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FIRE FIGHTING

SYSTEMS IN POWER
STATIONS
Why, Where and How in a
Power Station
Basics of Combustion Process
Fire Tetrahedron
Oxygen
Fuel
Heat of Ignition
Chain Reaction to Sustain Fire

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Sources Of Ignition
Electricity
Smoking
Incendiarism (strike, sabotage)
Cutting & Welding
Friction

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Classification of Occupancies by TAC

Light Hazard
Ordinary Hazard
Electric
High Hazard Generating
Station

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Major Fires in Fire Stations
Obra Thermal Power Station
Koradi Thermal Power Station
HVDC Transmission System of Rihand Dadri
Line.

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Resources of Designer
CODES- National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC), Beuro Of
Indian Standards (BIS).
Insurance Agency
Feed Back From Operating Stn.
Latest Development in the Field.
Inert Gas System
Addressable Detection System
Multisensor Detectors

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Fire Risk Areas
Fuel Oil Storage & Handling System.
Coal Storage And Handling System
Cable Galleries
Steam Generator /WHRB
Transformers

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Fire Risk Areas- contd.
Lub Oil System
Generators
Control Room & CER
Air Pre-heaters
Gas Turbines
Gas Pressure Reducing Station

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Type Of Detectors
Heat Detectors
Smoke Detectors
Flame Detectors

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Heat Detectors +/-
Heat Detectors
Advantages
Simplest
Least Expensive
Reliable
Lowest False Alarm Rate
Disadvantages
Slowest to Respond

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Heat Detectors in Power Station
Typical Heat Detectors are:
Quartzoid Bulb Detector
Spot Type Heat Detector
Linear Heat Sensing Cables
Infrared Heat Detector

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LHSC & Infra-red detectors

LHSC Heat sensing cable comprises of


two conductors encased in heat sensitive
material
Infra-red Detects moving fires
Responds to Infra-Red Band of
Electromagnetic radiation
- Provided on conveyors coming from coal
stockyard
- going to coal bunkers.
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Use Of Heat Detectors
Used For Detection Of Fires In
Transformers
Coal Handling Plant
Fuel Oil Storage And Handling Plants
Boiler Burner Fronts
Lub Oil Storage Facilities
Battery Rooms

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Smoke Detectors +/-_
Smoke Detectors
Advantages
Fast Detection
Disadvantages
More Costly
Require More Maintenance
Higher False Alarm Rate

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Other Details of Smoke Detectors

Types Are
Ionisation
Photoelectric
Multisensor

Used In
Control Rooms
Control Equipment Rooms
Office Areas
MCC/Switch Gears Rooms
Cable Galleries

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Smoke Detectors
Ionisation type Smoke Detector is more
snsitive as compared to Photoelectric type
Detector.

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Smoke Detectors
Ionisation type Detector
It is Responsive to both Visible and
Invisible products of Combustion with
very early response to Fires in the
Incipient Stage
It can Detect Smoke Particles in the 0.01

to 10 Microne range .

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Ionization Detectors
Detector consists of ionizing chamber with
radio-active source
Smoke/Fire changes current in the ionization
chamber
Used for general office application
To avoid the use of radioactive element, these
detectors have now been replaced with Multi-
Sensor type detectors.

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Smoke Detectors
Optical/ Photoelectric
It is responsive to visible smoke
It can detect smoke particles in the

range of 0.5 to 10 microne


It is useful where an ionisation sensor is

too sensitive

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Photo-electric detector

Sensing element is an optical chamber


On fire/smoke, the light scattered in the
optical chamber varies
Smolder fires (Suitable for PVC fire)

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History of smoke detection
Early version of smoke detector 1896
Involved two birds in a cage
When overcome by fumes, would fall into a funnel at
the bottom of their cage.
The weight of their bodies would activate a circuit and
register an alarm.
Two birds were used so that in the event one died of
natural cause; the detector would not be triggered.
This was the earliest form of false alarm protection

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The cross-zoning principle was designed to
avoid pouring expensive extinguishing
chemicals into the room in a false fire scenario.

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Addressable Analog Detection
System-1
Microprocessor based
Smart & intelligent
Any kind of Detector or Alarm may be
incorporated
Detectors are monitored every 3 seconds
including their status, sensitivity etc.

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Addressable Analog Detection
System-2
Based on above programmed action can be
taken by panel e.g.
Transmit Alarm
Closing Doors
Suppression System
Printing records
Can Analyse & Adjust Sensitivity of Detector

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Components of Fire Alarm System

Detection
Protection
Annunciation
Central Fire Control Panel

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Fire Protection
Agents
Should be most effective
Safest
Least damaging to particular operation or
equipment
Pre-Planned
Equipment in Place

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Classification of Fires
Class-A
ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLES e.G. Wood,
Paper, Cloth& Plastics
Requires Cooling & Quenching
Class-B
Flammable liquid e.g. Gasoline, Oil, Paints
Etc.
Requires Blanketing,Smothering Or Chemical
Inhibition.

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Classification of fires-contd.

Class - C
Electrical fires
Requires non conducting extinguishing agent
with cooling, smothering or chemical inhibition
characteristics

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Classification of Fires-contd
Class - D
Combustible Metal Fires e.g. Mg., Al, Na, K
ETC.
Requires special Dry Powder which Blankets
the Fire and Exclude the Oxygen.

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Common Extinguishing Agents
Water
Oldest
Most Common
Abundant
In-expensive
Readily Available
Excellent Fire Extinguishing Properties

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Common Extinguishing Agents-contd.

Easily Transported or Moved.


Has Sufficient Surface Tension to allow it to
applied as a
Consolidated Stream
Discrete Water Droplets
Fog or Spray

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Automatic Sprinklers & Electrical Fires

Characteristics of water spray pattern


Little danger of the transmission of hazardous
current
Unlikely that personnel will be in the water
discharge area when sprinkler activates.

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Design aspects

Hydrant works as the back bone


Spray/sprinkler system provided for automatic
protection of transformers, coal handling plant,
cable galleries, fuel oil and transfer areas.
Foam protection system for fuel oil tanks,
Total flooding inert gas system for electronic
areas.

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JP- JOCKEY PUMP
HP- HYDRANT PUMP.

TO HYDRANT SP- SPRAY PUMP

SYSTEM MD- MOTOR DRIVEN. TO SPRAY


DD- DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEM
DRIVEN

HP- HP- HP- SP-


JP SP-
MD MD DD DD
MD

FIRE WATER
STORAGE TANKS
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MVW SPRAY SYSTEM

Provided to protect
Cable galleries/cable vault of
Main plant
ESP/ VFD building
CHP control room
Switchyard control room
Cable galleries provided in any other area

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MVW SPRAY SYSTEM-Contd.

Coal conveyors
Transfer points and crusher houses
Fuel oil tanks (NAPHTHA/NGL/HSD)
Fuel oil pump house eqpts.
Steam turbine bearing housing

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HVW SPRAY SYSTEM

Turbine oil tanks,coolers and purifiers


Turbine lube oil pipes
Boiler burner fronts
All transformers in transformer yard and
transformers of 10MVA and above in other
areas in the plant.
Oil canals

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General comments
Hydrant system is kept pressurised using Hydro-
pneumatic tank, air compressors and jockey pumps.
Hydro-pneumatic tank works as a surge tank.
Air compressor helps in maintaining adequate pressure in
the system.
Jockey pump helps in meeting minor losses.
Above system would work, if hydrant system is not used
for any other purpose.
It is observed that at site hydrant system is used for
cleaning and floor washing.

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Such a practice is very dangerous
May result in inadequate pressure at place of
fire in emergency situation.
To overcome this problem
Independent service water system with pumps
and piping network is being provided.
Jockey pump of higher capacity is being
provided. ( earlier it was 20 to 30 Cum./Hr.
now it is about 75 Cum./hr.)

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FIRE PROTECTION OF
CONTROL ROOMS AND
CONTROL EQUIPMENT
ROOMS

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BACKGROUND
-Devastating fire at OBRA TPS IN OCTOBER
1983

-C.E.A. Circulated the measures to be adopted


in fire fighting system in power stations.

-Recommendations-use Halon-1301 in control


room areas by total flooding system.

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BASIC REQUIREMENT

These are electronic areas


Agent requirements
High efficiency
Non-toxic
Non-damaging to equipment
Non-conductor of electricity
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INTRODUCTION IN NTPC
HALON 1301- Meet all the above
Used as a total flooding agent
OBRA FIRE IN 1983
Cause for introduction of agent in NTPC

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-HALON-1301, an excellent fire extinguishing
agent,

- For total flooding application

- Safe for use in manned areas

- Harmless to equipment.

-Accordingly, HALON-1301 gas was introduced in


NTPC For protection of CONTROL EQUIPMENT
ROOM (C.E.R.) and UNIT CONTRL ROOM (U.C.R.)
in 1984.

Subsequently all NTPC Projects at that time were


provided with HALON-1301.
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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
In 1991 due to adverse environmental impact
- further use of HALON was discontinued.

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HALON PHASE OUT
In view of environmental considerations, its
use was reviwed in NTPC in 1991 and it was
decided not to specify HALON System for
ongoing and future projects.

Accordingly, only portable extingushers


were provided for control room and modular
CO2 Injection system was to be explored for
individual panels in CONTROL EQUIPMENT
ROOM (C.E.R.)

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CO2 Injection system was not found suitable
because of objection raised by panel
manufacturers.

Hence this system has not been provided in any


NTPC Projects for U.C.R. AND C.E.R.

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The issue of fire protection system in
control rooms and control equipment
rooms was once again reviewed in NTPC
in 1999

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CLEAN AGENTS NOW AVAILABLE

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


USA has published a code NFPA-2001.
This code covers clean agent fire
extinguishing system as an alternative to
HALON.

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NFPA-2001
NFPA-2001,1996 MADE AVAILABLE FOR
CLEAN AGENT SYSTEMS

CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GASES

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


Physical charact-eristics Physical charact-eristics
CHEMICAL INERT GAS
SPEED OF EXTING-
SPEED OF EXTING-
UISHING
UISHING
Fast since total
agent discharge is in Relatively slower
10 sec. since total gas
discharge time is
about 60 sec.

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


Design concen-tration Concentration required
to extinguish fire to extinguish fire
7% 34%

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


CYLINDER STORAGE CYLINDER STORAGE
4 TIMES MORE THAN 10 TIMES MORE
HALON THAN HALON
CYLINDER CYLINDER
PRESSURE PRESSURE
25 TO 40 BAR 150 TO 300 BAR

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


GAS DISCHARGE GAS DISCHARGE
PRESSURE PRESSURE
5 BAR 25 BAR
VENTING DESIGN SPECIAL CARE IS TO BE
NOT SIGNIFICANT TAKEN IN ENCLOSURE
DESIGN WITH RESPECT
TO VENTING

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


Location of cylinder: Can be loacted 150m
should not be more away from the risk
than 20m away from
the risk

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


No. of cylinder banks - One bank can serve a
each bank can number of fire risks
serve only one fire risk using directional valve
Refill cost cheap

Refill cost very high

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COMPARISON OF CLEAN AGENTS

HALOCARBONS INERT GAS


Undergoes thermal and Not subject to any
chemical decomposition decomposition.
while extinguishing fire

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Halocarbon is a chemical agent. Hence,
possibility of its use being banned or
restricted in future can not be ruled out.

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INERT GASES

Normal level of oxygen -21% in atmosphere

To extinguish fire oxygen concentration should be less


than 15%

Oxygen concentration less than 12% is not safe for


human occupancy.

Inert gas reduces oxygen concentration ( to less than

15% but more than 12% and extinguish fire.

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HALOCARBONS-1
FM-200 - GREATLAKE CHEMICALS, USA
NAF-SIII- NORTH AMERICAN FIRE
GUARDIAN , CANADA, ITALY
FE-13 - Du PONT
CEA-410

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INERT GASES-1
INERGEN(N2-52%, ARGON -40%, CO2-8%)
ARGONITE (N2-50%, ARGON -50%)
ARGOTEC ( ARGON -100%)
NITROGEN (N2-100%)

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INERT GASES-1
These are mixture of freely available gases in
atmosphere
System design is proprietary
Refilling is cheaper
Requires more cylinders
Directional valves can be used.

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INERT GASES-3
INERGEN - AVAILABLE FROM TYCO USA,
ANSUL USA, WORMOLD AUSTRALIA.
ARGONITE - GINGE-KERR, DENMARK.
ARGOTEC - MINIMAX, GERMANY
NITROGEN - NOHMI BOSAI, JAPAN

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MONTREAL PROTOCOL
For India - eliminate HALON Consumption
completely by developing safer alternatives
by 2010.

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THANK YOU

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