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# NEWTONS SECOND LAW

THE LAW
OF
ACCELERATION
Linear Air Track Experiment
Airholes
a1 F1
m

To
blower

m

## a3= 3a1 F2 = 3F1

m
Observations
The acceleration of the given body is directly
proportional to the applied force. This means that
the ratio of the acceleration is always constant.

F1 F2 F3

a1 = =
a2 a3 = constant
The constant is a measure of how effective is the
given force in producing acceleration. This ratio is the
property of the body called mass.
A force of 1 newton (1N) is that
F resultant force that will give a 1-kg
m=
a mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. The
newton (N) is the SI unit of force.
How is acceleration affected by increasing mass?
a1 F1
m

a2 = a1 F2 = F1
m m

a3 = 1/3a1 F3 = F1
m m m
Newtons 2nd Law of Motion
Applying a constant force of 12 N in
succession to 1-, 2- and 3-kg masses will
produce accelerations of 12 m/s2, 6 m/s2 and
4m/s2, respectively.
F 12N
a = = = 12 m/s2
m1 1kg
F 12N
a = = = 6 m/s 2
m2 2 kg
F 12N
a = = = 4 m/s2
m3 3kg
Newtons Second Law of Motion:
Whenever an unbalanced force acts on
a body, it produces in the direction of the
force an acceleration that is directly
proportional to the force and inversely
proportional to the mass of the body.
Fnet = ma F = + F1 + F2 + F3 +
Force (N) = mass (kg) x acceleration (m/s2)
Force (lb) = mass (slug) x acceleration (ft/s2)
1 lb = 4.448 N 1 slug = 14.59 kg
Illustrative Example 1
A constant force of 20 N acts on a mass of
(a) 2 kg, (b) 4 kg and (c) 6 kg. What are the
resulting accelerations?
F 20N
a = = = 10 m/s2
m1 2kg
F 20N
a = = = 5 m/s 2
m2 4 kg
F 20N
a = = = 3.3 m/s2
m3 6kg
Illustrative Example 2
It is determined that a resultant force of 60
N will give a wagon an acceleration of 10
m/s2. What force is required to give the
wagon an acceleration of 2 m/s2?

F 60N
m = = 2 = 6 kg
a 10m/s
F = ma = (6kg)(2 2
m/s )
F = 12 N
Illustrative Example 3
A 1000kg car moving north at 100 km/h
brakes to a stop in 50 m. What are the
magnitude and direction of the force?
Given: m = 1000kg; vi = 100 km/h = 27.8 m/s;
vf = 0 Find: Fnet = ? Formula: Fnet = ma
vf vi X
a = 50 m
t = =
t v 13.9 m/s
0 27.8 m/s
a= t = 3.6 s
3.6 s

a = 7.72 m/s2
F = ma = (1000kg)(- 7.72 2
m/s )

F = 7720 N, South
Relationship Between Mass and Weight
MASS is a universal constant equal to the ratio of the
bodys weight to the gravitational acceleration due to
gravity.
WEIGHT is the force of gravitational attraction and
varies depending of the acceleration due to gravity.
W
W = mg or m =
g
Therefore,
(1)The mass of we canissummarize
a particle as divided
equal to its weight follows:
by the
acceleration due to gravity.
SI: W(N) = m(kg) x g(9.8m/s2)
(2)Weight has the same units as the unit of force.
English: W(lb) = m(slug) x g(32 ft/s 2)
(3)The acceleration of gravity has the same units as acceleration.
Illustrative Examples
What is the weight of a 4.8-kg mailbox?
What is the mass of a 40-N tank?
What is the mass of a 60-lb child?
What is the weight of a 7-slug man?
W = mg = (4.8kg)(9.8 m/s2)= 47N
m = F/g = (40N)/(9.8 m/s2)= 4.08 kg
m = F/g = (60lb)/(32 ft/s2)= 1.9 slug
W = mg = (7slug)(32 m/s2)= 224 lb
Illustrative Example 2
Find the weight of the body whose weight
on Earth is 100 N. If this mass were
taken to a distant planet where g = 2.0
m/s2, what would be its weight on that
planet?
Given: WE = 100N; gE = 9.80 m/s2
gP = 2.0 m/s2
Find: WP = ?
Solution
Mass on Earth:
WE 100 N
m=
gE
=
9.80 m/s2
= 10.2 kg
Weight on the planet:

## WP = mgP = (10.2 kg)(2 m/s2)

WP = 20.4 N
Try this!
A woman weighs 800 N on
When she 2
Ans.: a = 1.63 m/s ; on the
Earth. walks
moon,mshe weighs
= 81.6 only
kg on 133 N.
both
What is the acceleration
places due
to gravity on the Moon, and
what is her mass on the
Moon? On the Earth?
Practice Exercise (p.61-62)
1. A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of
1.20 m/s2 after a force of 20.0 n is applied.
What is the mass of the ball? Solution
2. A 15.0-kg box is pushed by two boys with
forces of 15.0 N and 18.0 toward the right.
What is the magnitude and direction of the
acceleration of the box? Solution
3. If the forces in number 2 are applied
opposite each other, what is the magnitude
and direction of the acceleration? Solution
The Atwood Machine

T T

a M T T m a

M m mg
Mg
The Atwood Machine
T T
For mass M:
T Mg = - Ma
a M Mg - T = -Ma Eq. 1 m a
For mass m:
Mg mg
T mg = ma Eq. 2
Example
Conbining eq.1 & eq. 2:
Mg - T = Ma Mm
+
T mg = ma a = g
M+m
Mg - mg = (M + m)a
Vertical and horizontal problems
m1

## A 2.00-kg hanging block pulls a

3.00-kg block along a
frictionless table. Calculate for m2
the acceleration of the system
and the tension on the cord.
Vertical and horizontal problems
T T
m1
T m2 a
m1 T
a
m2
Fnet = T = m1a - eq.1 w2
Fnet = T- w2 = -m2a
or w2 T = m2a - eq.2
Since the blocks are connected by a single cord, the
tension T of the cord for both blocks is the same,
thus similar rate of motion for both.

## T = m1a ---- Eq. 1

w2 T = m2a ---- Eq. 2

## Combining the 2 equations gives:

w2 = m1a + m2a
w2 = (m1 + m2)a
w2
a = Working equation
(m1 + m2)
For acceleration:
w2
a =
(m1 + m2)
(2.00kg)(9.80 m/s2)
a =
(3.0 kg + 2.0 kg)

a = 3.92 m/s2
For the tension: from eq.1

## T = m1a = (3.0 kg)(3.92m/s2)= 11.8 N

Another Example
Vertical and horizontal problems
T2 T1
m1

T2 T1
m2 m3

## If a 100-g counter weight is attached on the

left side of m1 which is 300 g, and a 200-g
mass on the right, what would be the
acceleration of the system and the tensions
on the left and right cords?
Free-body Diagrams m1 = 300 g
m2 = 100g
T2 m1 T1 m3 = 200 g

Fnet = T1 T2 = m1a
T2 T1

m2 a a m3

w3 w3
Fnet = T2 W2 = m2a Fnet = T1 W3 = -m3a
Combining the 3 equations yields:
T1 T2 = m1a Fnet1 = T1 T2 = m1a
+
T2 W2 = m2a Fnet2 = T2 W2 = m2a
+
W3 T1 = m3a Fnet3 = T1 W3 = -m3a

W3 W2 = (m1 + m2 + m3)a

W3 W2
a = Working equation
m1 + m2 + m3
W3 W2 m1 = 300 g
a =
m1 + m2 + m3 m2 = 100g
m3 = 200 g

(0.2kg)(9.8m/s2) (0.1kg)(9.8m/s2)
=
0.3 kg + 0.2 kg + 0.1 kg

a = 1.63 m/s 2
T1 T2 = m1a Eq.1 m1 = 300 g
T2 W2 = m2a Eq.2 m2 = 100g
m3 = 200 g
W3 T1 = m3a Eq.3
For Tensions, T1 and T2 Using Equation 3
W3 T1 = m3a
m3g T1 = m3a
T1 = m3g m3a
T1 = m3(g a)
T1 = 0.2kg(9.8m/s2 1.63m/s2)
T1 = 1.63 N
Using Equation 2
T2 W2 = m2a
T2 m2g = m2a
T2 = m2a + m2g
T2 = m2(g a)
T2 = 0.1kg(9.8m/s2 + 1.63m/s2)
T2 = 1.14 N
Using Equation 1
T1 = 1.63 N
T1 T2 = m1a
1.63N T2 = 0.3kg(1.63m/s2)
1.63N T2 = 0.489 N
T2 = 1.63N 0.489 N
T2 = 1.14 N
Solution:
1. A ball is accelerated from rest at a rate of 1.20 m/s2 after a
force of 20.0 n is applied. What is the mass of the ball?

## Given: Fnet = 20.0 N; Find: m = ?

a = 1.20m/s2

F = ma

F 20.0 N
m = = 2 = 16.7 kg
a 1.20 m/s
Solution:
2. A 15.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.0 N
and 18.0 toward the right. What is the magnitude and
direction of the acceleration of the box?
Given: m = 15.0 kg; F1 = +15.0 N; F2 = +18.0 N
Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma
Fnet 15.0 N + 18.0 N
a = =
m 15.0 kg

a = 2.20 m/s2
Solution:
2. A 15.0kg box is pushed by two boys with forces of 15.0 N
and 18.0 toward the right. What is the magnitude and
direction of the acceleration of the box?
Given: m = 15.0 kg; F1 = +15.0 N; F2 = +18.0 N
Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma
Fnet 15.0 N + 18.0 N
a = =
m 15.0 kg

## a = 1.53 m/s2 to the right

Solution:
3. If the forces in number 2 are applied opposite each other,
what is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration?

## Given: m = 15.0 kg; F1 = +15.0 N; F2 = -18.0 N

Find: a = ?

Fnet = F1 + F2 = ma
Fnet 15.0 N - 18.0 N
a = =
m 15.0 kg

## a = 0.2 m/s2 to the left

Example: Atwood Machine

## A 2.0-kg body and a

5.0-kg body are each
suspended at the end
of a cord that passes
over a frictionless T T
pulley. (a) What is the
acceleration of the
system? (b) What is a 2.0 kg 5.0 kg a
the tension on the
cord?
Solution
Mm
a = g
M+m

5kg 2kg
a = (9.8m/s2)
5kg + 2kg

a = 4.2 m/s2
Another Solution
F = ma
Unbalanced force F:
F = W2 + W1 = 5kg(9.8m/s2) 2kg(9.8m/s2)

T = 49 N 19.6 N = 29.4N
T
The moving masses:
m = 2kg + 5kg = 7kg
a 2.0 kg 5.0 kg a The acceleration:
F = ma
w1 29.4N = 7kg (a)
w2 a = 29.4 N / 7kg = 4.2 m/s2
Solution: The tension on the cord
Consider the 2.0-kg body as the T
moving part of the system. We can a
isolate it as shown in the free-body
diagram on the right. Let T be the 2.0 kg
tension on the cord. The unbalanced
force is T W1. The acceleration is 4.2
m/s2.

F = ma
T 19.6N = (2.0kg)(4.2m/s2)
T = 8.4 N + 19.6 N = 28.0 N
Example: Horizontal and Vertical motion
A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table
and a cord is attached to it. The cord
passes over a pulley at the edge of the
table and at the free end, a 10-g mass is
hung. Find the acceleration of the system
and the tension on the cord.
100 g

10 g
A 100-g mass lies on a frictionless table and a cord is attached to it.
Solution
The cord passes over a pulley at the edge of the table and at the
free end, a 10-g mass is hung. Find the acceleration of the system
and the tension on the cord.

## The acceleration: The tension:

w2 Isolating the 10-g mass, the tension T
a = acts upward and the acceleration
(m1 + m2) downward. The unbalanced force F =
(9800 T)dynes. Applying the second
law:
10g (980cm/s2)
a = F = ma
(100g + 10g) 9800-T = 10g(89.1cm/s2)
T = 9800dy 891dy
a = 89.1 cm/s2
T = 8910 dynes
Solve the following:
1. Assume that the masses m1 = 2kg and m2 = 8kg
are connected by a cord that passes a light
frictionless pulley. What are the acceleration of
the system and the tension in the cord?
2. What are the acceleration and the tension in the
cord given the arrangement in the figure below?

4 kg

6 kg
3. Three masses m1=10kg, m2=8kg and
m3=6kg, are connected as shown below.
Neglecting friction, what is the acceleration
of the system? What are the tensions in
the cord on the left and in the right?

m2

m1 m3
Assignment
Answer and numbers 14
and 15 letter a and c on
page 74.
1. Assume that the masses m1 = 2kg and
m2 = 8kg are connected by a cord that
passes a light frictionless pulley. What
are the acceleration of the system and
the tension in the cord?

Mm
a = g T T
M+m a a
8kg 2kg 2.0 kg 8.0 kg
a = (9.8m/s2)
8kg + 2kg
F = T m1g = m1a
a = 5.9 m/s2 T 19.6N = (2.0kg)(5.9m/s2)
T = 11.8 N + 19.6 N
T = 31.4 N
2. What are the acceleration and the tension in the
cord got the arrangement in the figure below?
m1 4 kg

The acceleration:
6 kg
w2 The tension: m 2
a =
(m1 + m2) F = T m2g = ma
6kg (9.8m/s2) T = m2a + m2g
a =
(4kg + 6kg) T = 6kg(5.9 m/s2 + 9.8m/s2)

## a = 5.9 m/s2 T = 346.9 N

3. Three masses m1=10kg, m2=8kg and m3=6kg, are connected as shown below.
Neglecting friction, what is the acceleration of the system? What are the tensions
in the cord on the left and in the right?

T1 m2 T2

a T1 T2
T1- W1 = -m1a
T1 - 98N = -10kg(1.63m/sa2)
m1 T1 = 98N -16.3Nm3 W3
W1
T1 = 82N
W1 W 3 W3 = +m
T2 10kg(9.8 m/s32a) 6kg(9.8m/s2)
a= =T = m g + m a = m (a + g)
m1 + m2 + m3 2 3 10kg +
3 8kg + 36kg
T2 = 6kg(1.63m/s2+9.8m/s2)
a = 1.63 m/s2 T2 = 69 N
T1 m2 T2

a T1 T2

m3 a
W1 m1 W3

T1 T2 = m2a
81.7N T2 = 8kg(1.63m/s2)
T2 = 82N 8kg(1.63m/s2)
= 82N 13N
T2 = 69 N
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