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INTRODUCTION
Cut flowers
High valued crops
Highly perishable
Quality remain best at harvest
Cut flowers deteriorate as time
passes from harvesting
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How you will
minimize the on
going deterioration
of Cut flower after
harvesting

?
How long a Cut
flower will sustain
life

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It is the Respiration Rate of a flower that
determine how long a flower will sustain life

The next big question now is how to


reduce respiration rate

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SOLUTION
Proper TEMPERATURE management

Adequate FOOD supply


The higher the temperature, the higher is
the Respiration rate 7
To maintain the FLOWER QUALITY after
harvesting Cool Chain Management is
thus essential.

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Besides the DEPLETION OF FOOD Cut stem of
Flowers are perishable due to one or more of the
following reasons viz.,
Attacked by bacteria and fungi,
Normal maturation and aging ,
Desiccation due to water stress and xylem blockage,
Bruising and crushing,
Fluctuating temperatures during storage and transit,
Colour loss,
Accumulation of ethylene,
Poor water quality and
Sub optimal cultural management .
The flowers are thus required to be handled very
carefully and treated adequately during Pre harvest as
well as Post harvest period to maintain the
quality.

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Pre Harvest
oGenetic or inherent makeup Post Harvest Factors
oGrowing conditions Temperature
Light Light
Temperature Humidity
Humidity Water quality
Water Ethylene
Nutrients Preservatives
Pest & diseases Ventilation
Toxic gases Packaging
Diseases and Pests
Harvest
Stage of harvest
Time of harvest
Method of harvest
Post harvest handling of cut flowers
includes both harvest and handling.

Harvest includes the decision of when,


how and where to cut and the actual act
of cutting the flower.

Handling is everything else involved in


preparing the flowers for market.

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WHEN
Best time of day for harvesting
flowers

The best time is the coolest


part of the day and when there
is no surface water from dew
or rain on the plants.

This usually is in the cool of


the morning after the dew has
dried.

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General rules for when to harvest
are:
Spike type flowers
Harvest when one-fourth to one-half of
the individual florets are open;

Daisy type flowers


Harvest when flowers are fully open.

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Harvest Stage (I)
Stage of Development for Harvest of Fresh Cut Flowers
Name Stage of Development

Marigold Fully open flower

Tuberose More than 2 pairs of florets open

Rose Red and pink cultivars first 2 petals beginning to


unfold, calyx reflexed below a horizontal position
Yellow cultivars slightly earlier than red and Pink
White cultivars slightly later than red and pink

Chrysanthemum Standard cultivars outer petals fully elongated


Spray cultivars Singles open but before anthesis
Anemones open but before disk flowers start to
elongate Pompons and center of the oldest flower
decorative fully open

Gladiolus 1-5 buds showing color


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Harvest Stage (II)
Stage of Development for Harvest of Fresh Cut Flowers

Name Stage of Development

Gerbera outer row of flowers showing pollen

Carnation Standard cultivars half-open flowers


Spray cultivars 2 fully open flowers

Anthurium Spadix almost fully developed

Antirrhinum 1/3 florets open

China Aster fully open flowers

Coreopsis fully open flowers

Cocks Comb 1/2 florets open

Dahlia fully open flowers

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Maturity at Harvest

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Heliconia
Cut flower Dahlia

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Surface Evaporation

Colonization of Air will enter through xylem


microorganism in the vessels ( Air Embolism)
xylem vessels 19
A. Cut stem exuding milky fluid
Causes stem plugging.
Hot water dip for few seconds.

B. Vase life of cut flower


affected by stem cut ends.
Recutting the stem in water-
prevents decline in water uptake
Recutting eliminates air from the
conducting vessels which increase
rehydration rate.
Precooling

Rapid removal of field heat,


immediately after the harvest of
flowers.
Done by placing in cold storage
without packing or in open
boxes. Example :
Gladiolus : 5-7 0C
Precooling temperature varies Bird of Paradise : 7-8 0C
from species to species
Pulsing
The absorption of
chemical solutions
containing sugar and
germicide through the
lower cut bases of flower
stem is known as pulsing.

Sucrose replace the


depleted endogenous CHO
utilised during the post
harvest life of flowers.
Cont..

Advantages of pulsing

Prolongs vase life of flower

Promotes opening of buds &

It retains the colour of flower

Example :
Rose and chrysanthemum: 2-6
percent sucrose
Carnation: 10 percent Sucrose
Use of standard holding or vase solution:

It is the solution retained in the flower vase throughout


its vase life.

Holding solution contains:


1. Carbohydrates : Sucrose & Dextrose
2. Germicide: 8HQS, 8HQC
3. Growth regulator : Gibberlic acid, Cytokinins
4. Ethylene inhibitor: Amino-oxyacetic acid , Silver
thiosulphate
5. Mineral salts : Aluminium sulphate, Silver nitrate
6. Organic acid : Citric acid , Benzoic acid

Preservatives are also available in tablets form.


Flower Senescence

Effect of ethylene action inhibitors on senescence of cut


carnation flowers

+ Ethylene

Control 1-MCP STS


Germicides used as floral preservatives

Compound Name Symbol Concentration


Range (ppm)

8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate 8-HQS 200 - 600


8-hydroxyquinoline citrate 8-HQC 200 - 600
Silver nitrate AgNO3 10 - 200
Silver thiosulphate STS 0.2 4 mM
Thiobendazole TBZ 5 - 300
Quaternary ammonium salts QAS 5 - 300
Slow release chlorine SRC 50 - 400
Aluminum sulphate Al2(SO4)3 200 - 300

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Rose
Carnation Gerbera

Anthurium Chrysanthemum Gladiolous


ROSE
Stage of harvest :
Red and Pink: 1-2 petals unfold slightly
Yellow :Slightly earlier than red roses
White : Slightly later than red roses

Precooling : 4 0C
0
Storage : Stored wet at 2-5 C for 5-7 days
0
dry at 0-1 C for 5-7 days

Vase life :4-7 days

Floral preservative: Al2(SO4)3 300ppm +


citric acid 300ppm increased vase life of
flowers
CHRYSANTHEMUM
Stage of Harvest : 1-2 rays of row
florets fully opened

Precooling: 2-4 0C

Storage : Flowers can be stored dry


at-0.5 to 10C for 3-4 weeks.

Vase life: 10-15 days

Floral preservative : 8-HQS 150ppm


+50ppm Silver nitrate + 3% Sucrose
CARNATION
Stage of harvest: Flowers are harvested
at paint brush stage

Precooling temperature : 2-2.5 0C

Storage:
stored dry for 8weeks at -0.5 - 0 0C
wet for 2 weeks at 3-4 0C

Vase life: 14-21 days

Floral preservatives: 0.4mM STS+ 50gL-


1sucrose
GERBERA
Stage of harvest : Outer
petals are fully opened

Precooling temperature : 2-4


0
C

Storage : Flowers stored dry at


2 0C in moisture retentive boxes
for about two days or wet in
water at 4 0Cfor 5-7 days
Vase life : 8-9 days

Floral preservative : AgNO3


20ppm + Sucrose 4%
ANTHURIUM

Stage of harvest : 1/3rd of flowers


on spadix open.

Precooling: 11-13 0C

Storage: It can be stored in water at


13 0C for 3-5 weeks
Vase life : 20-25 days.

Floral preservative: 8-Hydroxy


quinoline Sulphate 400ppm + sucrose
5%
GLADIOLUS
Stage of harvest : Basal 1-2
florets are just opened

Precooling temperature: 5-7


0
C

Storage: dry by wrapping in


moisture proof material for 14-
20 days at 3-40 C

Vase life : 7-12 days

Floral preservatives: Sucrose


2% + 88HQC 200ppm
Floral Packaging

Boxes: Sturdy chipboard


floral boxes protect
bouquets.

Sleeves: Polypropylene
floral sleeves are ideal
for wrapping cut flowers.

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Gerbera

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Packages
CORRUGATED FIBRE BOARD BOXES

CARTOON PACKAGE PLASTIC PACKAGE


COLD STORAGE ROOMS
REFRIGERATED VANS FOR FLOWERS TRANSPORT
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