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Music of Ancient Civilization

Ancient Bone Flutes

(18,000 B.C.) discovered in
Divje Babe flute found in the Slovenian cave in1995; a
bone fragment of the femur of a young cave bear, and
has been dated to about 43,000 years ago.
The conch: a sea-shell with a cut
opening serving as a mouthpiece
Polyhedra by Da Vinci

A painting on an Ancient
Greek vase shows a
music lesson (about 510 BC) Dancer with krotala (crotala), flute case,
and walking stick, Attic red figure kylix, ca. 480 B.C
According to Greek mythology, Apollo invented the 7 string-lyre
while Athena invented the aulos

Greek Aulos used by the Spartans as

a military music instrument

Kyrie eleison

Greek painting of a boy playing Aulos,

2800 B.C.
Apollo & a lyre with 7 strings
Coin with seven strings, Chelys Lyra
from Greek mythology: playing music
David soothes Saul
1 Samuel 16:23
Homer (@ 8th-9th cent. B.C.)
Ancient Greek Epic Poet of the Odyssey and Iliad
Pythagoras is the Father of Music Theory. He discovered the mathematical rationale
of musical consonance from the weights of hammers to lengths of a string on an
instrument called a canon, or monochord. Thereby, he was able to determine
mathematically the intonation of an entire musical system.

A medieval wood sculpture of Contest of Apollo and Marsyas

Pythagoras, as a musician (350-320 BC); Marsyas took the
flute thrown away by Athena
(National Museum in Athens, Greece)
Genre: masses, motets
Texture: polyphony
Notation: mensural

Apollo with the tortoise-shell lyre, on a Hydraulis & the curved trumpet,
5th-century BC drinking cup called the bukan by the Greeks
and, later, cornu by the Romans
Hieroglyphic and Demotic Script on Rosetta Stone
from Egypt, Ptolemaic Period, 196 BC
(British Museum, London)
Hercules (100-200 B.C.)Hatra Iraq Parthian period
Hercules going to music lesson with his nanny
Ancient Greek Music
Music was an important part of the education of
every Greek citizen (Plato, Pythagoras)
The Greek word mousike refers to music with
accompanying dance and text
Professional musicians were publicly recognized for
their talent and expressive capabilities
Kithara (lyre) was the primary instrument of classical
drama & official cults
Music was used for military exploits
Music contests/competitions were common/popular
Ancient Roman Music
Most music & culture were taken from Greek
Music was central to Roman religious ceremony, civic
activity, entertainment, the military, and daily work
Emphasized military music than the Greeks
Music was an important part of theater
Roman music was often associated with Roman
politics, and the function of entertainment for the
Roman elite
They relied a great deal on oral transmission of ideas,
myths, news, and history through music and the
human voice
Parallelism between Greek & Roman
Music: Its Role & Functions
Greeks Romans
The word MUSIC had a much wider The music of ancient Rome was tied to
meaning to the Greeks than it has to us: three main purposes: power,
a) Pythagoras, in his teachings said that entertainment & propaganda. The
music was inseparable from numbers. "power" of Rome (as "conqueror"), and
The key corresponds to the whole its relationship to its vast "conquered"
spiritual & physical universe. territories is very important to
b) Plato in his Republic also considered understanding the culture of ancient
music an important part of a citizens Rome.
education: Music in ancient Rome was primarily
1) He formulated the Greek Doctrine of associated with: 1) the military and
Ethos which ascribed ethical values to military ceremonies, 2) the Roman
their music. He therefore believed that Theater, 3) Roman religious practices,
music influenced a persons moral and 4) the ritual use of music at almost
character. all public/civic occasions.
2) Though his use of music included
rhythmic activities & poetry. He believed
of the close union of poetry & music.
Mesopotamia: Role and Functions
of Music
Singing had religious and ceremonial
Antiphonal singing was part of
Sumerian religious practice;
Lyre, harp and reed pipe played as an
Ancient Egypt: Role & Functions of Music
In about 1550 BC, music was mainly performed by women: 1st
musicians in the temple were wives & daughters of the priests
Chanting, jingling and dancing are accompanied by temple
Harp, pandora and divergent pipes were used to praise the
Eventually, the empire broadened & female slaves from
captured nations served as musicians. They attended music
academies to learn to sing and play instruments.
Music was important in both secular and religious life;
Antiphonal singing was practiced.
Musicians played in homes, feast, processions and funeral
Ancient Israel: Role & Functions of Music
Music had a place in every activity/event:
Ancient Hebrews firmly root music origins in the Sacred
Scriptures (Torah scrolls) where Jubal (father) holds the lyre &
pipe (Gen. 4:17-21)
Cantillation of Scripture;
Pipes, lyres & the double-headed drums were known to have
been played in Biblical Israel;
Trumpets represented the power of God.
Later, the establishment of a trained & official body of
musicians to lead worship in the temple, became more formal
& ritualized.
By 200 B.C., the temple had an established choir of men/boys
accompanied by lyres, pipes & cymbals. Antiphonal singing
was adopted for singing of the Psalms
Medieval Period (450-1450)
Historical & Cultural Events:
(476) Roman empire collapsed from the invasion of the
Barbarian tribes of Northern Europe
(1054) The East-West Schism w/c divided the church into
Western Catholicism & Eastern Orthodox
(590-604) Reign of Pope Gregory I
(1095) The 1st Crusade
1163) Beginning of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
(1215) Declaration of Magna Carta
(1315-1317) The Great Famine in Northern Europe
(1337-1453) Hundred Years War between England & France
Historical Events:

(1347-1350) Black Death

(1378-1417) The Great Schism; there
were 3 contestants for the Papacy in the
Western Catholic Church
(1431) Trial & execution of Joan of Arc
Sacred Plainsong Secular Monophony
were determined by the poetic text reveals patterns
Latin text; of verse/refrain or repeated
monophonic melody; melodic phrases;
sacred text; has restricted often used a wider range of
range, seldom extending notes than plainsong;
beyond an octave; irregular regular phrases;
phrases; used the vernacular, in w/c
rhythm was determined by there are more accents, &
the rhythmic flow of the its rhythm is most often
prose; no metric patterns metric.


Sacred Plainsong Secular Monophony
had quite a texture with
Monophonic, austere line
the use of instruments for
created by mystic simplicity;
doubling/embellishing or
was always vocal used of drone/ostinato
combined w/ a more
definite rhythmic patterns,
& vernacular texts. it
expressed a range of human
feeling & emotions.
vocal but often
accompanied by
ussion) esp. when used as
dance music
no systematic harmonic practice though in
both sacred plainsong & secular monophony,
notes were doubled or embellished by
instruments; drone bass & ostinato figures
were used;
9th cent._ORGANUM: Parallel Organum
: Free Organum
: Mellismatic Organum
Medieval Composers
Leonin (1135-1201) & Perotin (1160-1205)
= French composers who worked as Choir masters in Notre
Dame Cathedral;
= known for their work, The Great Book of Organum;
Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) French
= known for his Treatise: Ars Nova (The New Art) which used
mensural notation & binary rhythm
Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) French poet, statesman &
an educated priest
=wrote Messe de Notre Dame, the earliest known polyphonic
setting of the Catholic Mass
Medieval Composers

Francesco Landini (1325-1397) blind Italian organist

& flutist; known for his Landini cadence 7-6-1
*John Dunstable (1390-1453) English composer,
mathematician & astrologer; known for his
declamatory motets;
*Gilles Binchois (1400-1460) Belgian organist; known
for his chansons, & polyphonic setting of Te Deum;
*Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474) Belgian/French
composer of Masses & chanson;
* from Burgandian school
from the Italian word- barocco, meaning
bizarre & flamboyant

to describe the highly decorated style of the

17th and 18th century religious and public
buildings in Italy, Germany and Austria

also applied to music of the 17th and early

18th century as ornamented & with energy or
in motion
Historical and Cultural Events
Thirty Years War (1618-1648) - Catholics and
Protestants in Roman Empire
Reign of Louis XIV (1645-1715) France
Scientific Advancements by Newton, Galilei
Characteristics of
Fondness for the Large & Grandiose
& Art
Individualism on Details
Lights' importance to the overall image
Dome designed by Michaelangelo
Importance of CONTRAST

St. Peters Basilica, Rome

Baroque Art

La Pieta by Michaelangelo
Baroque Art

Berninis David
Menshikov Tower in Moscow
Ludwigsburg Palace near Stuttgart :
Germany's largest Baroque Palace
Melk, Abbey in Austria
Science and Philosophy/Literature
Issac Newton - Three Laws of Physics

Galileo Galilei - Father of Modern Science and

Great Astronomer

Rene Descartes - Insists on freedom of Gods act

of creation and, the father of modern-day
Baroque Music (1600-1750)
Texture: contrapuntal
Notation: major & minor scales
Genre: harpsichord & organ works,
concerto grosso for small orchestra,
chorale, cantata

Example: JS Bachs Organ Fugue in G minor

JS Bachs autographed organ tablature

Of Baroque Music
Continuity of rhythm conveys a unity of mood
Rhythmic patterns are repeated throughout
The beat is emphasized

Continuously expands & unfolds
Creates an impression of dynamic expansion because of
unbroken flow of rapid notes

Stays constant for a stretch of time
Terraced dynamics sudden shift or alternation between
loud and soft
Organ and harpsichord are suitable keyboard instruments
for constant dynamics
Predominantly polyphonic: 2 or more melodic lines
compete for the listeners attention

Basso Continuo
An accompaniment that gave new emphasis to
chords through the bass part

Words and Music

Word Painting-composers used music to depict the
meaning of specific words
Composers emphasized words by writing many rapid
notes for a single syllable of text
The Baroque
The orchestra evolved into a performing group
based on instruments of the violin family

The orchestra was small, consisting of ten to

thirty or forty players
Concerto Grosso
Tutti vs Concertino- present a contrast of texture
& a contrast between loud & soft

Use of wood wind, brass, and percussion

instruments was variable.
Vocal Forms
Vocal Forms
Opera a dramatic music for Oratorio
vocal soloists & chorus sung to -a large-scale work for vocal
orchestral accompaniment soloists, chorus & orchestra;
Set with costumes, acting, usually set to a narrative text
props & staging - Dramatic music during Lent
- created by Camerata in Italy w/o lavish sets, costumes or
- modeled on the music of choreography
ancient Greek tragedy - Text in Latin/Italian usually
from a story in the Old
- Performed in an oratory, a
prayer hall for preaching,
prayer and devotional singing
Word Painting from Handels
oratorio Messiah

Johann Sebastian Bach

Specialized Genres: Sacred music

for the German Protestant Liturgy,
especially cantatas, instrumental
and keyboard music

Major Works: Brandenburg Concerti

(1721); 4 orchestral suites; 7
harpsichord concerti; 3 violin
concerti; Goldberg Variations(1722)
George Frideric

Specialized Genres:
Italianate operas, English

Major works: Water Music

(1717); Acis and Galatea
(1718); Messiah (1742)
Antonio Lucio
Specialized Genres: Instrumental
music, especially violin concerti

Major Works: Over 400 concerti

published in sets, including Lestro
armonico (1711); Il cimento dell
armonia e dell inventione (1725-12
concerti of which the first four are Le
Quattro stagioni)
Johann Pachelbel
Nuremberg, Germany

Specialized Genres: Organ


Major Works: Canon and

Gigue in D major; six suites
for two violins; organ chorales
In his time, he was much
admired for his contribution to
German protestant church
music, particularly for the
Claudio Monteverdi

Specialist genres: opera,

madrigals, and motets

Major works: nine books

of madrigals
Claudio Mouteverdi
Arcangelo Corelli
Classical Music (1750-1820)
Genre: sonata,
symphony, concerto,
chamber music = trio,
quartet, etc
Texture: homophonic

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Example: Mozart Symphony no. 40 in G minor
First Movement: first theme of the exposition part

Foremost Composers of the Classical Period:

Franz Joseph Haydn

Ludwig Van Beethoven
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Romantic Music (1820-1900)
Genre: piano
works, opera, art
ballet music

nationalism in
music &

Tschaikovsky Example: Waltz of the Flowers

from the ballet Nutcracker Suite
Major Romantic composers

Chopin Schumann Liszt

Schubert Puccini
Popular Music: 1900 to present
Rock & Roll
Rhythm & Blues
Heavy Metal
Hip Hop
Alternative Jazzing Orchestra, 1921
Electronic, etc
Jazz example Gentle Waltz by Evans
African American roots
Uses blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms,
syncopation & swing note-rhythm

Thelonious Monk, 1967

"A Whole New World
Grammy Award for Song of the Year (1992)

Elements of Music:

Genre: ballad
Melody: horizontal organization
(major & minor scales)
Rhythmic organization:
quarter notes, dotted notes,
Meter & Beat

Formal organization:
phrases & musical period
song form (binary or two part
song form)

Harmony: vertical organization

chord progressions
key center I - IV - V (C-F-G) Chord
Pattern on the Keyboard
Functions of Music &Values Education

Resesarch Question #2:

Describe two positive & two negative influence
of music today among young people including ourselves?

* Morality of Music

* Psychology of Music
Studies on the Influence of Music

Violent Music Lyrics Increase Music in Human & Social

Aggression Development

Music & Brain Studies

Rock music & subcultures (fashion,
lifestyle, attitudes)
Music in Medicine

Music & social movements Effects of Classical Music on

Concentration - Mozart Effect
Effects of Rap, Hip Hop & Heavy
Metal Music Effects of Classical Music on Babies

Music in Peace Education

Influence of Music Videos
Music in Sacred Liturgy

Stylistic development of music & representative genre

Music compositional elements for critical analysis
Functions & influence of music
Overview (Music History, Music Sciences, Musicology,
Music Technology, Applied Music, Music Appreciation)


Kamien, R. (2011). Music an appreciation. (7th ed.). NY: McGraw-Hill.

Educational Insights

Research Question #3:

Describe some of the educational insights you
gained from this Media Literacy Education
in Music seminar-workshop?

Ut in omnibus glorificetur Deus

That in all things God may be glorified