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Usually she is so

honest and truthful.


Today, though, she
spoke with such
mendacity.
What Does This Hand
Gesture Mean?
What Does This Hand
Gesture Mean?
What Does This Hand
Gesture Mean?
Context = Surrounding
Information
Context = Surrounding
Information
Context Clues
Using the context
as a clue
Using the context as a clue:
As a reader we use the context as a clue to
figuring out unknown words.
Context clues are words or phrases built into
the sentence around the difficult word.
Sometimes authors offer very direct clues in
the sentence or surrounding sentences.
If you become more aware of the words
around the difficult words you encounter while
reading, you will save yourself many trips to
the dictionary.
You will be able to make logical guesses about
the meanings of many words.
The clues come in 5 different types

definition/explanation clues
restatement/synonym clues
contrast/antonym clues
gist clues
example clues
Definition/Explanation Clues:
The most direct clues authors provide.
The author actually defines the word for
the reader
generally in the same sentence.

Example:

The soft, bouncy surface cushioned his


landing.
More Examples of Definition Clues:
1. My mother was candid, honestly sharing her
ideas on the subject.

2. We could tell by the rotten smell, that something


putrid was in our garbage can.

3. The class was chattering, talking noisily, during


the lesson on context clues.
Restatement/Synonym Clues:
These clues explain unfamiliar words by restating them
in simpler terms.
These clues explain unfamiliar words by using
synonyms.
These clues are not always located in the same
sentences. You may need to reread the sentence
before or read the sentence after the word to
understand its meaning.

Example:

The man was sent to the penitentiary, or prison, for stealing


cars.
More Synonym Clues:
1. When it was proven the senator had taken a bribe,
he relinquished his position in Congress. He
believed it was best for the country to give up his
job.

2. Mom made a delicious chocolate cake for us. The


combination of dark chocolate and whipped cream
created a scrumptious dessert.

3. It is better to allow someone to make up their own


mind about something, than to feel the need to
coerce, or force, them over to your side
Contrast or Antonym Clues:
Offer an opposite meaning for a word.
These clues often require that you catch and
understand the signal word.
These types of clues may appear in the same
sentence or a subsequent sentence, a
sentence before or after the difficult word.

Example:

The audience appreciated the brevity of the final


speech. Many of the others were quite lengthy.
More Examples of Antonym Clues:
1. The lead dog was so incompetent that he had to
be replaced by one that was more useful to the
pack.

2. I could not recollect where I put my favorite


baseball bat, but then I remembered that I let Dillon
borrow it last weekend.

3. Mary always brought a sense of serenity home with


her because of her calm ways, while Max brought a
sense of chaos with him.
Gist Clues
These clues are the most subtle an author can offer
readers.
With these clues, the meaning of a particular word must
be inferred from the general context.
Sometimes a reader must read an entire passage before
they understand the meaning of the word.

Example:

He looked over his notes again and again-the


first English dictionary, the growth of the
English language, William Shakespeare, words
from French and German, new words, old
words, new inventions, Anglo-Saxon words,
Latin and Greek roots, American English-it all
became a big jumble in his mind.
More Examples of Gist Clues:
1. He stood next to the giant dictionary on its little
table, and Mrs. Granger walked to the back of
the classroom and sat primly on a tall stool
next to the bookcases.

2. He was being treated like like the teachers


pet. And he had the feeling she was doing it
on purpose. His reputation was in great
danger. So he launched another question.
Example Clues:
Using examples or illustrations, an author tries to
show what the word means.
A writer may give just one example or several.
To identify this type of clue you should look for
words or phrases like such as, including, or
consists of.

Example:
In the Fall, bright foliage is a delight to see. Red,
orange, and yellow leaves and vegetation paint the
world for our enjoyment.
More Example Clues:
1. There were many diminutive items in the dollhouse
including tiny chairs, petite beds, and little pictures.

2. Kayla indulges her daughter in many ways-buying her


everything she asks for, taking her everywhere she
wants to go, and letting her do whatever she wants.

3. Projectiles included those items that are shot forward


such as a cannon shell, bullet, or rocket.