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DRAFT 1 : MARCH 27TH 2014
University of Waterloo

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Throughout AVTCs history, different types and
classifications of vehicles have been re-engineered and
It is important to understand the fundamentals of the
components and subsystems which include:
Electrical Systems
Outline of Course
Introduction to Course
Vehicle Architectures
Powertrain Systems Engines
Powertrain Systems Drivetrain
Powertrain Systems Transmission
Electrical Systems
Automotive Emissions
The purpose of the Automotive 101 modules is to gain
an understanding of the common and main principles of
the parts of a vehicle
Through this fundamental understanding of each of the
separate vehicle components, the aim is to develop a
greater knowledge of vehicles as a whole and how each
component contributes to the overall vehicle
Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


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1.0 Vehicle Architecture
Timeline of Vehicle Development
Conventional Vehicles
Body On Frame vs. Unibody
Battery Electric Vehicles
Hybrid Vehicles
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles
Hybrid Powertrain Configurations
Power Split
Future Outlook
Timeline of Vehicle Development

1920s Major
Improvement of automotive
1850s roads and manufacturers
First practical discovery of introduce EV
and usable EV petroleum concepts

1890s 1970s & 2000s

Fleet of electric 1980s Energy Increased
battery- Crisis! environmental
powered NYC awareness and
taxi cabs interest in hybrid
and electric cars
Relevant Energy Conversions
Kinetic energy is generated from the gasoline engine through
the vehicle driveline (chemical to mechanical energy converter)
Kinetic energy is also generated from the battery
Kinetic energy is consumed by friction in the brake discs, rolling
friction of the tires and aerodynamic drag.
An hybrid electric vehicle can convert some of the wasted
braking energy by switching the polarity of the wheel motors to
enable them to function as generators!
Energy can be stored in a battery for later use.
Regenerative Braking

Back to
Types of Chassis Configurations
Body on frame vehicles Unibody vehicles have
utilize load bearing chassis structural bodies which
with a frame installed on top. distribute the load.

Advantages: Improved performance and fuel
Simpler design economy
Easier to build and modify Crumple zones improves safety in the
Less overall noise as stresses do not event of a collision
pass into the body

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Battery Electric Vehicles
Powered by an Electric Motor
Battery stores electrical energy that powers the motor
Battery is charged by plugging into outside electric power
Zero tail-pipe emissions

Driving Range
Ranges of 30-300km per charge (variance due to model,
trip/ drive cycle, environmental conditions)

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Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Hybrid vehicles utilize an electric motor in conjunction with
various types of internal combustions engines.
Several configurations exist, each with different capabilities.
Basic types of hybrid electric vehicles include:
Mild Hybrids Internal combustion engine never shuts off to
keep battery pack charged. There is no
independently operated EV mode.
Strong Hybrids Able to run on electric only power for significant
periods of time.
Plug-in Hybrids Increased battery capacity with less reliance on
internal combustion motor.

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Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV)
PHEVs employ the plug-in feature to increase electric-
only range further than hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
PHEVs use grid energy to propel the vehicle, and lose
battery charge during driving
% State of

% State of


Time Time
Back to
Hybrid Powertrain Configurations Series
A HEV that uses a fuel converter to generate electricity,
which in turn charges a battery/ powers an electric motor


IC Engine Generator Motor Wheels

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Hybrid Powertrain Configurations
A parallel HEV can drive the wheels from either an internal
combustion engine (ICE) or battery through the electric motor
Several parallel hybrid variation exist
Pre-Transmission, Post-Transmission, Parallel through the Road
These variations are formed by moving the Motor/Generator in various
positions in the powertrain
Battery Generator

Transmission Final Drive

IC Engine

Back to
Hybrid Powertrain Configurations
Power Split
Can be propelled by either engine or battery/ motor, OR
both (like parallel), but can also use the engine to charge
the battery directly
Generally uses planetary gear set to split power

Gear Set

Motor/Generator Motor/Generator
Planetary Gear


Final Drive

Back to
Future Outlook
1. The weakness of the BEV is the cost, recharge time and weight
of batteries.
new battery technology is becoming lighter and cheaper

In the future, BEVs may be able to break into markets where

costs are currently prohibitive
2. HEVs can compete for market share by compromising between
EVs and ICEVs.
3. Li-ion Technology may address range issues, but costs are still
high, and there are durability issues.

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Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


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Engine Components
4 Stroke Engine
Engine Configuration
Exhaust System
Engine Controls
Comparison of Fuels Gasoline vs. Diesel
2.1 History of Engines
First on vehicle First First diesel Rudolf Modern fuel
steam engine carburetor engine diesel injection engine
1769 1876 1892 1897 1980s

1807 1885 1896 1902 2010s

First internal First internal First fuel First fuel Modern
combustion combustion injected injected direct injection
engine Vehicle, Benz system system engines

Back to
2.2 Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)
Types of ICEs
Spark Ignition
2 Stroke
4 Stroke (course focus)
Fuels: gasoline
alcohol: ethanol, methanol

Compression Ignition
2 stroke
4 stroke
Fuels: diesel
4 Stroke cycle, spark ignition
Intake Manifold Throttle Body
2.3 Engine
Spark Plug Coils

Camshaft Pulleys
Fuel Rail
& Injectors

Cylinder Heads

Engine Block

Crankshaft Pulley

Oil Pan Timing Belt
2.4 Four-Stroke Engine
2.5 Engine Block
S-Spark plugs
R-Connecting rod
I-Intake Camshaf
E-Exhaust Camshaf
W- Water cooling

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2.6 Engine Configuration
refers to the placement of
cylinders which are vertical
It is simpler to construct
More vertical space required
This refers to the layout in which the cylinders
are placed at an angle on two different planes
Reduces height, length and width of the engine
versus inline configuration
Other Types:
Boxer Style (horizontally opposed)
Slant Engine

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2.7 Exhaust System

Exhaust Manifold brings the exhaust from the cylinders

to the exhaust system
Catalytic converter reduces emission
Resonator and Muffler reduces noise from the engine
Tailpipe leads the exhaust into the atmosphere

Back to
2.8 Engine Management

Inputs: Outputs:
Throttle position Fuel Injectors
Engine load Ignition (spark
Engine speed plugs)
Engine coolant PCM Starter
temperature (Powertrain Control Fuel Pump
Battery voltage Unit) Idle control
Wheel speed Cooling fan
Oil pressure/level Alternator
Oxygen content control
Gasoline Engines vs. Diesel Engines
RPM Diesel fuel provides greater
Climbing initial torque for acceleration
Accelerating Gasoline fuel provides less
initial torque, but has a higher
Diesel engines are more fuel

Diesel engines do not use an
ignition system (fuel auto-
Diesel Engines are built to be
more durable (since they have
to withstand higher pressures)

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Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


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Drivetrain History
Overview of vehicle drivetrains
Components of a drivetrain
How a drivetrain works
Understeer vs Oversteer
Different drivetrain setups
Advantages and Disadvantages of FR-Wheel, RR-Wheel, All-
Wheel Drives
Overview of Vehicle Drivetrains
The drivetrain is a system of components which transfer
the output (ie. torque) from the engine/motor to the

Raw Useable
Power Power
Engine Drivetrain Wheels
Early History of the Drivetrain
Louis Renault develops
a differential rear axle
and driveshaft
Louis-Rene Panhard First 4-wheel-drive vehicle
and Emile Levassor built by Otto Zachow and
introduce the "modern William Besserdich
1850 1900 1950

First automatic Hydraulic torque converter

Panhard & Levassor build a and planetary geartrain
transmission invented by
front-mounted engine RWD developed for automatic
Sturtevant brothers
car with a clutch, 3-speed transmissions
sliding gear transmission, and
chain-driven axle Synchronizing systems
introduced by Cadillac
Basic Components of a Drivetrain
Drive shaf
Universal Joints
Half Shafs
Constant Velocity Joints
How a Drivetrain Works
Engine/motor: converts fuel/energy source into
rotational kinetic energy
Transmission: a set of gears that allow the engine
to operate at optimal speeds
Clutch/Torque Converter: engages/disengages the engine
from the transmission

Engine/motor Torque
Converter Transmission
How a Drivetrain Works
Driveshaf:transfers power from the transmission to the
differential unit on the driven axle
Universal Joints: Used on both ends of the driveshaf to
transfer rotational motion
Differential: mechanism which transfers power to the
wheels and allows them to spin at different speeds

Drive Shaft
CV Joint

RWD layout

Half Shaft
U Joint
How a Drivetrain Works
Half Shafs: Shafs connecting the differential to
the wheels
Constant Velocity Joints: Joints on the ends of a half
shaf which drive the wheels
Drive Shaft
CV Joint


Half Shaft
U Joint
Front-Wheel Drive
Standard layout in modern economy cars

Cheaper and lighter
Drive shaf not required

Good traction (weight of engine

over drive wheels)

More interior space

Lesstraction during acceleration
Torque steering

Prone to understeer
Rear-Wheel Drive
Power is directed from the engine to a rear axle via a transmission
and driveshaf

Simple and durable
Better balance and handling

More traction during acceleration

Performs poorly in bad weather
Prone to oversteer
All-Wheel Drive
Power is directed from the engine to both the front and rear axles
Combines main advantages of FWD and RWD

Handling can emulate FWD

or RWD


Vehicle Handling
Handling characteristics of a car are influenced by many
factors including drive layout, suspension, balance,
braking, etc.
FWD the weight of the engine is over the drive and
steering wheels providing more traction
RWD the center of gravity of the car is pushed back
during acceleration, increasing traction and acceleration
50/50 front-rear weight distribution is ideal for better
Spring and Shock
System of components that
directly affect vehicle handling,
and passenger comfort
Tie Rod
Main components:
Spring and shock absorbers
Control Arms
Tie Rods
Control Arms
Understeer vs Oversteer
Understeer: When a vehicle turns less than intended
FWD cars are prone to understeer
Oversteer: When a vehicle turns more than intended
RWD cars are prone to oversteer

Understeer: Oversteer:
Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


Gear Ratios
Manual Transmission
Automatic Transmission
Comparison of Transmission Types
Transmission Introduction

Clutch or Torque Convertor

This part allows for the engine to connect and disconnect to the
gear ratios
Gear casing
These allow the wheels to spin at different speeds to that of the
Transmission Introduction
Without a transmission the engine and wheels would be
directly coupled. If the car were to stop, the engine would
have to stop as well. In a manual car this occurs as a stall.
Combustion engines can operate at lower rpms with higher
vehicle speeds to increase fuel economy
Allows for reversing.
Gear ratios can provide variable torque and speed to the
Transmission History
1939 First Commercially
Moving Forward
Windmills Produced Automatic
Electrical, Automated
Horse Powered Devices Transmission
GM Hydromatic
Manual, Dual Clutch

1894 Manual Transmission 1958 First Commercially

Invented by two French Produced CVT Transmission
men Louis Rene Panhard Used on small Dutch car DAF
and Emile Levassor 600
Transmission Gear Ratios
2 revolutions of the Drive gear spins the Output gear 1
revolution. This gives a gear ratio of 2:1
Engine Speed Transmission
Gear Ratio Torque
(rpm) output (rpm)

1st gear 2.97:1 0-5000 0-1683 Highest

2nd gear 2.07:1 0-5000 0-2415

3rd gear 1.43:1 0-5000 0-3496

4th gear 1.00:1 0-5000 0-5000

5th gear 0.84:1 0-5000 0-5952 Lowest

Reverse 3.38:1 0-5000 0-1479

Manual Transmission
To operate the transmission, the user
controls the gear shifer and the clutch
A gear shifer selects between gears.
When pressed in, the clutch pedal
disengages the engine power to the
transmission. Engine is reengaged when
the petal is released.
Manual Transmission
Clutch Disengaged Clutch Engaged
Automatic Transmission
Torque Converter

Contained in the bell housing

2 Main Components
Torque Converter
Gear set (Planetary, Parallel)

Planetary Gear set

Bell Housing
Automatic Transmission
Torque Converter
Fluid coupling, transfers Turbine
Engine Input
mechanical energy to
hydraulic energy and finally
back to mechanical.
Also can multiply torque.
Output Shaft
Takes the place of the. (Attached to turbine)

Causes the vehicle to creep
forward when stopped.
Automatic Transmission
Gear set
Ring Gear Sun Gear Planet Carrier
Planetary gear set allows (Annulus)

inline transfer of power

By fixing various gears in
the planetary system
multiple gear ratios can
be achieved
Hydraulics used to move
the select gears Planet Gear
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Green faster Same speed Green Slower

Drive Pulley Driven Pulley Drive Pulley Driven Pulley Drive Pulley Driven Pulley
Gear Ratio 1:2 1:1 2:1

Infinite Effective Gear Ratios between Max and Min

Allows input speed to be held to a desired constant (ie. Max Efficiency, Max Power)
Belt and Pulley Configuration most common for Cars
Efficiency Losses due to:
Slipping of Belt on Pulley
Efficiency Gains due to:
Continuous Gearing and Power Delivery
Allows for most efficient input speed

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)
Faster Same Slower

Gear Ratio 1:2 1:1 2:1

Red Radius (mm) 13.03 10.0 6.52

Green Radius (mm) 6.52 10.0 13.03

Belt Length (mm) 122.8 122.8 122.8

Center to Center (mm) 30.0 30.0 30.0

Comparison of Transmission Types




Comparison of Transmission Types
Qualitative Comparison

Transmission Manual Automatic CVT


Overall System

Unique Features -User Controlled Shifting -No user input required
-Direct (Metallic) delivery of Power -2 Pedal Operation
-No user input required
-Can hold engine at Max Efficiency
-Rolling Start or Max Power outputted

Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


Overview of Vehicle Electrical Systems
Physical Routing
EMI and Physical Routing
Low Voltage Control Systems Overview
Controller Area Network (CAN)
Local Interconnect Network
High Voltage Electrical System Overview
High Voltage Buses
Safety Tips!
The Risks
Arc Flash
Protecting Yourself
Personal Protective Equipment
Responding to an Incident
Fuses are used to protect the circuits from current
surges (an over flow of current)
All circuits should be fused, both low and high voltages
This includes test apparatus
Installed in series with the desired circuit to protect
The basic fuse is a enclosure containing a small wire that
when a set current is applied, that small wire melts and
breaks the circuit
Physical Routing
High Voltage wiring is larger due to the requirement for
lower resistance and higher shielding
When physically routing the electrical systems in the car
there are a number of things one prepares for:
Weather Proofing
Physical Damage Protection
Physical Routing - EMI
EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is created by various electronic
components in the vehicle
Due to EMI, noise can be introduced in CAN and LIN
communication buses
Vehicle busses are specialized internal communication networks that
connects the components inside a vehicle
Noise in vehicle busses can result in messages not getting from one
component to another which means delayed responses to changes
To minimize electrical interference, communication buses must be
routed away from sources of EMI (e.g. motor inverters)
Vehicle Electrical Systems
Low voltage electrical systems (12-48 V)
Engine spark ignition
High voltage electrical systems (>50 V)
Electric motors!
Hybrid vehicles and conventional vehicles


Low Voltage Controls Systems
Different controllers throughout the vehicle require
different information and sensor readings
The speedometer, part of the body control module, may
require information about the current wheel speed which is
acquired and processed by the brake control module
Communication protocols to transfer this information:
CAN (Controller Area Network)
LIN (Local Interconnect Network)
Controller Area Network (CAN)
CAN bus is a standard for vehicle microcontrollers and
devices to communicate with each other without a host
Allows a large number of vehicle controllers to broadcast
information on to a single bus with equal accessibility
Vehicle controllers can receive and use information that
is broadcast on the bus
Brake control module constantly broadcasts wheel speed
Body control module uses values to actuate speedometer
CAN bus acts a real-time bank of vehicle information
Local Interconnect Network(LIN)
LIN existed as a precursor to CAN
Excellent for simple, event based communications with
short physical range
Less expensive to implement than CAN
Used where low bandwidth is required
Some examples of use:
Climate control button usage
Electronically adjustable spoilers
Door-handles, power windows, door locks
High Voltage Electrical System
HV Safety (First)
Grounding (Ground Fault Detection)
Physical Routing
Junction boxes
Components Involved
Electric Motors
DC/DC converters
High Voltage Buses
High voltage electrical systems are generally designed to
support powertrain electrification
Electric motors and inverters require large electric
potentials to operate effectively
The high voltage bus must be completely isolated from
the normal vehicle chassis
Safety Tips!
It is important to always be conscious of the hazards that
are present in the shop
Electricity is something that is a nearly invisible danger
Be sure to always adhere to the safety measures
mentioned in the earlier sections
Automotive 101 Introduction to
Vehicles Components and


Managed by
Exhaust Emissions
The Main Exhaust Pollutants
Evaporative Emissions
How do Evaporative Emissions Occur?
Hybrid Emissions
Regulations Regarding Automotive Emissions
Well-to-Wheels Emissions
Future Outlook
Background on Emissions
Emissions are harmful gases exerted from out vehicles as
a by product of the combustion process
Carbon dioxide is the largest contributing gas to this issue
The additional carbon dioxide is harmful to the
environment as it offsets the natural carbon dioxide cycle
of the earth
In turn the natural sinks (forests, etc) that remove carbon
dioxide gases are unable to keep up with the excess gas
Resulting in extreme climate change (global warming)
Where do Emissions come from?
Emissions from cars come from the by-products of the
combustion process in the engine (Exhaust Emissions)
and from fuel evaporation(Evaporative Emissions)
THC, CO, Nox are the criteria emissions evaluated in
EcoCAR, but other pollutants do exist
There are emissions from generation of electricity
Evaporative Emissions
Evaporative Emissions
Exhaust Emissions
Exhaust Emissions
Conventional vehicles combust the vapors of gasoline or diesel fuel in the
engine. These fuels are a blend of hydrocarbons (HC, compounds made of
hydrogen and carbon atoms)

Theoretically, a perfect combustion (of HC and O 2) produces only CO2 and

Main Exhaust Pollutants:
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Evaporative Emissions
Evaporative emissions account for the majority of
Hydrocarbon pollution from current model cars on hot days
when the ozone levels in the atmosphere are the highest

Components of a Evaporative Emissions Control System:

Fuel Tank
Gas Cap
Liquid Vapor Separator
Evap Canister
Evaporative Emissions Control System
The EVAP system significantly eliminates fuel vapors as a source of air
pollution by sealing off the fuel system from the atmosphere.

A fuel tank must have some type of venting so air can enter to replace
fuel as the fuel is sucked up the fuel pump and sent to the engine. Vent
lines from the fuel tank route vapors to the EVAP storage canister, where
they are trapped and stored until the engine is started.

When the engine is warm and the vehicle is going down the road, a purge
valve is opened allowing the vapors to be siphoned from the storage
canister into the intake manifold. The fuel vapors are then burned in the
engine. Thus, on newer vehicles, it is vented through the EVAP canister.
How do Evaporative Emissions Occur?
Diurnal: as temperature rises during the day, heating the fuel tank
and venting gasoline/ diesel vapors
Running Losses: the heat of the engine and exhaust system itself
vaporizes fuel when the car is running

Hot Soak: the engine remains hot even afer the car is turned off,
producing evaporation of fuel

Refueling: vapors escaping (displaced) when the tank is filled with

liquid fuel
Hybrid Emissions
Electric Vehicles (EV) produce zero exhaust emissions
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) produce zero exhaust
emissions when they are in full-electric mode
PHEVs produce exhaust emissions when using the Internal
Combustion Engine

HOWEVER, Since hybrid cars are more fuel efficient than CVs,
they require less gasoline/ diesel fuel to cover the same distance
US Energy Information Administration sets the average mileage
of hybrid vehicle at 38.7 miles/ gal, vs. 26.7 miles/ gal for CVs [1]

[1] http://www.epa.gov/otaq/consumer/05-autos.pdf
On-Vehicle VS Life-Cycle Emissions
On Vehicle Emissions
Emissions produced during the usage of the vehicle

Life-Cycle Emissions
Emissions produced by extracting/fabricating the materials that make up the
vehicle, transporting those materials to the factory, and assembling it. Also
includes the usage phase

Hybrids do produce more emissions in the manufacturing phase, but in most

cases the emissions savings from driving the Hybrid more than makes up this
difference. Making and using an Hybrid in the United States produces less
global warming emissions than a conventional gasoline-powered car.
Well-to-Wheels Emissions

Primary Fuel Fuel Refining Fuel Fuel Station

Production Distribution

Materials Vehicle
Vehicle Vehicle Use
Production Transport

Must consider entire lifetime of all vehicle components, fuel, and

replaceable parts
Cradle-to-grave view
Emission Standards
Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the
amount of pollutants can be released into the environment.

Tier 1 Emission Standards (1994)

Tier 1 standards applies to all new light-duty vehicles (LDV), such as
passenger cars, light-duty trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUV), minivans
and pick-up trucks.

Tier 2 Emission Standards (2004)

The Tier 2 regulation introduces more stringent numerical emission
limits relative to the Tier 1 Requirements, and a number of additional
changes that make the standards more stringent for larger vehicles.
Vapor Recovery
Vapor Recovery is the process of recovering the vapors of
gasoline or other fuels, so that they do not escape into the
atmosphere, in order to reduce noxious/explosive fumes and
air pollution.

They insure the cleanliness of the air in the forecourt area by

separating gasoline vapor into fuel and air. This allows clean air
to be released into the atmosphere while useable fuel is
returned to the storage tank.
Future Outlook on Emission Control
Cold-start Emissions Control
Catalytic converter (CAT) is efficient at eliminating HC and
other pollutants only once hot
Effectivity is greatly limited until it can reach operating
temperature (1-2 minutes)
60-80% of emissions from vehicles occur during this cold-start
On-road vehicle emission control
Continuous monitoring and control of emissions via
automatic adjustments of driving parameters (i.e. preventing
Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR) is a vehicle
emission control system that captures the fuel vapors
that escape from the gas tank during refueling
Standard on cars from 1998 and onward
Onboard Refueling Vapour Recovery (ORVR) is a vehicle
emission control system that captures the fuel vapours
that escape from the gas tank during refueling
Standard on cars from 1998 and onward
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