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SEKOLAH TINGGI TEKNOLOGI NASIONAL (STTNAS) YOGYAKARTA.

MINE GEOTECHNICAL

INTRODUCTION

September 2013

SUPANDI, ST, MT
supandisttnas@gmail.com
GEOTEKNIK TAMBANG

Jurusan : Teknik Pertambangan Strata 1.


Kode : AS7446P
Mata Kuliah : Geoteknik Tambang
SKS : 2 SKS
Semester : VII
Waktu Perkuliahan : 2 x 50 menit
Dosen Pengampu : Supandi ST. MT
Sistem Perkuliahan :
Penilaian : a. Tugas & Quiz 20%
b. Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS) 30%
c. Ujian akhir semester (UAS) 50%
Range Nilai : 0-20,9 = E ; 21-44 = D ; 45-60.9 = C ;
61 80 = B ; 81 100 = A
Contact Person : supandisttnas@gmail.com
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Sep-13
Textbook
1. John Read and Peter Stacey, 2009, Guidelines fr Open
Pit Slope Design, CRC Press.
2. William A Hustrulid, Michael K.McCarter and Dirk J.A Van
Zyl, 2000, Slope Stability in Surface Mining, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
3. Ducan C Wyllie & Christopher W Mah, 2007-4th Edition,
Rock Slope Engineering, Spon Press.
4. Charles A Kliche, 1999, Rock Slope Stability, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
5. E. Hoek & J.W Bray, 1994, Rock Slope Engineering,
Institute of Mining and Metalurgy.
6. Roy E. Hunt, 2007, Geotechnical Investigation
Methods, CRC Press.
7. Roy E Hunt, 2007, Geologic Hazards, CRC Press.
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Textbook
1. John Read and Peter Stacey, 2009, Guidelines fr Open
Pit Slope Design, CRC Press.
2. William A Hustrulid, Michael K.McCarter and Dirk J.A Van
Zyl, 2000, Slope Stability in Surface Mining, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
3. Ducan C Wyllie & Christopher W Mah, 2007-4th Edition,
Rock Slope Engineering, Spon Press.
4. Charles A Kliche, 1999, Rock Slope Stability, Society for
Mining Mettalurgy and Exploration Inc.
5. E. Hoek & J.W Bray, 1994, Rock Slope Engineering,
Institute of Mining and Metalurgy.
6. Roy E. Hunt, 2007, Geotechnical Investigation
Methods, CRC Press.
7. Roy E Hunt, 2007, Geologic Hazards, CRC Press.
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MINE GEOTECHNICAL

INTRODUCTION

SUPANDI. ST. MT
STTNAS YOGYAKARTA

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Outline of this Lecture
1. Cover these main themes
What is Mining Geotechnics
Geotechnical Investigation & Knowledge
Knowledge & Risk
2. Mining Geotechnics
3. Impact of uncertainty & percentage sampling
4. Impact of Mine Scale
5. Approach to Investigation & Design
6. Stages of project development & Geotechnical input
7. Levels of accuracy
8. Objectives, coast and knowledge

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Mine Geotechnical
Summary Introduction, purpose & issues
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Slope Design
Chapter 2 Data Collection & Storage Methods
Chapter 3 Geological Model
Chapter 4 Structural Model
Chapter 5 Rock Mass Model
Chapter 6 Hydrogeological Model
Chapter 7 Data Uncertainty
Chapter 8 Slope Design Methods
Chapter 9 Acceptance Criteria
Chapter 10 Slope Performance and Management
Chapter 11 Risk Management
Chapter 12 Mine Closure

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The Challenge
Design must ensure that a level of safety is achieved which is
acceptable to the owner and Regulatory bodies.
Design must ensure security of the value embodied in the
orebody.
Design must be economically optimal so that maximum return is
obtained from the investment.

Reduced Waste
$$$$

Orebody

Increased Ore
Extraction $$$$

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Cost benefit curves
60

50
dollars (millions)

benefits
40

s lope ins tability c


30

net benefit
20

10

0
35 40 45 50 55
slope angle (deg)
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Why is Geotechnical Engineering Important?

Mining occurs in, what can be, a hazardous environment.


We are required to design and manage mines according to
sound design principles to minimise the risk associated
with these hazards.
Failure to do so heightens the risk of:
1. Serious injury or fatality
2. Damage to, or destruction of, plant
3. Loss of Ore
4. Diversion of equipment and resources from production
5. Loss of corporate reputation

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DISCONTINUITIES Water Level WATER MATERIAL

Ground Soil
Bedding water
Plane
Rain
Fall
Joint Properties

Surface
Water Rock

Rock
Type
Fault Drainage

SLOPE
FAILURE
Static load
Excavation
External Method
force Height, dip,
direction
Seismic
Blasting
Geometry
Dynamic FORCE
Load
MINING
Internal
Insitu force
METHOD
Stress
Shovel &
truck

FACTORS AFFECTING SLOPE FAILURE


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MODEL BIJIH DAN
BATUAN PENUTUP

PEMBORAN PENGAMBILAN PENGISIAN BAHAN PELEDAKAN


CONTO PELEDAK

PERENCANAAN
TAMBANG LABORATORIUM

PEMASANGAN TANDA
BIJIH DAN
PENUTUP
STACKER
WANAGON RUANG KENDALI
BAWAH

PENIMBUNAN PENGANGKUTAN PEMUATAN


BATUAN PENUTUP
DI OHS-3

MILL

REKLAMASI PENIMBUNAN PENGIRIMAN


BATUAN BIJIH KE ALAT
PENUTUP PENGHANCUR

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Geotechnical Engineering and Mine
Slope Design

Multitude of Generic Term


Rock Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Geomechanics,
Geotechnical Engineering, Geotechnology, Engineering
Geology, Hydrolgeology, Groundwater, Geological
Engineering, Slope Stability
etc

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Geotechnical Engineering and Mine
Slope Design

Application of scientific methods and engineering


principles to the materials of the earths crust for the
solution of engineering problems.
Geologically based science.
Fundamental corner stone of all mine slope design is
geology.
Success with mine design depends on the ability to
understand the geology.
In particular, the pattern, subtleties and variations

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ESSENTIAL
ELEMENTS IN
MINE SLOPE
DESIGN

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TRADITIONALLY SURFACE MINE

1. TWO GERENARL SUBSIVISIONS


Hardrock
Softrock

2. .all geotechnical materials are part of one continuous


spectrum

3. one continuous sciences extending from soft soil to


hardrock. All geotechnical material behave according to
the sama engineering principles, with obvious
differences a function of degree rather than fundamental
nature (Johnson 1991).

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Applicability in Surface Mine

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Uncertainty and Percentage Sampling

1. Uncertainty will always be the essence of Geology


2. Ideal Words 100% exposure of the fresh rock covering
the whole mine.
3. In Practice
Good outcrops are rare
Deep weathering in common.
Surficial cover of younger soil/rocks ; alluvium,
colluviums, glacial deposits and sedimentary rock.
Mountainous terrain and difficult process.
Extensive vegetation cover.

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Uncertainty and Percentage Sampling
The Reality
1. Mining geotechnics for slope design
Percentage sampling <1%.
Smaller than probably any other facet of mine design.
2. Mine Design targets
Overall slope angles about 1 3 degree.
3. Only possible to meet these targets with good geological
model
4. What constitutes a good geological model
Vision is concerned with making observation such as :
measurements, observations of from and pattern,
Vision is perception; an awareness of the significance
of the observation and insight or intuition. We live and
work with limited vision.

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Geotechnical and Geological Complexity

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Impact of Complexity on Risk and Ability to Define
Geotechnical and Geological Conditions Adequately

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Faulting at Inpit Crusher

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Ulan Coal Mine Simple Geology

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Impact Mine Scale

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Impact of Mine Scale on Geological Complexity Risk and
Geological Model

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Muswellbrook
Coal Mine
Hunter Valley

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Tom Price Iron Mine WA

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Bougainville Copper Mine
Solomon Insland

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Woodlawn Lead Zinc Mine NSW

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Small Gold Mine WA

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Impact of Mine Scale
1. As mine scale increases, either in term of area covered of
volume of material to be excavated the geological complexity
usually increases.
2. As scale and geological complexity increase;
Geotechnical conditions may or not worsen
But number of factors to be addressed or considered
usually increases significantly.
3. Mine Scale affected both
The reliance that must be placed on the geological model.
The scale of the geotechnical investigations
4. Small Scale
Few specific geotechnical boreholes will often suffice
5. Medium to Large scale
Not economically or practically feasible to investigate to
the same level.
Therefore must rely on the geological model.
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Impact of Mine Depth

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CONCLUSION
Mining Geotechnics Geological Based sciences.
Geology is the cornerstone.
Geotechnical investigations for Mining.
o Uncertainty and percentage sampling.
o Geology complexity
o Impact of mine scale depth and areal extent
o Stages of Mine Development.

STAGES OF MINE DEVLOPMENT AND LEVELOF


ACCURACY

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DEFINISI
Bench - Benches: Level-level kegiatan penambangan dengan ketinggian
tertentu Semua kegiatan peledakan dan pertambangan akan mengikuti level-
level yang telah ditentukan. Kegiatan-kegiatan pertambangan berdasarkan
pada level yang telah dipilih dimaksudkan untuk mempertahankan kestabilan
lereng tambang permukaan.
Bench Face Angle (BFA): Sudut kemiringan lereng yang diukur dari daerah
horisontal di antara catch bench yang berurutan; lebih dikenal dengan istilah
sudut kemiringan batter. c. Catch Bench: Cut bench pada buatan atau
kemiringan tanah. Tujuan kemiringan adalah untuk menangkap material
lepas yang jatuh sehingga material tersebut tidak terus jatuh ke kaki lerengan
tanpa terhalang. Lebar catch bench yang dianjurkan didasarkan pada
simulasi-simulasi kehilangan lebar catch bench sebagian akibat backbreak di
sepanjang joint set yang merembes. d. Crest: Bagian pinggir atas suatu
lereng; bagian dimana lereng bagian atas yang bertemu dengan bench.
Interramp Slope Angle (ISA): Sudut kemiringan, yang diukur dari daerah
horisontal, di antara ramp yang berurutan atau jalan pengangkutan (haul
road). Interramp slope terdiri dari serangkaian permukaan jenjang dan catch
bench dan diukur dari crest-ke-crest atau toe-ke-toe.
Toe: Bagian paling bawah dari lerengan; tempat dimana lereng bawah
bertemu dengan bench
Crest : Bagian paling atas dari sebuah lereng; ujung dari catch bench.
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Geotechnical Rock (GTRCK) Type: Klasifikasi massa batuan geomekanik
yang dimaksudkan untuk mencerminkan perilaku yang diharapkan dari suatu
massa batuan yang terdapat pada lereng yang dipotong (cut slope).
Penentuan klasifikasi GTRCK didasarkan terutama sekali pada persentase
RQD, kekuatan batuan yang masih utuh, dan persentase partikel-partikel
berukuran clay.
Overall Slope Angle: Sudut kemiringan, yang diukur dari daerah horisontal,
di antara slope crest paling atas dan kaki lereng paling bawah. Kemiringan
secara keseluruhan terdiri dari serangkaian catch benches, bench faces, dan
ramp dan dapat memiliki segmen interramp slope dalam jumlah banyak.
Steepening Pit Slope:Penambanhan besar sudut interamp & overall slope dari
kondisi saat ini (design sebelumnya yang direkomendasikan).
Bench Face Angle (BFA): Sudut yang dibentuk oleh toe crest.
Bench Height: Tinggi vertikal dari atas sampai bottom bench (laintai).
Catch Bench: Suatu bidang mendatar antara crest toe.

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Final Wall Blasting: One of the final pit wall excavation methods that utilizes a
special or modified blasting techniques with primarily targeting to minimize the
damage to the pit walls. Common final wall blasting used for final pit wall excavation
comprises of modified production blast, buffer row blast, trim blast, pre-splitting, etc.
Final Blast Rows: one or two rows closest to the designed wall.
Production Blast Rows: Blast rows that are laid out in front of final blast rows and
usually facing out of the wall and has a free face.
Stand-off Distance: A certain distance from blast rows closest to the designed toe of
the wall. This distance will be varying depending on the rock type forming the slope. In
this steepening trial, the distance will be determined based on the quality result of final
wall blasting.
Sub-Drill: Drilling depth below the designed blasting bottom.
Broken Muck: Rock or material fragmented by blasting with explosives as a
preparatory step for loading and removal.
Back-Break: Rock broken beyond the limits of the last row of holes marking
the outer
boundary in a blast.
Cracking: Small-scale displacement in the rock caused by tension stress,
mechanical forces, vibration of blast, etc.

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Slope Failure: Gradual or rapid downslope movement of rock forming the slope
under gravitational stress; often as a result of man-caused factors; e.g.,
removal of material from the base of a slope.
Failure Material/Debris: Any surficial accumulation of loose material detached
from rock masses by alteration and mechanical means.
Over Digging: Machine (Shovel/loader) that excavates over the slope design
limit.
Under Cutting Slope: The process of cutting under the slope face/toe with a
shovel or other machines, so the slope can be shot down readily or causing to
fall.
Loose Rocks/Ground: Broken, fragmented, or loosely cemented bedrock
material that tends to slough downslope.
Scaling Face: The plucking down or Removal of loose overhanging rocks from
the bench face.
Bench Drainage: A drainage system constructed along the benches to divert the
surface run-off out of mining area.
Back Slope: Gentle slope surfaces that tip to the wall. In bench drainage, the
back slope is commonly tipping of 1-2%.
Berm/bund: For this SOP, berm/bund is an artificial ridge of earth that is built at
the outer edge of the bench.

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Slope Failure: Gradual or rapid downslope movement of rock forming the slope
under
gravitational stress; often as a result of man-caused factors; e.g., removal of
material
from the base of a slope.
Slope Support: Materials placed in slope face to reinforce or to counteract or to
protect
the slope from potential rock fall and loose ground. The common reinforcement
materials utilized are rock bolting, rock fences, wire mash.
Trenching Slope: For this SOP, trenching is a cut immediately below crest line
(2m
deep) constructed along the bench and narrow is made for utility line
Major Structure Model: Defined as resulting from geological interpretation of
major
structures based on geological bench mapping of major structures (those
individual
structures of greater than 15m continuity). The model carries no attributes of
structural thickness or mechanical character and the position of any structure
is indicative.

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ANY QUESTION

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