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ROLL NO. : B-46
3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional
object is created by laying down successive layers of material.

It is also known as Additive manufacturing.

3D printing is achieved using an additive process, where successive layers of material

are laid down in different shapes.
The technology for printing physical 3D objects from digital data was first developed
by Charles Hull in 1984.
He named the technique as Stereo lithography and obtained a patent for the
technique in 1986.
By the end of 1980s, other similar technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling
(FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were introduced.
In 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another technology,
named "3 Dimensional Printing techniques", which is similar to the inkjet technology
used in 2D Printers.
In 1996, three major products, "Genisys" from Stratasys, "Actua 2100" from 3D
Systems and "Z402" from Z Corporation, were introduced.
In 2005, Z Corp. launched a breakthrough product, named Spectrum Z510, which
was the first high definition color 3D Printer in the market.
Additive manufacturing - refers to technologies that create objects through sequential

Rapid prototyping - is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a

physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design (CAD) data.

Subtractive processes - removal of material by methods such as cutting or drilling.

Stereolithography was defined by Charles W. Hull as a "system for generating three-

dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed"
3D printable models may be created with a computer aided design package or via 3D

The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics
is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting.

3D scanning is a process of analyzing and collecting data of real object; its shape and
appearance and builds digital, three dimensional models.
To perform a print, the machine reads the design from 3D printable file (STL file).
STL file STereoLithography
It lays down successive layers of liquid, powder, paper or sheet material to build the
model from a series of cross sections.
These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross sections from the CAD model, are
joined or automatically fused to create the final shape.
Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dpi (dots per inch),
or micrometers.
X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers.
The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 m (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.
Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, printing a
slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then
removing material with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater

Supports are removable or dissolvable upon completion of the print, and are used to
support overhanging features during construction.
Extrusion deposition (Fused deposition modeling)
Granular materials binding
Mask-image-projection-based stereolithography
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing technology commonly
used for modeling, prototyping, and production applications.
FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers; a plastic
filament or metal wire is unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a part.
Various polymers are used
o Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
o Polycarbonate (PC),
o Polylactic Acid (PLA)
o High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
o Polyphenylsulfone (PPSU).
1 nozzle ejecting molten plastic
2 deposited material (modeled part)
3 controlled movable table
The technique fuses parts of the layer, and then moves the working area downwards,
adding another layer of granules and repeating the process until the piece has built

This process uses the unfused media to support overhangs and thin walls in the part
being produced.

A laser is typically used to sinter the media into a solid.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) --- uses lasers as its power source to sinter powdered
material, binding it together to create a solid structure.

Selective Laser Melting (SLM) -- uses 3D CAD data as a digital information source and
energy in the form of a high powered laser to create three-dimensional metal parts by
fusing fine metallic powders together.

Electron beam melting (EBM) -- EBM manufactures parts by melting metal powder
layer by layer with an electron beam in a high vacuum.
Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller.
Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype.
Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal.
Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way.
Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position.
Platform moves up into position to receive next layer.
The process is repeated.
1. Foil supply

2. Heated roller

3. Laser beam

4. Scanning prism

5. Laser unit

6. Layers

7. Moving platform

8. Waste
Photopolymerization is primarily used in stereolithography (SLA) to produce a solid
part from a liquid.
In Digital Light Processing (DLP), a vat of liquid polymer is exposed to light from a DLP
projector under safelight conditions. The exposed liquid polymer hardens.
The build plate then moves down in small increments and the liquid polymer is again
exposed to light.
The process repeats until the model has been built.
Inkjet printer systems like the Objet PolyJet system spray photopolymer materials
onto a build tray in ultra-thin layers (between 16 and 30 m) until the part is
In this technique a 3D digital model is sliced by a set of horizontal planes.

Each slice is converted into a two-dimensional mask image.

The mask image is then projected onto a photocurable liquid resin surface.

Light is projected onto the resin to cure it in the shape of the layer.
RepRap version 2.0 (Mendel) MakerBot Cupcake CNC. Airwolf 3D AW3D v.4 (Prusa)
Industrial uses
Rapid Prototyping
Rapid Manufacturing
Mass Customization
Mass Production
Domestic and hobbyist uses
3D Bio-printing
3D Printing For Implant And Medical Device
3D Printing Services
Future applications for 3D printing might include creating open-source scientific
equipment to create open source labs.
Science-based applications like reconstructing fossils in paleontology.
Replicating ancient and priceless artifacts in archaeology.
Reconstructing bones and body parts in forensic pathology.
Reconstructing heavily damaged evidence acquired from crime scene investigations.
The technology currently being researched for building construction.
Space exploration
Making spare parts on the fly
Cheaper and more efficient space exploration
Social change
Conventional relationship between the home and the workplace might get
further eroded.
It becomes easier to transmit designs for new objects around the globe.
Intellectual property rights of the 3D printer users.

Nearly anything can be printed by 3D printers and this is troubling prospect

if criminals use 3D printers to create illegal products.

Firearms could be downloaded and reproduced by anybody with a 3D

3D Printing technology could revolutionize and re-shape the world. Advances in 3D
printing technology can significantly change and improve the way we manufacture
products and produce goods worldwide.

If the last industrial revolution brought us mass production and the advent of economies
of scale - the digital 3D printing revolution could bring mass manufacturing back a full
circle - to an era of mass personalization, and a return to individual craftsmanship.