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Grammar IV

KELOMPOK 3
HILMIYATI
JAMILAH
MUHAMAD REDHA
MURSIDAH
ROULA ANNISA
SARI SAFRIANA
SURIANTIALFISYAH
ADVERB CLAUSES OF
CONDITION : USING UNLESS
Ill go swimming tomorrow unless it is cold.

Ill go swimming tomorrow if it isnt cold.


Exercise UNLESS

Directions : Make sentences with the


same meaning by using unless.
I will go to the zoo if it isnt cold.
Youll get hungry during class if you
dont breakfast.
Answer

Answer : I will go to the zoo unless its


cold.
Answer : Youll get hungry during class
unless you eat breakfast.
Adverb Clauses of
Condition: Using Only If
The picnic will be cancelled
only if it rains.
If its windy, well go on the
picnic.
Only if expresses the idea that
If its cold, well go on the there is only one condition that
picnic.
If its damp and foggy, well will cause a particular result.
go on the picnic.
If its unbearably hot, well go
on the picnic.

When only if begins a sentence,


Only if it rains will the picnic be the subject and verb of the main
cancelled. clause are inverted. No commas
are used.

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Example
The temperature has to reach 32F/0 C before water
will freeze.
Water will freeze only if the temperature has to reach
32F/0 C
John must take an additional science class in order to
graduate. That is the only condition under which he
can graduate. If he doesnt take an additional science
class, he cant graduate.
o John can graduate only if he takes an additional
science class.
o Only if he takes an additional science class can John
graduate.
Excercise
1.You must study hard. Then you will pass
the exam.
2.You have to have a ticket. Then you can
get into the soccer stadium
Answer key
1. you will pass the exam only if you study hard.
only if you study hard will you pass the exam.
2.You can get into the soccer stadium only if you have a
ticket.
only if you have a ticket can you get into the soccer
stadium.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF
CONDITION : USING ONLY IF
other subordinating conjunctions and
prepositional phrases and by only at the
beginning of a sentence require subject verb
inversion in the main clause.:
Only when the teacher dismisses us can
we stand and leave the room.
Only after the phonerang did I realize that I
had fallen asleep in my chair.
Onlyin my hometown do I feel at ease
USING BECAUSE OF AND
DUE TO
Because introduces an adverb clause

Because of is an adverbial prepositional


phrase
USING BECAUSE OF AND
DUE TO
Because the weather was cold, we stayed
home.

Because of the cold weather, we stayed


home.

Due to the cold weather, we stayed home.


USING BECAUSE OF AND
DUE TO
If the sentence which is followed by because is verbal
sentence, change it into noun.
Example:
The sky gets noisy because the birds migrates.
(migrates = verb)
The sky gets noisy because of the birds migration.
(migration = noun)
I dont go out to the cinema because it rains.(rains =
verb)
I dont go out to the cinema because of the rain.
(rain = noun)
USING BECAUSE OF AND
DUE TO
If the sentence which is followed by because is nominal sentence,
change it into noun phrase.
I need the blanket because the weather is cold.
I need the blanket because of the cold weather.
I need the blanket due to the cold weather.
We have to use the masker because the fog is heavy.
We have to use the masker because of the heavy fog.
We have to use the masker due to the heavy fog.
USING BECAUSE OF AND
DUE TO
Notice the possessive adjective.
- Lisa loves Micah because he is charming. (he)
- Lisa love Micah because of his charming. (his)
- Yanti likes caring the cats because they have soft fur.
(they)
- Yanti likes caring the cats because of their soft fur.
(their)
- Zach is called the demon because he has bad attitude.
- Zach is called the demon because of his bad attitude.
Exercises because of or due
to
1. We were late to the meeting, due to the
traffic heavy (T/F)
2. Due to circumstances beyond my control,
I regret to say that i can not be present at
your daughters wedding (T/F)

1. F
2. T
USING TRANSITIONS:
THEREFORE AND CONSEQUENTLY
Therefore and consequently mean as a
result.
In grammar, they are called transitions
(conjunctive adverbs).
Transitions connect the ideas between two
sentences. Therefore and consequently
have similar meaning to so.
USING TRANSITIONS:
THEREFORE AND CONSEQUENTLY
Al failed the test because he didnt study.
Al didnt study. Therefore, he failed the
test.
Al didnt study. Consequently, he failed
the test.
POSITION OF TRANSITION

Transition + S + V (+ rest of sentence)


Al didnt study. Therefore, he failed the test.
S + transition + V (+ rest of sentence)
Al didnt study. He, therefore, failed the test
S + V (+ rest of sentence) + transition
Al didnt study. He failed the test, therefore.
Punctuation
Adverb clause
Because it was hot, we went swimming
We went swimming because it was hot
Preposition
Because of the hot weather, we went
swimming
We went swimming because of the hot
weather
Punctuation
Transition
It was hot. Therefore, we went swimming.
It was hot. We, therefore, went swimming.
It was hot. We went swimming, therefore.
Conjunction
It was hot so we went swimming
Exercises therefore and
consequently
1. Therefore, The children stayed home. A
strom was approaching (T/F)
2. I didnt have my umbrella. I got wet,
consequently (T/F)

1.F
2.T