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MACROEVOLUTION

BIOLOGICAL SPECIES CONCEPT

Species are groups of actually or potentially


interbreeding natural populations which are
reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Breeding behavior can be real or potential, if two species come
together and breed then there was only one species.
Breeding behavior in nature can be different than in captivity.
HOW DO NEW SPECIES ARISE?

Speciation is the development of a new species through


evolution.
Evolution within a species means a change in that populations
allele frequency.
When two populations are separated their allele frequency
changes. Since they no longer have migration between the
populations, two separate species develop.
There are many ways to separate two populations besides
geographically.
ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION

When geographical barriers divide a population,


followed by the development of mechanisms in the
separated populations that prevent interbreeding.
*Allopatric means of other countries
Geographical isolation is the most important factor in starting
speciation.
Physical or behavioral changes develop that will keep the two
species isolated from interbreeding.
The isthmus of Panama came into being 3 million years ago. The
species of shrimp on either side are now separate species.

Allopatric Speciation in shrimp


GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION LEADS TO ALLOPATRIC
SPECIATION.

The Abert squirrel lives on the south rim, the Kaiba squirrel on the north rim
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION

Any factor in nature that prevents interbreeding between


individuals of the same or closely related species.
Extrinsic isolating mechanism outside of the organisms in
question
Geographic isolation is extrinsic
Intrinsic isolating mechanism internal characteristics that
prevent interbreeding
Differences in anatomy, physiology and behavior
SIX INTRINSIC REPRODUCTIVE
ISOLATING MECHANISMS

Ecological
Temporal
Behavioral
Mechanical
Gametic
Hybrid inviability
ECOLOGICAL ISOLATION

When two species have different habitats they will rarely


have contact.
Lions prefer open grassland, tigers prefer forest
TEMPORAL ISOLATION

Two species that share the same habitat but do not mate
within the same time frame.
Two populations of the same species of plant release their pollen
at different times of the year. If their reproductive periods did
not overlap they would have reduced gene flow.
BEHAVIORAL ISOLATION

Even if populations are in contact and breeding can


occur, they must choose to mate.
Such a choice is based on specific courtship and mating
displays.
Behavioral isolation

These albatrosses are behaviorally isolated from


other bird species by their elaborate, species-
specific courtship behavior.
Great-tailed Grackle Mating Marine flatworms mating.
Display

Damsel fly mating behavior Sting rays mating behavior.


MECHANICAL ISOLATION
Reproductive organs
differ in size or shape or
other feature.
Different species of
Alpine Butterfly look
similar but have different
reproductive organs.
GAMETIC ISOLATION

Even if mating occurs, offspring may not result if there are


incompatibilities between sperm and egg, or between
sperm and the female reproductive tract.
HYBRID INVIABILITY OR INFERTILITY

Even if offspring develop,


they are most often
malformed or sterile
Real Cross-breed Animals

A zebroid is a cross between


a horse and a zebra.
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION

Intrinsic isolating mechanisms can develop between two


populations in the absence of geographical separation.
Sympatric* speciation - any speciation that does not
involve geographic separation.
Sympatric means of the same country
Two types include polyploidy and speciation through
hybridization
Prior to colonization
Hawthorn trees + Haw fruit
flies

Colonization by Europeans
Apple trees + fruit flies
(called Apple flies)
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION IN FRUIT FLIES

Only 6% of flies interbreed


Conduct courting, mating, laying eggs in their specific
type of tree
In transition to being two separate species
Mutation or combination of rare alleles allowed flies to
smell the apple trees
Apples mature earlier
than Hawthorne trees.
Fruit flies winter
underground as
larvae.
The flies that mate on
the Apple tree emerge
earlier that the Haw
flies. They share their
variant alleles among
themselves.

Temporal Isolation
SPECIATION THROUGH HYBRIDIZATION

Where the egg and sperm come together to produce


offspring.
Rarely a healthy hybrid is produced.
POLYPLOIDY

100,000 species of plants exist today because of


polyploidy
A multiplication of the normal number of chromosomes in
an organism.
Most often happens in plants that self pollinate
Rarely happens in animals because they do not self
pollinate.
Gametes are formed in separate
species, A and B. Each has two
chromosomes.

Gametes fuse and form a new,


sterile plant.

The zygote doubles its


chromosomes for cell division
then fails to divide.

Gamete formation takes place

Gametes from the same plant


fuse, forming a new plant with 4
chromosomes.
WHEN DOES SPECIATION OCCUR?

Consider the horseshoe crab


which has not changed much
in 300 million years.

Consider Darwins finches,


they developed into 13
separate species in 100,000
years.
GENERALISTS VS SPECIALISTS

The horseshoe crabs are generalists their diet is diverse


The finches are specialists their diet is very specific,
especially when food is scarce.
When the food source changes, the finches must adapt or
they will not survive. The horseshoe crab just moves on
and eats something else.
ADAPTIVE RADIATION
Rapid emergence of species from a single species that
has been introduced into a new environment.
When the finches arrived on the Galapagos there were
no other birds of their kind living in the islands.
It was easy for them to specialize and fill the available
niches. This is especially true on the Galapagos
because there are 25 separate islands.
Water between the islands is a barrier = allopatric speciation
TWO CONDITIONS THAT
CONTRIBUTE TO SPECIATION

Specialization of food source and environment


Migration to a new environment, especially if there is no
competition.
IS SPECIATION SMOOTH OR JERKY?

Gradualism model Punctuated equilibria


model
MICROEVOLUTION VS.
MACROEVOLUTION

Microevolution: survival through the inheritance of favorable


characteristics
mutations
selection

Macroevolution: progression of biodiversity through geological time


speciation
extinction
MICROEVOLUTION

Evolutionary Mechanisms
Types of Natural Selection
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
WHAT IS MICROEVOLUTION?

Traces generational changes in a population of


organisms
Changes eh?
Allelic frequency changes within a
gene pool!

WHAT LEADS TO CHANGES IN THE
GENE POOL OF A POPULATION?
SMALL POPULATION SIZE

(small pop frequencies)


toss a coin to prove it.
MECHANISMS OF EVOLUTION

GENETIC DRIFT
(random/chance events that change the gene pool of a
small population)
examples:
natural disasters
2 TYPES OF GENETIC DRIFT
MECHANISMS
Genetic Bottleneck
dramatic decrease in pop size due to :
catastrophes
predation
disease, etc.
Founder Effect
migration leads to changes in allele
frequencies from population of origin
WHAT ELSE CAUSES GENE POOL
CHANGES ?
GENE FLOW
immigration
emigration
EX OF GENE FLOW IN HUMANS

Frequency of Rh- allele among Africans:


63%
Frequency of Rh- allele among
African-Americans
45%
Frequency of Rh- allele among White European population
3%
MUTATIONS
may produce a selective advantage
may produce deleterious effects
may be harmless
NATURAL SELECTION!
increases/decreases allele frequencies due to
environmental impact.
Ex: English Peppered Moths
NON-RANDOM MATING
individuals choose based upon traits
(vertebrates)
individuals choose based upon
physical proximity
(invertebrates)
OTHER FORMS OF NON-RANDOM
MATING:
INBREEDING
Proximity issues
SEXUAL SELECTION:
1. Male competition:
# offspring fitness
2. Female choice:
quality offspring fitness
SEXUAL SELECTION
Picky females, show-off males
MICROEVOLUTION REVIEW
Changes in the GENE POOL!
Caused by:
Gene Flow
Natural Selection
Mutations
Non-Random Mating
Sexual Selection
Inbreeding
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF
SELECTION
Selection increases the adaptive qualities of a population
for the environment in which it lives.
Types of Selection:
Natural Selection
determined by phenotype
selection toward phenotypes that
improve fitness
SUBDIVISIONS OF NATURAL
SELECTION
Stabilizing Selection
Eliminates individuals with extreme traits. Results in
decreased variation
Directional Selection
Favors traits at ONE extreme
ex: resistance to insecticides
DIRECTIONAL SELECTION
Disruptive Selection
Selection toward BOTH extremes. Extreme traits are
favored, common traits are NOT!
Results in major divisions in population!
What might result?
DISRUPTIVE SELECTION
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION

Directional selection determined by humans


CAUSES OF VARIATION

Mutation is the ultimate source of


variation
Two major types of mutations:
Gene mutations
Chromosome mutations
GENE MUTATIONS
Addition / Insertion
Deletion
Substitution
Inversion
SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF MUTATIONS

Gene mutations
PKU (phenylketonuria)
CF (cystic fibrosis)
Chromosome mutation
Klinefelter syndrome (male with 47,XXY
karyotype)
ONCE MUTATIONS HAVE ARISEN,
FURTHER VARIATION RESULTS FROM:
Recombination of
alleles during meiosis

Recombination of
alleles during
fertilization
ONCE GENETIC VARIATION HAS
ARISEN, THERE IS ALSO
PHENOTYPIC VARIATION.
Recall that, according to
Darwins Theory, due to
competition within populations,
there is

Differential Reproduction of
Selected Phenotypes
GREAT EXAMPLE OF DIFFERENTIAL
REPRODUCTION OF SELECTED
PHENOTYPES:
ULTIMATE RESULT OF EVOLUTION

Change in the genetic composition


(gene pool) of a population.
RELATED CAUSES OF
GENETIC VARIATION
Sexual Reproduction!
Diploidy
Outbreeding
MINORITY ADVANTAGE

50/50 Sex Ratio


Predation (more common phenotype preferred by
predator)
The Lefty Hypothesis
10-15 % general population
>50% contact sports (esp. males)
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION

Prezygotic Postzygotic
Temporal isolation Hybrid inviability
Behavioral isolation
Hybrid sterility
Mechanical isolation
Hybrid
Ecological isolation
breakdown
Gametic isolation
ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION
SYMPATRIC SPECIATION
GRADUALISM

Species A evolves
to become species
B.
LONG, GRADUAL
process!
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM

Evolution is Slow
with brief periods
of rapid
development of
new species.
THE HARDY WEINBERG LAW

If allele frequencies for a population do not change


NO EVOLUTION IS OCCURRING!

Genetic Equilibrium
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
GENETIC EQUILIBRIUM OCCURS ONLY
IF THERE IS

1.A large breeding population


2.Random mating
3.No change in allelic frequency
due to mutation
4.No immigration or emigration
5.No natural selection
EQUILIBRIUM REQUIRES

Large Population Size


(laws of probability must apply)
Isolation of Population
(no immigration/emigration to/from other populations)
NO MUTATIONS ALLOWED!
NO NATURAL SELECTION !
all traits must be selectively neutral
Mating Must Be RANDOM
equal probabilities of mating btwn genotypes