Você está na página 1de 33

Air Pollution

ptan 2012
Air Pollution Around the World
5 worst cities in world in terms of air pollution
(Beijing, Mexico City, Shanghai, Tehran &
Calcutta)

Air quality is deteriorating rapidly in developing


countries (developing countries have older cars)

In Shenyang, China, residents see sunlight only


a few weeks each year !

ptan 2012
Case-In-Point Air Pollution in
Beijing and Mexico City

Beijing (left)
Mexico City (above)
ptan 2012
Atmosphere as a Resource

Atmospheric Composition
N2: 78.08%
O2: 20.95%
Ar: 0.93%
CO2: 0.04%
Ecosystem services
Blocks UV radiation
Moderates the climate
Redistributes water in the hydrologic cycle
ptan 2012
Outdoor Air Pollution
Air Pollution
- presence of chemicals in the atmosphere by natural
events or human activities in concentrations high
enough to be harmful

1. Primary Air Pollutant


Harmful substance that is emitted directly into the
atmosphere

2. Secondary Air Pollutant


Harmful substance formed in the atmosphere
when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances
normally found in the atmosphere or with other air
pollutants
ptan 2012
Types of Outdoor Air Pollution

ptan 2012
Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution

Two main sources


1. transportation
2. industry

Intentional forest fires


may be also significant.

ptan 2012
Major Air Pollutants

ptan 2012
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAAQS established for six pollutants:
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrogen Oxides
Particulate Matter
Carbon Monoxide
Ozone
Lead
Experts say two other important pollutants should
be listed:
Volatile Organic Compounds
Carbon Dioxide

ptan 2012
Sources of Primary Air Pollutants

ptan 2012
Primary Air Pollutants
1. Carbon Monoxide
from incomplete combustion of organic materials
single largest source is the automobile
binds to hemoglobin in blood and makes the
hemoglobin less able to carry oxygen
most dangerous in enclosed spaces

ptan 2012
2. Nitrogen oxides

consist of NO and NO2 ( lumped as NOx)

automobile exhaust is primary source.

NOx is a precursor to acid rain and

photochemical smog (both secondary pollutants)

Nitrous oxide N2O is a greenhouse gas, emitted


from animal wastes and burning of fossil fuel

ptan 2012
3. Sulfur dioxide

Burning coal is primary anthropogenic source

Volcanoes and hot springs are natural sources


(Mt St Helens releases 50 to 250 tons/day when active)

SO2 is also a precursor to acid rain (a secondary


pollutant)

ptan 2012
4. Particulate matter

minute pieces of solid materials dispersed into the


atmosphere (<10 microns)

includes dust, soot or ash, asbestos, sulfuric acid


droplets

dangerous since they may contain materials with


toxic/carcinogenic effects

can accumulate in lungs and interfere with the


ability of lungs to exchange gases.

ptan 2012
5. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Hydrocarbons emitted by the leaves of many plants or


those released from landfills, oil and natural gas wells

Examples include isoprene, terpenes, methane and


benzene

Evaporated from automobile fuel or remnants of fuel


incompletely burned

Play an important role in the formation of photochemical


oxidants.

ptan 2012
Secondary Air Pollutants
Ozone (O3) , a component of photochemical smog

PANs (peroxyacetyl nitrate)


1. NO + VOC ----> NO2
Aldehydes
2. NO2 + UV ----> NO + O

3. O + O2 ----> O3

4. NO2 + VOC ----> PAN , etc.


Note : Ozone is a pollutant in the troposphere,
but natural and beneficial in the stratosphere.
ptan 2012
Urban Air Pollution
photochemical smog - formed by chemical reactions
involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons

Manila
Smoke + fog = smog
harbor ptan 2012
Formation of Photochemical Smog

ptan 2012
Smog in Los Angeles 213524

ptan 2012
Ozone Depletion in Stratosphere

Ozone protects earth from UV radiation

ptan 2012
Ozone thinning/hole

First identified in 1985


over Antarctica

Caused by human-
produced halogenated
chemicals especially
CFCs

ptan 2012
Effects of Ozone Depletion

Higher levels of UV-radiation


hitting the earth

Eye cataracts
Skin cancer (right)
Weakened immunity

May disrupt ecosystems

May damage crops and forests

ptan 2012
Recovery of Ozone Layer
Montreal Protocol (1987)
Reduction of CFCs
Started using HCFCs (greenhouse gas)

Phase out of all ozone destroying chemicals is underway


globally

Satellite pictures in 2000 indicated that ozone layer was


recovering

Full recovery will not occur until 2050

ptan 2012
Acid Deposition

ptan 2012
Effects of Acid Deposition
respiratory diseases

decreased visibility

declining aquatic animal


populations

decreased productivity of
fisheries and forests

damage to stone
structures & monuments
ptan 2012
ptan 2012
Controlling Air Pollution
Smokestacks with electrostatic
precipitator (right)

Without Electrostatic With Electrostatic


precipitator precipitator
ptan 2012
Smokestacks with
scrubbers (right)

ptan 2012
The Clean Air Act

ptan 2012
Other Ways to Improve Air Quality

Reduce sulfur content in gasoline from its


current average of 330 ppm to 30 ppm

Require federal emission standards for all


passenger vehicles

Require emission testing for all vehicles

Switch to low-sulfur fuels


ptan 2012
ptan 2012
Reducing Motor Vehicle
Air Pollution

ptan 2012
Reducing Indoor
Air Pollution

ptan 2012