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Chapter 1

Introduction to
Organizational Behavior
OB studies what people do in an
organization and how that
behavior affects the performance
of the organization.
Effective manager vs. successful manager

Management duties
What managers do

Management roles

Management skills
Management functions
Planning

Organizing

Leading

Controlling
Managerial Roles
Interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader, and
liaison) involve managers interacting with
people inside and outside their work units
Informational roles (monitor, disseminator, and
spokesperson) require managers to receive and
communicate information
Decisional roles (entrepreneur, disturbance
handler, resource allocator, and negotiator)
require managers to make decisions to solve
problems or take advantage of opportunities
1. Interpersonal Roles
In your figurehead role, you show visitors around
Figurehead your company, attend employee birthday parties,
and present ethical guidelines to your
subordinates. In other words, you perform
Role symbolic tasks that represent your organization.

In your role of leader, you are responsible for


Leadership the actions of your subordinates, since their
successes and failures reflect on you. Your
leadership is expressed in your decisions about
Role training, motivating, and disciplining people.

In your liaison role, you must act like a


Liasion politician, working with other people outside your
work unit and organization to develop alliances
that will help you achieve your organization's
Role goals.
Informational Roles
As a monitor, you should be constantly alert for
useful information, whether gathered from
Monitor Role newspaper stories about the competition or
gathered from snippets of conversation with
subordinates you meet in the hallway.

Workers complain they never know what's going


Disseminator on? That probably means their supervisor failed
in the role of disseminator. Managers need to
Role constantly disseminate important information to
employees, as via e-mail and meetings.

You are expected, of course, to be a diplomat, to


Spokesperson put the best face on the activities of your work
unit or organization to people outside it. This is
Role the informational role of spokesperson.
Decisional Roles
A good manager is expected to be an
Entrepreneur entrepreneur, to initiate and encourage
change and innovation.
Role
Unforeseen problems-from product
Disturbance defects to international currency crises-
require you be a disturbance handler,
Handler fixing problems.

Because you'll never have enough time,


Resource money, and so on, you'll need to be a
resource allocator, setting priorities about
Allocator use of resources.

To be a manager is to be a continual
Negotiator negotiator, working with others inside and
outside the organization to accomplish
Role your goals.
Management skills
Technical skills

Human skills

Conceptual skills
What is Organizational
Behavior?
Organizational behavior
(OB) is the study of the
impact that individuals,
groups and structure have
on behavior within
organizations, for the
purpose of applying such
knowledge toward
improving an organizations
effectiveness

6
Goals of Organizational
Behavior

Explain, predict, and


control human behavior
The field of OB seeks to replace
intuitive explanations with
systematic study
What other knowledge
help us understand OB?
Contributing Disciplines
Psychology seeks to Sociology studies
measure,explain, people in relation to their
and change fellow human beings
behavior

Social psychology
focuses on the
influence of people
on one another

Political science is the


Anthropology is the
study of the
study of societies
behavior of individuals
to learn about human
and groups within
beings and their activities
a political environment
OB Model
Dependent variable
Things which will be affected by OB
Productivity
What factors influence the effectiveness and
efficiency of individuals
Absenteeism
Absenteeism is not all bad
Having too high employee absent rate will affect
productivity
Turnover
Not all turnover is bad
High turnover ratein some degree affect
productivity, particularly 4 the hospitality inducstry
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
No one will want to pick up the slack
No one would want to walk extra miles to achieve
the goals.
Job satisfaction
Unhappy employeeswhat else can you say?
Organizational citizenship
Discretionary behavior
Not part of an employee's formal job
requirements
Promotes the effective functioning of the
organization
Examples of Organizational
Citizenship
Helping others on one's work team
Volunteering for extra job activities
Avoiding unnecessary conflicts
Making constructive statements about
one's work group and the overall
organization
Independent variables
Individual variables
Age, gender, personality, emotion, values, attitude,
ability
Perception, individual decision making, learning, and
motivation
Group variables
Norm, communication, leadership, power, politics
Organization system variables
Organizational culture, HR practices
Challenges and
Opportunities for OB
Typical employee is getting older
More women and minorities in the workplace
Global competition is requiring employees to
become more flexible
Historical loyalty-bonds that held many
employees to their employers are being
severed
Responding to Globalization

Increased Foreign Assignments


Working with People from Different
Cultures
Coping with Anti-Capitalism Backlash
Overseeing Movement of Jobs to
Countries with Low-cost Labor
Managing Diversity
Workforce diversity -
organizations are
becoming a more
heterogeneous mix of
people in terms of gender,
age, race, ethnicity, and
sexual orientation
Diversity Implications
Managers have to shift their philosophy
from treating everyone alike to
recognizing differences and responding
to those differences in ways that ensure
employee retention and greater
productivity.
Improving People Skills
Improving Customer Service
Empowering People
Working in Networked Organizations
Stimulating Innovation and Change
Coping with Temporariness
Helping Employees Balance Work/Life
Conflicts
Declining Employee Loyalty
Improving Ethical Behavior