Você está na página 1de 30

Plant Hardening

August 2008
Kajola-Kristada
Architecture

Kajola-Kristada
Changing Modulation Schemes

Service Calls
Increasing the modulation scheme will carry more data in the
same bandwidth
QPSK to 16 QAM to 32 QAM
64 QAM to 256 QAM and beyond.
Increasing the modulation scheme demands improved
performance in the system to obtain similar results
From QPSK to 16QAM theoretically demands an additional 4-6dB noise
improvement
Signal levels can be adjusted to overcome the CNR but this may have
significant negative effects on the distortion parameters.

Kajola-Kristada
Why does performance need to improve?

Increasing subscriber penetration for 2 way digital services decreases C/N and
increases MER
Less BW per subscriber requires advanced modulation techniques to deliver
more
Network requires better performance to deliver the same quality
BER
50%

40%

30%

20%
CNR

Kajola-Kristada
Increasing the modulation scheme requires
additional headroom above the threshold.

Strong / Good
Good Video (forward path)
BAD High Speed Data
NO VoIP Functional

Operating Level
Service Threshold with 16 QAM
Carrier to Noise
BER
Intermittent

Service Threshold with QPSK

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Why it may be a challenge

Strong / Good

Ingress Typically limits the Functional


upstream of the 5-15 MHz range

Operating Level

Intermittent

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Plant RF Impairments
Micro-Reflections; Ingress
Noise;Group delay; CPD
Strong / Good Good Video
Slower High Speed Data
Functioning VoIP
Functional

Operating Level

VoIP / HSD
Carrier
VoIP / HSD
Carrier Intermittent

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Plant Issues
Water Migration, Poor Installation
Practice,
Connection Issues
Strong / Good

Corrected
Functional

Operating Level Good Video Possible


Connector Issue Slow High Speed Data or..
Intermittent VoIP

VoIP / HSD
Good Video Possible
Carrier
Intermittent
Slow or No High Speed Data
No VoIP

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Ingress degrades quality lowering threshold.
Ingress
Significantly effects forward error correction which results in packet
loss and loss of connection for VoIP (high speed data as well)
It is caused by
Craft errors
Damaged cable / connectors
Strong / Good Un-terminated ports
Poor RF shielding on components
Moisture penetration

Functional

Operating Level
Service Threshold

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Ways to improve performance.
1. Segment the node by adding additional forward and return optics.
Improves Noise and Distortion
Increases BW per sub
2. CMTS and DOCSIS technology that lower the threshold
3. Use Line Conditioning Tools
Step Attenuators
Filters
4. Clean up (or harden) the plant
5. Add additional Return Bandwidth beyond 42 MHz and / or increase upper limit to 1GHz.

Kajola-Kristada
* Step 1
Low value Tap, a step attenuator has been
installed lowering the entire return band. Noise
/ Ingress and Data Carrier(s)1

Strong / Good
Hub or Head end
Network Docsis
CMTS
Modem Functional
Fwd Receiver
and Return
Data Carrier

Operating Level Example:


Carrier to Noise 12 dB Step Attn
BER Intermittent

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
* Step 2
The CMTS Auto Level will turn up the Data
Carrier to the original level no longer impaired by
the ingress.
Line Conditioning Step Attenuators
Strong / Good

Network Docsis
CMTS
Modem Functional
Fwd Receiver
and Return
Data Carrier
Operating
Level Example:
12 dB Step Attn
Carrier to Intermittent
Noise
BER

Service Threshold

Weak / Poor No Service

5 MHz Return Band Frequency 42 MHz

Kajola-Kristada
Customer Experience

Kajola-Kristada
Operating Condition

Snug It Up

Kajola-Kristada
Impedance
Impedance is d - Conductor
determine by the Diameter
center conductor, core
diameter and E E
material constant. Constant
Material
Impedance Formula
138 D
Zo = ---- (Log10---) D - Core
Diameter
E d

Kajola-Kristada
Impedance Discontinuities

Core must remain concentric at all


times. (Exaggerated coax core)

The impedance of the cable must be preserved during the install to


guarantee the the best possible signal and longevity.

Kajola-Kristada
Signal reflections occur throughout the cable plant and are called micro-reflections.
They are caused by the individual slight errors in impedance match.
The severity of the mismatch is measured by the magnitude of the return-loss ratio.
The larger the return loss, the better, perfection is infinite.
Mismatches may include connectors, mis-installed products, poor construction and damaged cable.
For example - If a lousy splice block is installed approximately 150 feet past an amplifier.
The splice, which may only have a 12 dB return loss, reflects signals back upstream that has been attenuated by 13.5 dB (1.5 dB in cable attenuation plus the return loss of the
splice).
The reflected signals then arrive back at the output of the amplifier attenuated by a total of 15 dB (1.5 dB additional cable loss for the upstream trip plus the previous 13.5 dB).
The signals are now reflected by the amplifiers output mismatch, A return loss of 16 dB is common.
At this point, the reflected signal has an amplitude that is 31 dB below the primary signal and delayed by the round-trip propagation through 300 feet of cable, which takes
about 350 ns.
The signal is horizontally delayed approximately 1/7 inch on a 27-inch television set.
This is not enough to become a visible ghost or second image.
However, depending on the relative phases of the RF carriers of the primary and reflected signal,
the visual effect may be enough to cause a softening of a previously well-defined luminance
level transition.
With repeated mismatches, the crispness of the pictures may be noticeably
reduced.
This softening effect is easily seen on displays of character-generated text pages.

Kajola-Kristada
CPD Common Path Distortion, also
known as PIM: Passive InterModulation
Only occurs where downstream and
upstream share the same path
Amplifier, Tap, and Passive ports
It is a diode effect that creates intermod
products usually at 6 MHz intervals
Accentuated with higher signals

Kajola-Kristada
What causes CPD?
- Contact problems cause
non-linear effects:
Oxidized contact surfaces
Contaminated contact surfaces
Too low contact pressure
Loose components

Kajola-Kristada
Ref. Level

500 kHz

15 MHz 25 MHz
12/05/2004
Plant Trouble Calls

Kajola-Kristada
Hardline

Cable is defined
Connector to equipment interface is defined
Connector to cable interface defined

www.scte.org/standards

Kajola-Kristada
Hardline Cable Prep

A Center Conductor
B Core Depth
X and Y No Burrs or Rough Edges

Kajola-Kristada
Typical Hardline Connector Retention Forces
Center Conductor Outer Conductor Combined Force
Cable Size Force (lbs) Force (lbs) (lbs)
.412 - .440 100 250 400
.500 - .540 150 350 500
.565 175 400 575
.625 200 400 600
.700 225 425 650
.715 225 425 650
.750 250 450 700
.840 275 475 750
.860 315 480 795
.875 300 500 800
1.000 1.125 350 600 950
1.160 375 650 1025

Kajola-Kristada
Kajola-Kristada
Drop
The cable is defined
The connector male and female is defined
Established test procedures for electrical, mechanical and
environmental performance.

www.scte.org/standards

Kajola-Kristada
Kajola-Kristada
Hardening

Cable
Damage
Modem
Off Air
Fwd
signal
and Ret
s
Levels Cordless
Phone

Old TV

Fan Motor
Noise
AC Unit

Video
Games
Appliance
Noise
Ground block
to code
Architecture DC Motor
In-House Florescent Noise
Lights

Kajola-Kristada
Summary
Improving the Network
Tighten the plant
Line Conditioning
Reducing Node Sizes
CMTS / DOCSIS advancements
The Drop Plant may very well still be the weakest
link.
Connections (Moisture and Loose
connectors) cost $$
F-Connectors, F-81s, Terminators

Kajola-Kristada
Thanks

Kajola-Kristada