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STEAM TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM

500 MW UNIT

BY

M.V.BHASKARAN
Manager/BHEL
POWER SECTOR, SOUTHERN REGION
CHENNAI.
GOVERNING SYSTEM

Function of a governor
To maintain desired speed of turbine during fluctuations
of load by varying steam input to turbine.
Also,
For run up of turbine from rest/turning speed to rated speed
to synchronise with grid.
To maintain load to the requirement.
Protecting machine from abnormal conditions.
METHODS OF GOVERNING

1. THROTTLE GOVERNING
Single batch of nozzles
2. NOZZLE GOVERNING
First stage divided into number of groups (3 to 6 or more)
3. BYPASS GOVERNING
Primary valve upto certain load and bypass valve for
additional loads
GOVERNING SYSTEM COMONENTS
Governing Rack Consisting of following.
i) Emergency trip valve
ii) Tripping Device
iii) Change over valve
iv) Filters in control oil
v) Accumulator.
vi) Starting Device
vii) Hydraulic Amplifier with set of follow up pistons
(HP&IP)
viii)Load shedding relay
ix) Trimming Device
x) Electro Hydraulic converter with set of follow up
pistons (HP & IP)
xi) Extraction Relay
GOVERNING SYSTEM COMONENTS

xii) Oil injection Test Device


xiii) Vacuum protection Device.
xiv)Set of solenoids for ATT operation.

HP Front Pedestal consisting of following.

i) Impeller for primary oil


ii) Over speed trip governor

HP Rear Pedestal Consisting of following.

i) Thrust protection Device.


ii) For brief description of above items, refer to O&M manual
iii) HP and IP governing valves.
RTS
MTV

RTS
filters
RTS

MOP

Over speed

Trim
dev

EHTC
Hyd Amplifier

Speeder gear/ Starting


device Follow up pistons
REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID VALVE
It is installed in control oil line before main trip vales.
Remote operated from control room/protection circuit.
It has three connections pressure oil inlet, oil to MTV and
drain
The two valve discs seals valve seats alternately
Solenoid not energised will make oil through to MTV
Solenoid energise will isolate pressure oil and drain the oil
from governing system
REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID
VALVE
REMOTE TRIP SOLENOID
VALVE
MAIN TRIP VALVE

To open the trip oil circuit to drain, thereby closing all steam input to
turbine in case of abnormalities
At start up auxiliary start up oil keeps the MTV in uppermost
position
Pressure oil enters and the outlet oil, Trip oil builds up and flows to
governing elements
The outlet oil through a hole fills auxiliary trip oil circuit.
The auxiliary trip oil keeps the MTV in upper position in normal
condition. (Aux. Start up oil will become 0.
Any drop of aux. Trip oil pressure below certain limit will drop the
MTV and drains trip oil circuit.
Manually pressing the trip lever will also drain the trip oil circuit.
Limit switches provide electrical trip out signals
MAIN TRIP
VALVE
EMERGENCY TRIP VALVE FOR MANUALTRIP

It enables for manual trip out.


It consists of valve cone sliding on bush, spring and ball
headed spindle.
During normal operation, the aux trip fluid keeps the valve
against the bushing.
For tripping, the ball head is pressed, causing the aux trip oil
to drain and leads to MTV tripping.
On start up, the aux start up oil keeps the valve up to normal
position before aux trip fluid build up.
X1 Aux trip fluid
U1 aux. St.up fluid
C return fluid
HYDRAULIC SPEED GOVERNOR AND STARTING
DEVICE
The main components are bellow, link, speed setting spring, sleeve and follow
up piston.
The primary oil pressure acts on bellow against the speed setting spring and
determines the position of sleeve of follow up piston.
The follow up piston generates the auxiliary secondary oil pressure depending
on the position of bellow.
The speed setting spring can be operated either by manually or electrically.
Fall in primary oil pressure moves link and sleeve of follow up piston
downwards, reduces overlap and increases secondary oil pressure.
Raise in primary oil pressure reduces secondary oil pressure.
Varying the speed setting varies the relation between primary and secondary
oil pressure.
Link and sleeve can be directly pressed against primary oil force to enable
actual over speed test.
SPEEDER GEAR AND STARTING DEVICE
FOLLOW UP PISTON
Follow up pistons converts the governor movement into oil
pressure changes.
Follow up piston consists of a hollow piston which can slide in
acylindrical body.
The position of piston is controlled by a tension spring and an
adjusting screw.
At lower end of piston a sleeve with two diametrically opposite
drain ports is sliding.
Similar ports in the piston overlaps with the sleeve ports in
appropriate position.
Below top cover of the body an inlet for trip oil through an
orifice.
Oil supply after orifice is called secondary oil.
FOLLOW UP PISTON
STARTING AND LOAD LIMITING DEVICE
It can be operated either manually or by motor from control
room.
At lower most position, it compresses bellow and ensures no
secondary oil generated.
At lowermost position, generates auxiliary start up oil and start
up oil.
While raising up, aux, start up oil pressure first killed and
subsequently start up oil pressure reduced. This opens stop
valves around 35%.
Further upward movement releases bellow and control valve
starts opening.
The release of bellow can be limited to limit the control valve
opening, thereby limiting the load.
Hydraulic amplifier
It amplifies the signal from hydraulic speed governor.
The components are amplifier piston, pilot valve, follow up piston
with sleeve and mechanical feed back system.
Aux, sec oil flows over pilot valve. In steady state condition, pilot
valve in centre position. Pressure in aux. Sec oil is in equilibrium
with spring force.
Pilot valve is kept in rotation for greater freedom of movement.
Deflection of pilot valve allows control oil above or below
amplifier piston.
The motion of amplifier piston is transmitted via lever to the pilot
valve as feed back and pilot valve assumes centre position.
Each aux. Sec oil pressure corresponds to a certain position of
amplifier piston.
Hydraulic amplifier
Hydraulic
amplifier and
follow up pistons
Follow up pistons
The motion of the amplifier piston is transmitted via lever to
the sleeves sliding on the sec oil follow up pistons.
The overlap of ports of sleeves and follow up piston
determines the secondary oil pressure.
Each position of the amplifier piston corresponds to a specific
position of the sleeve and follow up piston.
The position of follow up piston is determining factor for the
secondary oil pressure.
Precompression of follow up piston can be adjusted by
adjusting screws and lever of trimming device.
Three follow up piston in parallel for HP sec oil and three for
IP sec oil.
IP sec oil follow up pistons are provided with trimming
actuator lever.
TRIMMING DEVICE
HP/IP Trimming device

During normal operation, the trimming solenoid valve allows


control oil to the actuator, under the piston.
The upward movement of this piston adjusts the initial tension
of the springs of follow up piston through connecting lever.
During specified conditions solenoid valve deenergised.
The control oil under actuator piston drained and piston moves
downwards.
The tension springs of follow up pistons gets adjusted to new
position leading to delayed opening of IP valves.
The specified conditions are 1. Turbine load less than a
minimum and 2. HP exhaust pressure greater than a set
maximum.
These conditions can occur during load shedding.
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC
CONVERTOR
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTOR

It is the connecting element between electrical and hydraulic


parts.
It converts electrical signal into hydraulic signal and amplifies
to generate secondary oil pressures.
It consists of
Moving coil system
Sleeve and pilot valve
Amplifier piston
Follow up pistons
Position feed back transmitter
Actuator for HP/IP trimming
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTOR

The electrical signal (voltage) from governor to moving coil


operates sleeve up and down on the pilot valve.
Pilot valve is positioned in similar manner like follow up piton.
Based on overlap of ports the trip oil draining is varied and positions
the pilot.
In steady state condition the pilot is at centre position. Trip oil
pressure is in equilibrium with spring force.
Pilot valve is kept in rotation with control oil flow through
tangential holes of the pilot disc. This gives high response sensitivity.
With open command for valve from governor, the sleeve is moved
upwards by moving coil system. This decreases oil drain area. Hence
pilot moves up due to increase in pressure below pilot valve.
The control oil is allowed below amplifier piston and piston moves
up.
ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTOR
The upward movement of amplifier piston causes downward
movement of sleeve of secondary oil follow up piston and increases
secondary oil pressure.
The motion of amplifier piston produces feed back to the electrical
system and the signal to the moving coil is varied with the feed back,
to bring back the pilot valve to centre position.
For close command the controlling action is similar in opposite
direction.
Trimming solenoid operates the actuator piston and changes the
tension on IP secondary oil follow up pistons.
The moving coil is adjusted for its position to have negative balance
voltage at steady state condition.
This ensures for EHTC to full open on failure of coil and hydraulic
governing will take over control of the machine.
EHTC SIDE VIEW
DAMPING DEVICE
DAMPING DEVICE

Damping device absorbs any pulsations and vibrations.


Increase of pressure a keps the ball pressed down and allows
through orifice alone and pressure increase in b is retarded.
When pressure in a drops, the higher pressure in phase b
lifts ball into open position and closes the throttling path. The
pressure drop in phase b is faster.
Damping device located at
1. Sec oil piping to control valves (210 MW)
2. Signal /feed back oil piping of LPBP CV slide valves.
3. Signal piping of injection water pressure switch.
PRESSURE
CONVERTOR
PRESSURE CONVERTOR

Pressure convertor installed in IP sec oil line to restrict raise of


IP sec oil mpressure beyond certain limit.
It is provided with follow up piston in the bushing at the top
and sleeve at the bottom.
The setscrew of the follow up piston can be adjusted
appropriately to limit the IP secondary oil.
STOP VALVE SERVOMOTOR
STOP VALVE SERVOMOTOR
Consists of two part piston. Disc shaped lower part connected to the
valve stem. Other part is bell shaped. Two spiral springs are placed
between the two halves.
Opening of valve
Trip oil is admitted to space above bell shaped piston and it is moved
to seat against the piston disc, forming single unit.
Then trip fluid admitted to space below piston disc and
simultaneously space above piston is drained gradually.
This causes the two haves moving towards open as single unit.
When trip oil pressure falls below certain value, the springs separate
and leads to closing of the valve.
Back seat of piston ensures minimum leakage of oil.
While closing, just before valve disc seats the oil draining is through
restricted area leading to braking action. Valve disc seats gently.
TEST VALVE FOR STOP VALVE
Function of test valve is to open and close stop valve manually or by start up
circuits/ATT.
Each test valve and auxiliary valve arranged in series behind two solenoid valves.
Test valve forced downwards against spring either manually or by start up oil
pressure.
At bottom position of test valve, trip oil admitted above piston and below piston
connected to drain.
Test valve to be moved upwards either manually and by reducing the start up oil
pressure.
At top position of test valve, trip oil is admitted below piston and the above piston
is connected to drain.
Closing and opening of the stop valve can be checked by manually operating the
test valve.
HP and IP stop valves are opened in sequence at different pressures of start up oil.
During ATT trip oil is admitted below auxiliary valve and it moves up. This
connects the oil below piston to drain leading to sudden closure of stop valve
ARRANGEMENT OF TEST VALVE 500 MW
HP CONTROL VALVE
SERVOMOTOR 500 MW
SERVOMOTOR FOR MS AND HRH CONTROL VALVES
This consists of auxiliary pilot vale, pilot piston, main pilot valve feed
back linkages, main piston and disc springs.
This is of high pressure type ( 32 bar)due hgih force requirement.
The secondary oil pressure controls the auxiliary pilot valve and
directs control fluid to the pilot piston.
The pilot piston operates the main pilot valve through lever.
The mainpilot valve admits/drains the oil from underside of main
piston.
Under steady state auxiliary pilot is in centre position.
When the sec oil pr varies, aux pilot valve deflects from centre
position and allow oil to pilot piston and moves in onr direction.
The connecting lever transmits the the movement to the main pilot
valve causing the oil flow to the main piston.
SERVOMOTOR FOR MS AND HRH CONTROL VALVES

The movement of the valve is transmitted back to the aux pilot valve through
linkages. The cam in the servomotor spindle retuns the pilot valve to its centre
position.
The degree of proportionality of pilot control system can be adjusted by the
feed back linkage pivot.
The aux pilot valve is kept in rotation by the fluid jet from the tangential
holes of the pilot disc.
The spring above the linkages preload it to avoid slackness and play.
While closing, shortly prior to full close the oil drain passage is restricted to
have gentle seating of the valve.
The slope of the feed back cam is of two degree of proportionality.
The sec oil signal is damped out by passing through the capillary tube.
Air is released through screw plug holes.
During ATT, the testing device acts on the connecting lever between pilot
piston and main pilot valve and operates the valve.
HP CONTROL VALVE FEED BACK
ARRANGEMENT
AUXILIARY VALVE FOR BLEEDER CHECK VALVE
The function of auxiliary valve is to close bleeder valves when
turbine load drops below a limit.
Three connections from IP sec oil pressure determines the valves
opening. When the valve lifts up, the trip oil is admitted to the bleed
valves through change over valve.
The secondary oil pressure at which the valves are to be opened can
be adjusted by the setscrews.
Trip oil is admitted through a common valve to the above three
valves. HP secondary oil acts on above and below the common valve.
The valve is kept at lower position by the spring force, thereby trip
oil is passed in normal steady pressure of secondary oil.
In case of sudden drop the oil above reduces fast whereas the oil
below is held for some time by the ball and accumulator, until
equilibrium is established. During this differential pressure surge the
valve lifts up and cuts off the trip oil supply to bleeder valves.
Aux valve for extraction check valve
CHANGE OVER VALVE FOR
BLEEDER CHECK VALVES
CHANGE OVER VALVE FOR
BLEEDER CHECK VALVES

The function is to manually operate the actuator of FC NRV.


The components are body, bush and valve.
Trip oil inlet keeps valve in upper position and allows oil to
the actuator for opening FC NRV.
Manually with handwheel, closing the valve leads to isolation
of trip oil inlet and drains the oil from actuator.
If the pressure in trip oil inlet drops, the valve closes.
FC NRV
CRH NRV PILOT VALVE
The function of this pilot valve is to admit open/close control oil
to the CRH NRV based on HP sec oil pressure.
For the sec oil pressure of more than a predetermined value, the
pilot lifts up against spring force. The set point can be adjusted
with setscrew.
At upper position of pilot the pressure oil is passing to the open
side of the check valve and NRV opens. The close side oil is
drained.
At lower position from centre, the pilot allows pressure oil to
the close side of check valve thereby closing it.
To prevent from seizure, the pilot is kept rotated by the
pressure oil jet through tangential holes.
CRH NRV PILOT VALVE
CRH NRV
CRH NRV
SERVOMOTOR
Change over valve for ATT 210MW
CHANGE OVER VALVE

The function of the change over valve is to isolate the trip oil
circuit of protective devices and provide alternate source of trip
fluid for unit operation during ATT.
During normal operation, the space under piston is supplied
with control oil keeping the valve to pass trip oil from MTV to
trip oil circuit.
During testing the solenoid valve drains the oil behind piston
and also control oil is pressurised through RTVs in the space
above upper piston to cause the valve to move down in a position
where the trip oil is isolated and for unit operation the control
oil is fed to the trip fluid circuit.
Limit switches transmit the position of valve to the control
room.
A control fluid
A1 control fluid
C drain
X trip fluid from
tripping device
X1 trip fluid to trip
fluid circuit.
PROTECTIVE DEVICES IN
GOVERNING SYSTEM

1. Low vacuum trip device


2. Over speed trip device
3. Thrust bearing trip device
LOW VACUUM TRIP
DEVICE
LOW VACUUM TRIP DEVICE
The function of the device is to trip the turbine on dropping of condensor vacuum
below a limit.
Condensor vacuum is connected to the top side of a diaphragm. The space below
diaphragm is at atmospheric pressure.
The control oil is admitted through aux pilot valve to the space below valve to
keep the valve in uppermost position agaist spring. The aux trip oil circuit is held
blocked.
As the vacuum deteriorates the diaphragm moves the pilot down and drains the
control fluid causing the main valve to move down. The aux trip oil circuit is
connected to drain causing turbine trip.
Limit switches initiate alarm in control room.
Vacuum at which the device operates can be adjusted by the adjusting screw.
The device is isolated during start up. Aux pilot valve held upwards by spring
leading to develop aux trip oil pressure.
The primary oil pressure acting on the piston moves downwards in working
position of the device. This is to enable the protection after attaining certain speed.
OVER SPEED TRIP PIN
OVERSPEED TRIP

The function is to stop turbine when permissible speed is exceeded.


It is fitted in turbine rotor and consists of eccentric bolt, adjusting
screw, spring and screw plug.
By appropriate adjustment of screw, the centre of gravity of bolt is
positioned eccentrically to the turbine shaft.
Below the tripping speed the bolt is held in position by spring and
bears against the plug.
At speed higher than overspeed limit, the centrifugal force
overcomes the spring force and forces the turbine rotor out of
turbine. This activates the turbine trip mechanism.
OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE
OVER SPEED TRIP DEVICE

The function of the device is to open the aux trip oil circuit to drain
and shut down the turbine on overspeeding.
The trip device situated in front bearing pedestal consists of valve
body, pistons, pawls and spindle for limit switch operation.
At over speed the eccentric bolt fly out of the shaft and strike the
pawls and turning this against spring. The latches of the pawls
release the piston and this piston moves towards shaft. The piston
aided by aux trip oil pressure and spring loaded spindle.
The aux trip oil pressure drops causing turbine trip.
Spindle provided with limit switches for alarm initiation.
For restarting the tubine the trip device is latched in by admitting
the aux start up oil.
OVER SPEED TRIP TEST DEVICE

The function of the test device is to test the over speed trip
device and trip bolt without actually raising the speed.
Test device consists of three valves combined in valve block.
One valve(left) is held at upper position by spring. In this
position aux trip oil can pass to over speed trip device. When
the knob is pressed, aux trip oil circuit to over speed trip
device is blocked.
The centre valve on moving downwards by rotating
handwheel admits test oil to the eccentric bolts causing them to
protrude out of turbine shaft to strike against the pawl of trip
device. The valve can be operated by motor during ATT.
The third vale (right side) is used for resetting the over speed
trip device after the test operation. When knob is pushed
inagainst spring control oil enters aux start up oil circuit of
over speed trip device and gets latched.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION FOR TESTING
OVERSPEED TEST DEVICE
1. Press the left valve knob to isolate the aux trip oil circuit to
the over speed trip device.
2. Gradually rotate the handwheel of middle valve to move
downwards and observe for test oil pressure raise.
3. Observe and record the pressure at which the trip device is
actuated. Raise pressure till both pins are acted.
4. Reduce the test oil pressure by moving the middle valve fully
in opposite direction.
5. Press the right side valve knob to admit control oil to aux
start up oil circuit of over speed trip device. This will reset
the device to normal position.
6. Release the left side valve knob to normalise the aux trip oil
circuit.
THRUST BEARING
TRIP DEVICE
THRUST BEARING TRIP DEVICE

The function of the device is to drain the aux trip oil circuit in the
event of high axial displacement of turbine shaft.
The trip device consists of valve body, piston, pawl and limit switch.
During start up aux start up oil moves piston in latched position
with pawl.
When shaft is axially displaced, the cam in the turbine shaft
engages the pawl to rotate. This moves the piston of trip device
towards turbine shaft. The piston aided by aux trip oil pressure and
spring force. The aux trip oil circuit is connected to drain causing
turbine trip.
Limit switch provided initiates alarm in the control room.
The healthiness of the trip device can be tested by admitting the test
oil to the piston to actuate the pawl.
VACUUM BREAKER VALVE
SPEED/LOAD ADJUSTING GEAR
PLATE TYPE
FILTER