial start up. 2500 kg MRPL

Required for scrubbing of gases from stabiliser & during catalyst


7 Make-up Caustic (NaOH) for Penex unit 20% Wt 25 m3 MRPL
regeneration of naphta hydrotreating reactor.

8 Anhydrous Ammonia -- Required as corrosion inhibitor for LNHT unit 350 kg MRPL
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Preparation of Catalyst summary
This document summarizes the consumption of Catalyst for the
process.

TITLE : CATALYST SUMMARY

Catalyst
Quantity
Equip. Tag Equip ID Bulk Total Total
Sr.No. Service Bed Height Type of
No. (mm) Type Density Bed Contingency quantity quantity Manufacturer
(mm) Loading
(Kg /m 3) (m3) 5% (m3) (m3) (kg)

2500 UOP "S-12"


1 DC-31701 Reactor 3720 1065 Sock 18.3 0.915 19.215 20464.0 UOP
Catalyst

Sulfur guard
2 FA-32802 1800 ADS-11 2600 930 Sock 6.62 0.331 6.951 6464.4 UOP
bed

Saturation UOP "H-8"


3 DC-32801 2400 2480 520 Sock 11.2 0.56 11.76 6115.2 UOP
Reactor Catalyst

Methanator
4 DC-32810 1100 Puraspec 2443 7160 -- Sock 6.8 0.34 7.14 -- UOP
Reactor

Penex UOP "I-8"


5 DC-32811 2900 9240 882 Dense 61 3.05 64.05 56492.1 UOP
Reactor Catalyst

Penex UOP "I-8"


6 DC-32812 2900 9240 882 Dense 61 3.05 64.05 56492.1 UOP
Reactor Catalyst

Zinc oxide
7 FA-32801A 1200 Puraspec 2020 3200 -- Sock 3.62 0.181 3.801 -- UOP
treater
Mid & Downstream Business Training

 Preparation of Tie-inModule
summary

Battery Limit Tie-in Summary contains the following


information for all ISBL & OSBL lines

 Flow rate of all process and utility streams


going to B/L.

 Operating and Design Conditions

 Line Specifications

 Main Properties of the Streams (Optional)


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Sample view of Tie-in summary

MUMBAI

TITLE : BATTERY LIMIT TIE-IN SUMMARY

Sr. Stream Name From To Phase Flowrates Properties


No. L/V/M Tons/hr kg/m3 (L) Visc. Operating Conditions Design Cond
Normal MW (V) cP Pressure Temperature Pressure
kg/cm2 g deg C kg/cm2 g
min/nor/max min/nor/max

(C) INCOMING UTILITY LINES:

1 MP Steam B/L HEADER V 36066.0 18.0 0.02 14/15/16 255/260/270 22

2 LP Steam B/L HEADER V 33180.0 18.0 0.02 3/3.5/4 160/175/200 10

3 HP Steam B/L HEADER V 2930.0 18.0 0.01 39/40/41 330/390/408 45

4 Instrument Air B/L HEADER V 625.0 29.0 0.02 4.5/6.5/ - - /40/ - 10.5

5 Cooling Water Supply B/L HEADER L 2378207.0 1000.0 0.60 - /4.5/ - - /33/ - 7

6 Fuel Gas B/L HEADER V 1212.0 15.5 0.01 - /4.5/5 - /40/ - 6

7 Fuel Oil B/L HEADER L 2273.0 854.0 11.50 - /13/20 - /170/ - 25


Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Preparation of Line-list
Module
 Line List contains the data related to process conditions
and the data related to mechanical design and test
conditions for all the lines.
 Line List is the base document utilized for verification
of major deliverables of Piping department.
 Line List contains the information such as
• Line Number
• Line Size
• Fluid Code and Piping class
• From & To Location
• State and Nature of the fluid
• Operating (Normal&Alternative) and Design
Conditions
• Steam out requirements
• Insulation Details
• Test fluid and Test pressure
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Sample View of Line-list Module

MUMBAI

TITLE : LINE LIST FOR LNHT UNIT

IDENTIFICATION LOCATION STATE

PIPING CLASS

INSULATION
INSULATION
FLUID CODE
(A)
P & ID NO.

THK. (MM)
UNIT NO.

LINE NO.
(INCH)

TYPE
SR. NATURE
SIZE
NO. LINE NO. FROM TO OF
FLUID
(L/V/M)

1 10-P-3170001-A1A1 606 10 P 317 0001 A1A1 FA-31701 P-3170215 L HC

2 6-P-3170002-A4A1 606 6 P 317 0002 A4A1 GA-31701A P-3170046 L HC

3 10-P-3170003-A1A1 606 10 P 317 0003 A1A1 P-3170001 P-3170216 L HC

4 6-P-3170004-A4A1 606 6 P 317 0004 A4A1 GA-31701B P-3170002 L HC

5 0.75-P-3170005-A1A1 691 0.75 P 317 0005 A1A1 P-3170002 SN-31701 L HC

6 0.75-P-3170006-A1A 691 0.75 P 317 0006 A1A SN-31701 FLARE L HC

7 0.75-P-3170007-A4A1 691 0.75 P 317 0007 A4A1 SN-31701 P-3170001 L HC

8 6-P-3170008-A4A1 606 6 P 317 0008 A4A1 P-3170002 FV-002 L HC

9 6-P-3170009-A1A1 606 6 P 317 0009 A1A1 FV-002 FA-31701 L HC


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Preparation of Hazardous Source List

 Hazardous Source List is the base document


utilized for hazardous area classification drawing
deliverable of Electrical department.

 This document contains the information such as


• Inlet and Outlet streams of all equipments
• State and Nature of the fluid
• Composition
• Max. operating temperature
• Properties like Density and Molecular
weight
• Flammability
• Flash point
• Auto-ignition temperature
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Sample View of HazardousModule


Source List
Mid & Downstream Business Training

STAGE 1:
Module

 Hydraulic Check of Process lines

 Sizing of Vessels

 Thermal rating of Heat exchangers

 PSV Sizing & Flare hydraulics

 Preparation of Flare Load Summary

 Preparation of Equipment datasheets for new items

 Scope demarcation for Vendor items

 Updation of P&IDs based on Hydraulic results


Mid & Downstream Business Training

STAGEModule
1 (Continued):

 Updation of Pumps and Instruments datasheets based


on Hydraulics

 Updation of Equipment list

 Development of Control and Safeguarding Narratives


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Hydraulic Check of Process lines

Loop identification in PFD


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Hydraulic Check of Process lines

Collecting Inputs required for hydraulic calculations


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Sample View of Hydraulic Calculation Sheet
Mid & Downstream Business Training

 Sizing of Vessels Module

 Sizing of vessels is carried out based on Project


Design Criteria (Droplet size, Residence time)

 Sometimes, Sizing is governed by separation of


fine entrained droplets using mesh pad, impact
separators, etc.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
Sample view of Vessel Sizing calculation sheet
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Thermal rating of Heat exchangers

 Designing / Rating of heat exchangers is carried


out with the help of HTRI computer program.

 This activity enables the designer to model heat


exchangers, allowing the designer to gauge the
performance, geometry and inherent limitations of
the shell and tube heat exchanger even before its
fabrication.

 This results in lower risks of damage to the


equipment while in service.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Sample HTRI Specification Sheet Module

Sample HTRI Tube Layout


Mid & Downstream Business Training

 PSV Sizing and FlareModule


Hydraulics

 The safety of personnel and the protection of


equipments due to overpressure are the basis for the
design, sizing, and selection of pressure relieving
systems.

 All systems and pressure relief devices shall be


designed based on the applicable codes (API 520,
521, etc.), industry standards and practices.
 For Flare header Sizing, first we have to determine
the appropriate relief contingencies yielding maximum
loads
 Flare header size has to be large enough to prevent
excessive backpressure on the plant safety valves
and to limit gas velocity and noise to acceptable levels.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Modulecalculation sheet
Sample view of Flare Hydraulics
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Preparation of Flare Load Summary
Module
This document summarizes the relief load of all PSVs for the
applicable relieving cases.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Preparation of Equipment datasheets for new items
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Scope demarcation for Vendor items

Vendor scope of supply has to be identified


and to be clearly marked in the P&IDs.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Updation of P&IDs based on Hydraulic results

Licensor P&ID
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module Updated P&ID


based on
Hydraulics

Compressor
Suction line is
increased to 6”
from 4” as per
hydraulic
calculations
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Updation of Pumps and Instruments datasheets based
Module
on Hydraulics

Licensor Datasheet
Mid & Downstream Business Training
Updated Pumps datasheets based on Hydraulics
Module
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Development of Control Narratives

 This narrative describes the plant control systems by


instrumentation.

 The purpose of this document are as follows :


(1) To explain control systems to those who may
not be familiar with instrumentation symbols
or functional logic diagrams.
(2) To define purpose and algorithm of each
control system.

 Pump auto start systems will be also covered in this


document.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Development of Safeguarding Narratives

The purpose of this narrative is to thoroughly


explain the safeguarding scheme and its
significance. Based on the same it is possible to
understand how safeguarding scheme works and
how it will be depicted in “Cause and Effect
diagram” or “Safeguarding Matrix”.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Sample of Cause and Effect Diagram


Module
EFFECT
51UZA-2100 V-51203 / V-51201 SGS

Effect Section

P-5105B HP STEAM VALVE

DESCRIPTION
P-51402A MP BFW PUMP

P-51206C HP BFW PUMP


P-51206A HP BFW PUMP

P-51206B HP BFW PUMP

P-51206D HP BFW PUMP


P-5105A HP BFW PUMP

P-51203 HP BFW PUMP

COMMON TRIP ALARM


SAFE GUARDING MATRIX UNIT 51

Cause Section

CAUSE CLOSE TRIP TRIP TRIP TRIP TRIP TRIP TRIP ALARM ACTION

51UZA-2102

51UZA-2100

51UZA-2105

51UZA-2107
51UZA-2103

51UZA-2104

51UZA-2106

51UZA-2108

51UZA-2100
PEFS NO.
TAG NO. DESCRIPTION TAG NO.

<51HS-2012 is 'BOTH' position>

51LZA-2008 V-51203 LEVEL LOW LOW D-0098-51-25-0006 X X X X X 51LZA-2008

51LZA-2011 V-51210 LEVEL LOW LOW D-1651-51-50-0018 X X X X X 51LZA-2011

<51HS-2012 is 'V-51203' position>

51LZA-2008 V-51203 LEVEL LOW LOW D-0098-51-25-0006 X X X X X X X X X 51LZA-2008

51LZA-2011 V-51210 LEVEL LOW LOW D-1651-51-50-0018 51LZA-2011

<51HS-2012 is 'V-51210' position>

51LZA-2008 V-51203 LEVEL LOW LOW D-0098-51-25-0006 51LZA-2008

51LZA-2011 V-51210 LEVEL LOW LOW D-1651-51-50-0018 X X X X X X X X X 51LZA-2011


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
STAGE 2:

 Interface Activities

 Updation of Control & Safeguarding narratives and issue

for HAZOP Study

 Updation of Utility summary

 Updation of Line list


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Interface Activities

 Vendor Document Review

 Review of Engineering Drawings

 Review of Plot Plan

 3D-Model Review

 Review of DCS Graphics


Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Vendor Document Review
Module
Some of the Critical points to be reviewed in Engineering
Drawings are:

 Consistency of Process data as per process datasheets


such as Operating & Design Conditions, MOC, Special
service requirements, etc.

 Review of other technical aspects


(a) Meeting all Specifications as per requirement.
(b) Expected Utility consumption figures.
(c) Guarantee figures, if any.
(d) Other technical requirements specified in the
requisition.
(e) Fulfilment of Scope of Supply.
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Review of Engineering Drawings

Some of the Critical points to be reviewed in Engineering


Drawings are:

 Consistency of Process data as per process datasheets


such as Operating & Design Conditions, MOC, Special
service requirements, etc.

 Number of Nozzles

 Sizes of Nozzles

 Checking location and orientation of all nozzles


especially nozzles for Temperature, Pressure and
Level Instruments as per Project requirements
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Review of Plot Plan
Module
Some of the Critical points to be reviewed in Plot plan are:
 Consistency of equipments shown in plot plan with
Equipment List, PFD and P&IDs.
 Are the distances between equipment kept minimum with
respect to pressure drop?
 Are the height of Towers and vessels enough to
provide NPSH of pumps?
 Are the equipment located symmetrically such as column and
reboilers?
 Is there enough space around columns, towers and
reactors for removal of internals?
 Is there enough space to remove tube bundle of heat
exchangers?
 Are the equipments arranged considering safety
aspects especially for Fired heaters, Compressors and Tanks?
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 3D-Model Review
Module

Some of the Critical points to be considered in 3D-model


review are:

 Is piping arranged to provide straight run


requirement such as inlet of tower?
 Are CV sets placed as per Project requirements such as
closeness to equipment, at high or low level, etc., if
any?
 Are symmetrical piping considered for AFC’s?
 Are the valves located at operable location from the
nearest platform or grade?
 Is piping arranged to keep special bending radius
requirements, if any?
Mid & Downstream Business Training
 Review of DCS Graphics
Module
Review of Control logics as per Control & Safeguarding narratives
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
STAGE 2 (Continued):

 Updation of Control & Safeguarding narratives and issue

for HAZOP Study

 Updation of Utility summary

 Updation of Line list


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
STAGE 3:

 Safety Studies / Analysis

 Updation of P&IDs based on Safety Studies

recommendation

 Preparation of Precommisioning manual

 Preparation of Operating manual


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
 Safety Studies / Analysis

 HAZOP Study

 SIL Study

 FIREPRAN Study
Mid & Downstream Business Training

HAZOP Study Module

HAZard and OPerability study is a technique to examine a


system, part by part, in a very systematic manner, to find
out the cause and consequence of every conceivable
deviation in the normal operation of the system as well
as during emergencies, start-ups and shutdowns. The
method enables prediction of all possible ways in which a
hazard or an operating problem could arise, whether the
design takes preventive care of them and if not,
recommends changes (Action) as may be necessary.
Mid & Downstream Business Training
SIL
Module
 Measurement of confidence level for performance of safety
function is called the Safety Integrity Level(SIL)
 Safety integrity of a system can be defined as
“ The probability (likelihood) of a safety-related system
performing the required safety function under all the stated
conditions within a stated period of time”
 SIL is a measure of the reliability of the safety function
performing to specification.
 The SIL is based on the accepted risk level and ranges from 1
to 4
Probability of Failure
Safety Mode of Operation – On demand Mode of Operation – continuous
Integrity (average probability of failure to perform (probability of dangerous failure per
Level (SIL) its design function upon demand) hour)
-5 -4
4 > 10 to < 10 > 10-9 to < 10-8
3 > 10-4 to < 10-3 > 10-8 to < 10-7
2 > 10-3 to < 10-2 > 10-7 to < 10-6
1 > 10-2 to < 10-1 > 10-6 to < 10-7
Mid & Downstream Business Training
FIREPRAN study
Module
FIRE PRotection & ANalysis is a new technique employed at
the design phase of a facility or installation to achieve the
following objectives

 Overview the role of the facility and its significance to the


overall operation.
 Review the facility’s Fire and Explosion Strategy (FES) in the
context of the role of the facility and its significance to the
overall company.
 Analyze threats to loss of containment or other potential
sources of combustion events.
 Assess release event consequences and explosion scenarios
 Review and assess adequacy of threat control measures,
mitigation and recovery measures.
 Make recommendation for risk reduction measures to
achieve levels as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP).
Mid & Downstream Business Training
Example for FirepranModule
Study
Column middle cut pool fire and isopleths is analyzed as
shown below in case of possible explosion due to oil leakage
above its Auto Ignition Temperature.

Heat Effects on Human Effects on Property


Flux

kW/m2

Sufficient to cause pin to personnel No damage


4 if unable to reach cover within 20
seconds.

This level of radiation will cause a Minimum energy


12.5 30% chance of fatality for a required for piloted
prolonged exposure. ignition of wood,
melting of plastic
tubing

Sufficient to cause damage to Failure of steel


37.5 process equipment. Exposure to structures within 30
this level of radiation is assumed to minutes
give rise to a 100% chance of
fatality
Mid & Downstream Business Training
Critical Area identification
Module

Area in red needs to be


given extensive
consideration for fire
protection systems
Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module
STAGE 3 (Continued):

 Updation of P&IDs based on Safety Studies

recommendation

 Preparation of Precommisioning manual

 Preparation of Operating manual


Mid & Downstream Business Training

Module