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IGCSE CHEMISTRY

SECTION 5 LESSON 4
Content

The iGCSE
Section 1 Principles of Chemistry
Chemistry
course Section 2 Chemistry of the Elements

Section 3 Organic Chemistry

Section 4 Physical Chemistry

Section 5 Chemistry in Society


Content

Section 5
a) Extraction and uses of
metals
Chemistry b) Crude oil
in industry c) Synthetic polymers
d) The industrial manufacture
of chemicals
d) The industrial manufacture of chemicals

Lesson 4 5.22 understand that nitrogen from air, and hydrogen from natural gas or the
cracking of hydrocarbons, are used in the manufacture of ammonia
5.23 describe the manufacture of ammonia by the Haber process, including the
essential conditions:
d) The industrial i a temperature of about 450C
ii a pressure of about 200 atmospheres
manufacture iii an iron catalyst
of chemicals 5.24 understand how the cooling of the reaction mixture liquefies the ammonia
produced and allows the unused hydrogen and nitrogen to be recirculated
5.25 describe the use of ammonia in the manufacture of nitric acid and fertilisers
5.26 recall the raw materials used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid
5.27 describe the manufacture of sulphuric acid by the contact process, including
the essential conditions:
i a temperature of about 450C
ii a pressure of about 2 atmospheres
iii a vanadium(V) oxide catalyst
5.28 describe the use of sulphuric acid in the manufacture of detergents, fertilisers
and paints
5.29 describe the manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine by the electrolysis
of concentrated sodium chloride solution (brine) in a diaphragm cell
5.30 write ionic half-equations for the reactions at the electrodes in the diaphragm
cell
5.31 describe important uses of sodium hydroxide, including the manufacture of
bleach, paper and soap; and of chlorine, including sterilising water supplies and in
the manufacture of bleach and hydrochloric acid.
1. The Haber
Process
- Ammonia, NH3

The Industrial
Manufacture of
Chemicals

2. The Contact 3. Sodium


Process hydroxide and
Sulphuric acid Chlorine
#1 The Haber Process
#1 The Haber Process

Whats
this all
about?
#1 The Haber Process

Plants need nutrients in order to survive. To improve crop yields,


farmers spread fertilisers on their fields. These fertilisers
contain minerals essential for healthy plant growth.
#1 The Haber Process

During World War I, blockades of Germany by the Allies meant


that the German farmers could not get any access to natural
fertilisers from South America. In order to prevent mass
starvation, German chemists developed a process for making
ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen.
#1 The Haber Process
Fritz Haber developed the first
practical process to convert
atmospheric nitrogen into
ammonia. From ammonia
fertilisers could be made.
Fertiliser generated from
ammonia produced by the Haber
process is estimated to be
responsible for sustaining one-
third of the Earths population.
#1 The Haber Process

The nitrogen-rich
fertiliser ammonium
nitrate is used regularly
by farmers, and spread
in huge quantities on
crops around the world.
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

The Haber Process produces ammonia


which is needed for making fertilisers.
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

The Haber Process produces ammonia


which is needed for making fertilisers.

Nitrogen is obtained easily from the


air which is 78% nitrogen.
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

The Haber Process produces ammonia


which is needed for making fertilisers.

Nitrogen is obtained easily from the


air which is 78% nitrogen.

Hydrogen is obtained from water


(steam) and natural gas (methane, CH4)
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

The Haber Process produces ammonia


which is needed for making fertilisers.

Nitrogen is obtained easily from the


air which is 78% nitrogen.

Hydrogen is obtained from water


(steam) and natural gas (methane, CH4)

The Haber Process is a reversible


reaction.
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)


nitrogen hydrogen ammonia

Reversible reaction
#1 The Haber Process
The
Basics!

Industrial Conditions:

PRESSURE: 200 atmospheres

TEMPERATURE: 450oC

CARALYST: Iron
#1 The Haber Process
Reaction vessel

Trays of iron
catalyst

450oC and
200 atm

Condenser
#1 The Haber Process
H2 and N2
mixed in 3:1
Reaction vessel
ratio

Trays of iron 1. The hydrogen and nitrogen


catalyst are mixed together in a 3:1 ratio

450oC and
200 atm

Condenser
#1 The Haber Process
H2 and N2
mixed in 3:1
Reaction vessel
ratio

Trays of iron 1. The hydrogen and nitrogen


catalyst are mixed together in a 3:1 ratio

450oC and
200 atm

Condenser
#1 The Haber Process
H2 and N2
mixed in 3:1
Reaction vessel
ratio

Trays of iron 1. The hydrogen and nitrogen


catalyst are mixed together in a 3:1 ratio

450oC and 2. Because the reaction is


200 atm reversible, not all of the N2 and
H2 will convert to ammonia.

3. The NH3 is formed as a gas


but as it cools in the condenser it
Condenser
liquefies and is removed.

Liquid ammonia
#1 The Haber Process
H2 and N2
mixed in 3:1
Reaction vessel
ratio

Trays of iron 1. The hydrogen and nitrogen


catalyst are mixed together in a 3:1 ratio

450oC and 2. Because the reaction is


200 atm reversible, not all of the N2 and
H2 will convert to ammonia.
Unused N2
and H2 are
recycled 3. The NH3 is formed as a gas
but as it cools in the condenser it
Condenser
liquefies and is removed.

4. The N2 and H2 which didnt


react are recycled in the system
Liquid ammonia
Two important
reactions
involving ammonia
Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

#1 Making Nitric Acid


Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

A two stage reaction:


a) Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen
over a hot platinum catalyst

4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)


Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

A two stage reaction:


a) Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen
over a hot platinum catalyst

4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)

A very exothermic reaction,


the nitrogen monoxide must
be cooled before the next
stage.
Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

A two stage reaction:


a) Ammonia gas reacts with oxygen over a hot
platinum catalyst

4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) 4NO(g) + 6H2O(g)


b) The nitrogen monoxide reacts with water and
oxygen:

6NO(g) + 3O2(g) + 2H2O(g) 4HNO3(g) + 2NO(g)


Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

A two stage reaction:


The
a) Ammonia gas reacts with nitricover
oxygen acid a hot
platinum catalyst produced can then be
used to make
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g) ammonium
4NO(g) + nitrate
6H2O(g)
fertiliser
b) The nitrogen monoxide reacts with water and
oxygen:

6NO(g) + 3O2(g) + 2H2O(g) 4HNO3(g) + 2NO(g)


Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

#2 Making Ammonium
Nitrate fertiliser
Two important
reactions
involving ammonia

This is a simple neutralisation reaction


between and acid and an alkali to
produce a neutral salt.

NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq)

Ammonium nitrate is a particularly good


fertiliser because it has nitrogen from
two sources ammonia and nitric acid.
1. The Haber
Process
- Ammonia, NH3

The Industrial
Manufacture of
Chemicals

2. The Contact 3. Sodium


Process hydroxide and
Sulphuric acid Chlorine
describe the manufacture
of sulphuric acid by the
contact process, including
the essential conditions
The Contact Process
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4
The Contact Process
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

Raw materials: sulphur,


oxygen, water
The Contact Process
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4

Raw materials: sulphur,


oxygen, water

Conditions:
Catalyst (vanadium oxide)
Pressure of 2 atmospheres
Temperature of about 450oC
The Contact Process
Three stage process.
The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)

Sulphur is burnt in
air (or sulphur ore
may be used)
The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


2. Preparation of sulphur oxide

2SO(s) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)


The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


2. Preparation of sulphur oxide

2SO (s) + O2(g)


Sulphur 2SO 3(g)is
Reaction
dioxide
mayandbe air exothermic
pass over may be
reversible
used)
vanadium oxide used)so
reaction,
catalyst at excess air and
SO2 ensure good
450oC yield of SO3
The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


2. Preparation of sulphur oxide

2SO(s) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

3. Preparation of sulphuric acid

SO3(s) + H2O (l) H2SO4(l)


The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


2. Preparation of sulphur oxide

2SO
2 stages: (a) +
sulphur (s)
the O
oxide is 2(g) 2SO
(b) The oleum is
3(g)
then diluted to
dissolved in conc give conc sulphuric
3. Preparation of sulphuric acid
sulphuric acid to
produce oleum
acid which is 98%
acid and 2% water

SO3(s) + H2O (l) H2SO4(l)


The Contact Process
Three stage process.
1. Preparation of sulphur dioxide

S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g)


2. Preparation of sulphur oxide

2SO
2 stages: (a) +
sulphur (s)
the O
oxide is 2(g) 2SO
(b) The oleum is
3(g)
then diluted to
Sulphurdissolved
oxidein(SO conc 3) cannot be added to water
give conc sulphuric
directly since the
acidreaction is violent and dangerous
3. Preparation
sulphuric
produce oleum of sulphuric
to
acid
acid and
acid which
2% water
is 98%

SO3(s) + H2O (l) H2SO4(l)


Uses of sulphuric acid
Fertilizers

Synthetic
Paints
fibres

Car
Drugs H2SO4 batteries

Dyes Plastics

Detergents
1. The Haber
Process
- Ammonia, NH3

The Industrial
Manufacture of
Chemicals

2. The Contact 3. Sodium


Process hydroxide and
Sulphuric acid Chlorine
describe the manufacture of
sodium hydroxide and chlorine
by the electrolysis of
concentrated sodium chloride
solution (brine) in a diaphragm
cell
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Sodium hydroxide, chlorine and


hydrogen are all produced by the
electrolysis of brine (salt
sodium chloride dissolved in
water)
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen
are all produced by
the electrolysis of
brine (salt sodium
chloride dissolved in
water)

Titanium Steel
anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

Titanium Steel
anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl-

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl-

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl-

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl-

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl- H+

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ -

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl- H+

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2 2H+ + 2e- H2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ - Hydrogen gas

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)
Cl- H+

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine) 2Cl- - 2e- Cl2 2H+ + 2e- H2
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ - Hydrogen gas

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ - Hydrogen gas

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
Na+ + OH- NaOH
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the
cathode side. anode cathode
diaphragm
Manufacture of sodium hydroxide and chlorine

Chlorine gas
+ - Hydrogen gas

Sodium hydroxide,
chlorine and hydrogen Concentrated
are all produced by sodium
the electrolysis of chloride
NaCl Na+ Cl- H2O H+ OH-
brine (salt sodium solution
chloride dissolved in
water)
(brine)

The diaphragm ensures that the


products (hydrogen and chlorine)
Na+ + OH- NaOH
are kept separate explosive!!
The higher level of solution in the
left hand cell ensures that the flow
Titanium Steel
is always from the anode side to the Sodium
cathode side. anode cathode
hydroxide
diaphragm
solution
Uses of sodium hydroxide
Manufacture
of bleach
Sterilising
water
supplies

Manufacture
of bleach
Manufacture
of chlorine NaOH Manufacture
of paper

Manufacture
of
hydrochloric
acid Manufacture
of soap
1. The Haber
Process
- Ammonia, NH3

The Industrial
Manufacture of
Chemicals

2. The Contact 3. Sodium


Process hydroxide and
Sulphuric acid Chlorine
End of Section 5 Lesson 4

In this lesson we have covered:

The industrial manufacture of

(1) Ammonia (the Haber Process)

(2) Sulphuric Acid (the Contact Process)

(3) Sodium hydroxide and Chlorine