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# PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

INTRODUCTION
Proposed by James Kennedy &
Russell Eberhart in 1995
Inspired by social behavior
of birds and fishes

Combines self-experience
with social experience

Population-based
optimization
CONCEPT

## Uses a number of particles that constitute a swarm

moving around in the search space looking for the
best solution.

## Each particle in search space adjusts its flying

according to its own flying experience as well as
the flying experience of other particles
Particle Swarm Optimization

## Swarm: a set of particles (S)

Particle: a potential solution
xi ( xi ,1 , xi , 2 ,..., xi ,n ) n
Position:
vi (vi ,1 , vi , 2 ,..., vi ,n ) n
Velocity:
Each particle maintains
Individual best position (PBest)
Swarm maintains its global best (GBest)
Basic algorithm of PSO
1. Initialize the swarm form the solution space
2. Evaluate the fitness of each particle
3. Update individual and global bests
4. Update velocity and position of each particle
5. Go to step2, and repeat until termination condition
Original velocity update equation
v i (k 1) Inertia cognitive social
v i (k 1) v i (k ) c1 random1 () ( PBest i xi (k ))
c 2 random2 () (GBest xi (k ))

w,c1,c2: Constant
random1(), random2(): random variable

Position update xi (k 1) xi (k ) v i (k 1)
Particles velocity
v i (k 1) Inertia cognitive social

x(k+1) PBest

GBest
social
v(k+1)

cognitive

v(k)

x(k)
Inertia
GBest

## x(k) - Current solution (4, 2)

PBest PBest - Particles best solution (9, 1)
GBest-Global best solution (5, 10)
Inertia: v(k)=(-2, 2)
GBest

## x(k) - Current solution (4, 2)

PBest - Particles best solution (9, 1)
PBest
GBest-Global best solution (5, 10)
Inertia: v(k)=(-2,2)
Cognitive:
PBest-x(k)=(9,1)-(4,2)=(5,-1)
GBest Social:
GBest-x(k)=(5,10)-(4,2)=(1,8)

## Current solution (4, 2)

Particles best solution(9,1)
PBest
Global best solution (5, 10)
Inertia: v(k)=(-2,2)
Cognitive:
PBest-x(k)=(9,1)-(4,2)=(5,-1)
GBest Social:
GBest-x(k)=(5,10)-(4,2)=(1,8)

v(k+1)=(-2,2)+0.8*(5,-1)
+0.2*(1,8) = (2.2,2.8)

v(k+1)
x(k) - Current solution (4, 2)
PBest
PBest - Particles best solution (9, 1)
GBest-Global best solution (5, 10)
Inertia: v(k)=(-2,2)
Cognitive:
PBest-x(k)=(9,1)-(4,2)=(5,-1)
GBest Social:
GBest-x(k)=(5,10)-(4,2)=(1,8)
v(k+1)=(2.2,2.8)
x(k+1)
x(k+1)=x(k)+v(k+1)=
(4,2)+(2.2,2.8)=(6.2,4.8)
x(k) - Current solution (4, 2)
PBest
PBest - Particles best solution (9, 1)
GBest-Global best solution (5, 10)
THANK YOU