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Binary Mathematics

Counting system
There are three kinds of people in the world:
those who can count, and those who can not.
- Unknown Wisdom

Todays class
Numbering system
Conversion between 10 based and 2 based
numbering system.
Binary Mathematics.
Quiz
Base 10 counting system
We happened to use
the current counting
system, because we
happened to have ten
fingers.
If dinosaurs had ruled
the earth, they would be
happy to use a 8-based
counting system.
Numbers
Ancient Africa
Notches on a bone.
Egyptians/Roman
Each magnitude is represented by a symbol.
Indian/Arabian (Modern numbering
system)

1,475,268
Base 10 (Decimal numbers)

What does 157 mean?


157 = 1 x 100 + 5 x 10 + 7 x 1
= 1 x 102 + 5 x 101 + 7 x 100
Binary Code

Imagine a specie that only has two fingers.


how can they count?
A computer is such kind of two-finger specie.
0 and 1
Each place is the exponential of 2
Base 10 vs Base 2
Base 10
157
157 = 1 x 100 + 5 x 10 + 7 x 1
= 1 x 102 + 5 x 101 + 7 x 100

Base 2
1011 = 1 x 23 + 0 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 1 x 20
1011 = 1 x 8 + 0 x 4 + 1 x 2 + 1 x 1
Binary Bits and Bytes

1 bit is a single bit of information, a 1 or 0


Only two possible values
1 byte is 8 bits, an 8 bit word
256 possible values from 0-255 base 10 or
00000000 to 11111111 base 2
10100110 is a single byte
Base 10 to Binary
Binary mathematics
0+0=0
1+0=1
1+1=10
Hexadecimal (base 16)
Binary code is too long in representation. Hex
is much shorter.
Converting a binary number to a Hex number
is relatively easy
Every 4 bit can convert to a Hex
Problem: we are short of numbers
A-10 B-11 C-12 D-13 E-14 F-15
Lookup table
Binary Hex Binary Hex
0000 0 1000 8
0001 1 1001 9
0010 2 1010 A
0011 3 1011 B
0100 4 1100 C
0101 5 1101 D
0110 6 1110 E
0111 7 1111 F
Example
Wisdom said
There are 10 kinds of people in the world,
those who use binary counting system, and
those who dont.
Quiz
No Calculators!!!!
Convert binary code to Decimal number.
10100101 (Bin)
Convert Decimal number to binary code
176 (Dec)
Convert Hexadecimal number to binary
BADDEF
Add these two binary numbers
10001101+11011100=?
Answer
10100101 (Binary) = 165 (Decimal)
176 (Decimal)= 10110000 (Binary)
BADDEF=1011,1010,1101,1101,1110,1111
The result of summation
101101001