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Chapter 4

Role and Style


of the OD Practitioner

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 1
Learning Objectives

Define role of OD practitioner.


Identify your strengths and areas of
improvement as potential practitioner.
Experience and practice your style of
intervention and influence in a group.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 2
You Need a Machete at Sears
(part 1 of 2)

Sears bought Lands End to upgrade its apparel


image.
Can Sears avoid hurting the image of Lands
End?
Sears is giving apparel operations to Lands
End management.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 3
You Need a Machete at Sears
(part 2 of 2)
Culture clashes between Lands End and
Sears.
You need a machete to get through it all, says
former VP.
Another says, to be successful , you need
to work through a culture, not against it.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 4
Haphazard Versus
Planned Change
Change programs do not happen accidentally.
Initiated with purpose and require leadership.
OD practitioner deals proactively with changing
forces.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 5
Two Types of Change
in an Organization
1. Random or haphazard change.
Forced on organization by external
environment.
Not prepared for.
2. Deliberate attempts to modify organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 6
External Practitioner (part 1 of 2)

Not previously associated with client system.


Advantages:
Different viewpoint and objectivity.
Not dependent upon the organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 7
External Practitioner (part 2 of 2)

Disadvantages:
Unfamiliar with organization.
Unfamiliar with culture, communication
networks, and power systems.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 8
Internal Practitioner (part 1 of 3)

Member of organization who can be:


A top executive.
Employee who initiates change in work
group.
From human resources or OD department.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 9
Internal Practitioner (part 2 of 3)

Advantages:
Familiar with culture and norms.
Knows power structure.
Personal interest in organization.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 10
Internal Practitioner (part 3 of 3)

Disadvantages:
May lack specialized skills.
Lack of objectivity.
Likely to accept organizational system.
May lack necessary power and authority.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 11
External-Internal Practitioner Team
(part 1 of 3)

Team combines external practitioner working


with internal practitioner.
Probably most effective approach.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 12
External-Internal Practitioner Team
(part 2 of 3)

Partners bring complementary resources.


External practitioner brings expertise,
objectivity, and new insights.
Internal practitioner brings knowledge of issues
and norms, and awareness of strengths and
weaknesses.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 13
External-Internal Practitioner Team
(part 3 of 3)

Provides support to one another.


Achieve greater continuity over OD program.
Team combines advantages of both while
minimizing disadvantages.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 14
Our Changing World:
One Countrys Resistance to
Consulting Grows (part 1 of 2)

Management consulting in Germany with


public-sector causes a political fight.
Involves U.S. and German management firms.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 15
Our Changing World:
One Countrys Resistance to
Consulting Grows (part 2 of 2)
Contracts legal but effectiveness questioned.
Occurring when German economy in poor state.
Management consulting new to public sector.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 16
OD Practitioner Styles

Practitioners have variety of styles.


View styles as degree of emphasis placed upon
2 dimensions:
Effectiveness - degree of emphasis upon
goal accomplishment.
Morale - degree of emphasis upon
relationships and participant satisfaction.
An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4
Slide 17
Five Practitioner Styles (part 1 of 6)

1. Stabilizer style 3. Persuader style


2. Cheerleader style 4. Pathfinder style
3. Analyzer style

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 18
Five Practitioner Styles (part 2 of 6)

Stabilizer Style
Maintains low profile.
Tries to survive by following directives.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 19
Five Practitioner Styles (part 3 of 6)

Cheerleader Style
Places emphasis on member satisfaction.
Does not emphasize organization effectiveness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 20
Five Practitioner Styles (part 4 of 6)

Analyzer Style
Places emphasis on efficiency.
Little attention to satisfaction of members.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 21
Five Practitioner Styles (part 5 of 6)

Persuader Style
Seeks compromise between cheerleader and
analyzer styles.
Achieves average performance.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 22
Five Practitioner Styles (part 6 of 6)

Pathfinder Style
Seeks high organization efficiency and high
member satisfaction.
Desired style for OD practitioner.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 23
Pathfinder Practitioner Focuses on
Six Processes:
1. Communication. 4. Group norms and
2. Member roles in growth.
groups. 5. Leadership and
3. Group problem- authority.
solving. 6. Intergroup
cooperation.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 24
Figure 4.1
Practitioner Styles

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 25
OD in Practice:
Bain & Co. (part 1 of 2)
Bain one of largest consulting firms.
30+ years old, offices in 19+ countries.
Clients include governments, businesses, and
nonprofit organizations.
Known for shrewd, suave people it employs.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 26
OD in Practice:
Bain & Co. (part 2 of 2)
Employees secretive about Bain and clients.
Builds close relationship with clients.
Works directly with chief executive.
Focuses on total system.
Works collaboratively with clients.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 27
Readiness of Organization for OD

Key personnel first decide if change needed.


Learning goals of OD appropriate?
Cultural state of client ready for OD?
Key people involved?
Members prepared and oriented to OD?

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 28
The Intervention

Intervention is coming between members of


organization for purpose of change.
Planned activities.
External practitioner usually intervenes through
top manager.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 29
Who Is Client?

Who client is becomes complex as practitioner


intervenes.
Client may be organization, certain divisions, or
an individual.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 30
Practitioner Role in Intervention

Operates on belief that team is basic building


block.
Concerned with how processes occur.
Believes that assisting client, not taking control,
will lead to lasting solution.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 31
OD Practitioner Skills and Activities
Team development.
Corporate change.
Strategy development.
Management development.
Employee development.
Technology integration.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 32
Table 4.1
OD Practitioner Skills and Activities

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 33
Six Key Skill Areas Critical to
Success of Practitioner
1. Leadership. 4. Problem-solving.
2. Project 5. Interpersonal.
management. 6. Personal.
3. Communication.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 34
Figure 4.2
Practitioner Skills Profile

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 35
Forming Practitioner-Client
Relationship
A system of interacting elements.
Consists of:
Practitioner.
Client contact.
Client target system.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 36
Figure 4.3
Systems View of Change Relationship

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 37
Initial Perceptions

Initial intervention an evaluation by client and


practitioner of each other.
First impressions important.
Relationship based on mutual trust and
openness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 38
Concepts of Perception

Process whereby individuals give meaning to


environment by interpreting and organizing
sensory impressions.
People behave on basis of what is perceived
versus what really is.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 39
Perception

The process individuals use to interpret and


organize sensory impressions.
What one perceives can be different from
reality.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 40
Selective Perception

Selectivity of information that is perceived.


Process in which people tend to ignore
information that conflicts with their values.
Accepts other information that agrees with their
values.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 41
Closure

Tendency of individual to fill in missing


information in order to complete perception.
A person perceives more in the situation than is
really there.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 42
Figure 4.4
Perception Formation and Effect on Relationships

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 43
Dilemma Interactions Include:

Questions about clients definition of problem.


Clients awareness of need for change.
Clients unrealistic expectations.
Clients misuse of power.
Value differences with client and practitioner.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 44
Practitioner Style Model

Practitioner brings knowledge, skills, values,


and experience.
Client system has own subculture and
readiness for change.
Together determine practitioners style and
approaches.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 45
Figure 4.5
Practitioner Style Model

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 46
Developing Trust Relationship

Openness and trust between practitioner and


client essential.
Basic responses to build trust:
Questions. Interpretation.

Advising. Self-disclosure.

Reflection. Silence.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 47
Creating Climate for Change

Practitioner practice what he or she preaches.


Create climate of openness, authenticity, and
trust.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 48
Practitioner-Client Relationship
Modes (part 1 of 5)
1. Apathetic
2. Gamesmanship
3. Charismatic
4. Consensus

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 49
Practitioner-Client Relationship
Modes (part 2 of 5)
Apathetic Mode
Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner.
Skeptical about change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 50
Practitioner-Client Relationship
Modes (part 3 of 5)
Gamesmanship Mode
Keeps quiet about true ideas with practitioner.
Manipulates strategic factors.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 51
Practitioner-Client Relationship
Modes (part 4 of 5)
Charismatic Mode
View of changes taken from leaders cues.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 52
Practitioner-Client Relationship
Modes (part 5 of 5)
Consensus Mode
Both client and practitioner share perceptions.
Differences are worked through.
OD practitioner attempts to operate from this
mode.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 53
Figure 4.6
Four Practitioner-Client Relationship Modes

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 54
The Formalization of Operating
Ground Rules
Formalization of obligations in contract
advisable for external practitioner.
Internal practitioner does not need contract, but
ground rules should be formalized.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 55
Contract with External Practitioner
Specifies Items
Point of contact. Schedule.
Role of practitioner. Anticipated results.
Fees. Operating ground
rules.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 56
Red Flags in Practitioner-Client
Relationship
Level of commitment to change of client.
Degree of power to influence change.
Clients manipulative use of practitioner power.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 57
Key Words and Concepts

Analyzer style - high on effectiveness, low on


morale.
Apathetic mode - follows established routine,
avoids responsibility.
Charismatic mode - relies on leaders to
determine if change desirable.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 58
Cheerleader style - high on morale, low on
effectiveness.
Client sponsor - person or group within
organization that requested practitioners
help.
Client target system - organization needing
help in change.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 59
Closure tendency to fill in missing
information to complete perception.
Consensus mode - decisions made through
sharing viewpoints.
Dilemma interactions - result from questions
from practitioner regarding clients problem
definition and value differences.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 60
External-internal team - change agents from
outside and inside organization.
External practitioner - change agent from
outside organization.
Gamesmanship mode - sees life as if playing
a game and goal is to win.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 61
Internal practitioner - change agent from
within organization.
Interpretation - responses used by
practitioner to explain something in terms
client can understand.
Intervention - entrance into client system and
includes variety of roles and activities.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 62
OD practitioner - change agent or person
helping client to adapt and plan change.
Operating ground rules - can include point of
contact, confidentiality, requirements from
organization, and other items.
Pathfinder style - high on effectiveness, high
on morale.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 63
Perception - process individuals use to give
meaning to environment by interpreting
sensory impressions.
Persuader style - moderate emphasis on
morale and effectiveness.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 64
Selective perception - selectivity of
information that is perceived.
Stabilizer style - low on effectiveness, low on
morale.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


Slide 65
Preparations for Next Chapter

Read Chapter 5.
Prepare for OD Skills Simulation 5.1.
Read and analyze Case: The Old Family
Bank.

An Experiential Approach to Organization Development 7th edition Chapter 4


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