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m%cdkkh iy u;lh

(Cognition and
Learning outcomes

Understand the functional importance of cognition

Know the factors influencing the development of
Understand how memory is a support for the
continuous existence of human beings
Know different kinds of memory and the ways in
which information can be stored in memory for a
long period.
fuu mfPaofhka wms
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka:

m%cdkkfha l%shdld jeo.;alu wjfndaO lr

m%cdkkfha ixjOkhg n,mdk idOl oek .ekSu
ksiqkaf.a wLKav meje;aug u;lh Wmldr jkafka
flfiao lshd wjfndaO lr .ekSu
O j.fha u;lhka wjfndaO lr .ekSu iy f;dr;=re
os.= l,la u;lfha ;ekam;a lr .;af;a flfiaoehs
wjfndaO lr .ekSu

Cognition is fundamental for human life. Human beings

organize their life using their capacity to think. Before
doing any activity they plan how a particular activity can
be performed.

Human thinking, in psychology, is termed as cognition.

Memory helps people to remember the past and the

present and helps them plan the future.
Memory helps people to organize their day to day life.
Memory can be developed through various ways.
Forgetting is also as important as memory for human
beings to have a healthy life. We know that we always
remember what we want and forget what we do not
want to remember.

fuu mfPaofhaoS wms u;lh hkafka w:h, O j.fha u;l iy u;lh oshqKq lr
.; yels l%u .ek flfhka idlPd lruq
tfukau fuu mfoh m%cdkkfha w:h" wu;l jSu iy wu;l jSu j,lajkafka flfiao
lshd flfhka ia;r lrhs'

Thought or thinking helps people to organize their

Cognition is the process that occurs between the
sensing of a stimulus and the emergence of an overt
response (Dwretzky, 1985).
When we try to solve problems mentally or imagine
something, we are said to be thinking.
For example, if a person wants to install an
equipment in the kitchen, he/she might mentally
picture the appearance of the kitchen before
installing it. After getting an idea he/she rearranges
the goods in the kitchen and then the equipment is
Categories of Performance

Cognitive psychologists try to understand what people

do when they think, reason and perform intellectual
Some psychologists argue that all human thinking,
reasoning and performance are controlled by one
major set of cognitive abilities (Anderson in Dwretzky,
1985: 242). It is commonly accepted that there are five
sets of separate categories of performance.

These categories are intellectual skills, verbal information,

cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes (Dwretzky,
Categories of Performance

Intellectual skills include all the mental procedures, rules and

concepts people learn.
For example, we know the procedures for driving a car, playing
a musical instrument and operating a television set.
Cognitive strategies include the ability we acquire that makes
us use our previously learned intellectual skills, remembering
and knowledge for problem solving.
Motor skills require muscular functions such as those needed for
riding a motor bike, playing cards and playing a musical
instrument. All these motor skills are maintained in the
procedural memory.
Attitudes are a distinct entity that influences our thinking,
reasoning and performance. Attitudes determine peoples
behavior (Dwretzky, 1985).
m%cdkkh (Cognition)

m%cdkk ufkdaoHd{hka, ksiqka is;k g" ;l lrk g iy nqoauh lr;jHhka lrk

g l=ula isfjkjdo lshd wjfndaO lr .ekSug W;aiy lrhs'
Memory means storing information for a relatively long period of
time in the brain.
Memory helps people to organize their life. They are able to
remember the present and the past owing to the function of
For the continuation of life, memory is very important.

There are two kinds of memory which are defined on the basis of
how memory functions.
Skills memory involves muscular function. For instance, learning to write,
playing a musical instrument, and driving require muscular movements.
Declarative memory, involves only the functioning of brain. For
example remembering a face of a friend and recalling a telephone
number require declarative memory and does not involve any
muscular functioning.
Definition of Memory

Memory - The process by which we encode, store and

retrieve information.
Encoding refers to the process by which information is
initially recorded in a form usable to memory.
Storage is the maintenance of material saved in the
memory system.
In retrieval, material in memory storage is located,
brought into awareness and used (Feldman, 2002).
Each of these parts of memory represents a different
u;lh (Memory)

u;lh hkqfjka woyia lrkafka f;dr;=re idfmalaIj os.= l,la fud<h ;=, .nvd lr ;nd
.ekSuh' u;lh ksiqkag Tjqkaf.a ; ixOdkh lr .ekSug Wmld f'
How Memory Works
There are three types of (temporal) memory - sensory
memory, short-term memory and long-term memory.

Sensory memory is the initial momentary storage of

information, which lasts for less than a second.

Sensory memory consists of representations of raw

sensory stimuli which are not meaningful.

To make sense of it and to allow the possibility of long-

term retention the information has to be transferred to
short-term memory.
How Memory Works
The information is stored in short-term memory where the
information first gets its meaning although the retention period is
very short. Short-term memory holds information for 15 to 25 seconds.
It has a limited capacity and with attention whatever information is
stored in the short-term memory is transferred to long-term memory.

In other words when information in the short-term memory is

repeated it is maintained in the short-term memory.

The information in the short-term memory is transferred to long-term

memory through rehearsal. Long-term memory stores information on
a relatively permanent basis. However, if the information once
stored in the long-term memory is not recalled or rehearsed the
information might be lost permanently. Long-term memory has an
unlimited capacity and holds memory for a long period of time.
u;lh l%shdlrk wkaou (How
memory works)
u;lh l%shdlrk wdldrh u; mok jS .%y lrk uq,sl u;l j. folla
l=i,;d u;lh (skills memory)
m%ldYk u;lh (declarative memory)

f;dr;=re fla;dxlkh lsu (encode), .nvd lsu (storage), iy

kej; ,nd .ekSf (retrieval) l%shdj,sh f,i u;lh ksjpkh l<

Failure to recall the information saved in

the long-term memory is simply defined as

One reason for forgetting may be that we

might not have paid attention to the
material in the first place. It is a failure in
the encoding process.
Decay and Interference
Memory failure can be caused by decay and interference.

When information is lost in the memory it is called decay. Decay

occurs when information stored in the memory is not recalled and

The phenomenon by which information in memory displaces or

blocks out other information, preventing its recall is called
interference (Hilgard, 1975: 217).

There are two types of interferences: proactive interference and

retroactive interference. In proactive interference, information
learned earlier interferes with recall of new material. In retroactive
interference recalling information becomes difficult because of
later exposure to different material (Hilgard, 1975).
wu;ljSu (Forgetting)

os.= ld,Sk u;lfha r|jd we;s f;dr;=re kej; isysm;a lsrSug wfmdfydi;a jSu
wu;ljSu hkqfjka w: olajkjd'

u;l ke;su m%Odk l%shdj,s follska ish yelsh:

laIh u (decay)
ndOl (interference)
Forgetting is also essential to the proper functioning of memory.
Forgetting allows us to form general impressions and recollections.

Theorists explain that there is a third way of forgetting: pseudo-

forgetting. They believe that you have forgotten something you
once knew when in fact the information had never been stored in
the first place or was incorrectly stored. This is called pseudo-
forgetting (Dwretzky, 1985).

Motivated forgetting is another way in which long-term memory

can seem to be lost. This kind of forgetting is an active and
purposeful one that people used to keep themselves away from
recalling threatening, painful or embarrassing memories.
kHdhjdoSka fmkajd fok wu;lf f;jeks wdldrh k jHdc wu;l uh (pseudo-

os.= ld,sk u;lh ke;sjq njla fmkaug ;j;a u.la k fm<Ujq wu;l uhs (Motivated
ie,lsh hq;= lreKq

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