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Selective catalytic

reduction
of
NOx

KUSHAGRA ABHISHEK
11/CH/25
WHAT IS NOX
NOX - Family of SEVEN Nitrogen compound
(NO,NO2,N2O2,N2O3,N2O,N204,N2O5)
Of these NO2 is surrogate of this family of compound as it is most prevalent form
of NOx in the atmosphere generated by anthropogenic activities.

Combustion sources
Automobiles
Boilers
Incinerators
High-temperature industrial operations
Metallurgical furnaces
Blast furnaces
Plasma furnaces
Kilns
Other sources
Nitric acid plants
Industrial processes that use nitric acid
NOX EFFECTS:
formation of ozone
Acid rain
Toxic chemicals
Global warming
Causes visibility impairment.
Deteriorates water quality

Characteristics of NOx compounds


NO2 Nitrogen dioxide NO Nitric oxide
Usually exists as a dimer compound Colorless and odorless gas
(N2O4) at low 0C
Insoluble in water
Has distinct reddish-brown color
Toxic
Moderately soluble in aqueous
liquids
Toxic
Contributes to brown haze that
occurs with smog
NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Reaction
Temperature ~ 300 - 400 oC

4 NO 4 NH 3 O2 TiO
2 4 N 2 6 H 2O
or V2O5 supportedcatalyst

2 NO2 4 NH 3 O2 TiO
2 3N 2 6 H 2O
or V2 O5 supportedcatalyst

With several secondary reactions:


2SO2 + O2 2SO3
2NH3 + SO3 + H2O (NH4)2SO4
NH3 + SO3 + H2O NH4HSO4

The reaction for urea instead of either anhydrous or


aqueous ammonia is:
4NO + 2(NH2)2CO + O2 4N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)
1)Beds of NH3 or urea.

2)Catalysts (Ti and V ) are embedded in following design:

Plate configuration lower pressure drop, less prone to


Plugging and fouling , much larger and more expensive.

Honeycomb configurations- smaller than plate,


high pressure drop and plug much more easily.

3)Efficiency Up to 95 %.
SCR THE PROCESS
Catalyst used in SCR for reduction of NOx

Titanium oxide
Oxide of base metals like vanadium and tungsten
Zeolites
Etc

Several reductant are currently used in SCR applications:


Anhydrous ammonia
Extremely toxic and difficult to safely store, but needs no further conversion to
operate within an SCR.
Typically favoured by large industrial SCR operators

Aqueous ammonia
must be hydrolyzed in order to be used, but it is substantially safer to store and
transport than anhydrous ammonia.

Urea
the safest to store, but requires conversion to ammonia through thermal
decomposition in order to be used as an effective reductant
Limitations of SCR:
The most common limitation of SCR in power plants is the ammonia slip
emission of ammonium sulfate and ammonium bisulfate
Very high capital cost
High operating cost
Catalyst bed increases pressure drop
Possible water wash Required
High Space requirements
Conclusion:

SCR technology is one of most simple clean and reliable technology


present today.

It is a flue gas treatment method which is successfully operating in


various field like automobile, industry etc..

It is most effective as it is easily operated after proper


installation, have better efficiency than other available technology for
Nox reduction.