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Natural Catastrophic

events
volcanism

earthquake

Tsunami
Geomorpho
complete sequence of processes of
creation and movement of magma +
creation of volcanic landforms Volcanism
Volcanism is not random
Reason associated with volcanism
is also not random
Distribution of Volcanism

1st
Pacific Ring of Fire
O-O convergence
O-C convergence
Plate movements
O-O : Volcanic arc O-C :Volcanic mountains
Mid Oceanic Ridge

2nd
O-O divergence
Basaltic peaceful
eruption
Mediterranean volcanism
3th
Breaking up of
Mediterranean plates
into multiple blocks
Andesitic eruption
Frequent interaction
Mt. Etna, Mt.
Vesuvius
History of Mediterranean sea

Mediterranean sea is
residual part of Tethys
sea
Tethys sea was located
between Laurasia
and Gondwana
Collision of Africa to
Laurasia breaking up
of plates of
Mediterranean sea
Hot Spot Volcanoes
4th
Magma From deep
interior -Basaltic
Fixed place - Plate
movement Island
arc
Direction of plate
Hawaii, Reunion,
Kurile, Aleutian
Aleutian Islands
comparison
Basaltic eruption Andesitic eruption

Occur at mid-oceanic Volcanic arcs, volcanic


ridge and hot spot mountains
volcanism Andesite less fluid less
Basalt highly fluid mobile
mobile Solidifies at short
Spread across easily distance- intense pressure
Quite eruption develop inside explosive
comparison
Basaltic eruption Andesitic eruption
Volcanic Landforms

Volcanic
plateau
Extrusive
Volcanic
Landforms cones

Intrusive Dykes etc.


Intrusive Landforms
Intrusive Volcanic Landforms
Intrusive Landforms
Intrusion of Magma in sedimentary rocks
Sills (Horizontal)
Dyke (Vertical)
Laccolith magma which could not come
out
Lopolith saucer-shaped
Phacolith shape like waves
Batholith intrusive granitic rock
Extrusive volcanic Landforms

Volcanic Shield
Plateau volcano
Extrusive
Volcanic
Cinder vol.
cones
Composite
vol.
Lava plateaus
Hot spot volcano on
continental crust
Cracks on continental
crust Basaltic
eruption
Spread across the land
Layer over layer
EX. Deccan lava trapps
Indian Deccan trap
Indian plate passed
over a hot spot near
Reunion Island
Basaltic eruption
Layer over layers
looks like steps =>
Deccan lava traps
Soil black soil regur
Spatial distribution of Lava Plateau
List of lava plateaus of the world
Columbia-snake Deccan plateau, India
plateau, USA Arabian plateau
Ozark plateau, USA Balkan plateau, Europe
Parana-Patagonia, S. Siberian plateau,
America Russia
Adamawa plateau, Yunan Plateau, China
Africa
Shan plateau, Myanmar
Bie plateau, Africa
Kimberly plateau,
Katanga Plateau, Australia
Africa
Extrusive volcanic Landforms

Volcanic Shield
Plateau volcano
Extrusive
Volcanic
Cinder vol.
cones
Composite
vol.
Shield / Dome volcano

Volcanic Islands (Hot


spot)
Highly fluid lava
(basaltic) build dome
Gentle slope
Quite volcano
Volcanoes of Hawaii
Cinder cones
O-C collision volcanic
mountains
Less fluid lava
(Andesitic) explode
violently
Viscous lava solidifies
at short distance

Mt. Paricutin, Mexico


Composite Cones
Volcanic mountains
Each new eruption
new layers of ash or
lava

Mt. Stromboli, Mt.


Vesuvius, Mt. Fuji
Types of Volcanic cones
Shield/ dome Cinder Composite

Highly fluid Less fluid / highly Fluid + viscous


viscous
Silent flow Violent eruption Multiple and
violent eruption
Gentle slope Steep slope Highest
volcanoes
Small volcanoes Small volcanoes Large volcanoes
Geysers
Geysers
=fountains of Hot
water
Ground water
heated by shallow
source of magma
Old faithful
geyser, Yellow
stone park, USA
Hot Spring
Hot Spring:
Water reach deep
enough heated by
interior
Locate any part of the
world
Difference between geyser and Hotspring
Geyser G/w heated by
shallow magma source
Hot spring g/w heated by
either magma source or
heated rocks
Geyser chamber in
interior pressure
comes out like fountain
Hot spring - quite
comparison
geyser Hot spring

Geysers are rare Found anywhere


Hot water dissolved with They gets different colors
silica accumulated on from heat-loving bacteria,
surface gives different like cyanobacteria
colours Medicinal values
USA, - Yellowstone park Can be helpful in harness
geo-thermal energy
Geo-thermal energy

Heated water is
taken out used
for moving turbine
generation of
electricity
Cooled water
flown back into
interior
Limitations of geo-thermal energy
Difficult to locate a good source of
geothermal reservoir with current technology
Difficult to dig a deep well with hard and hot
bedrock
Harmful gases can escape from the earth
interior while exploration GHG gases and
dissolved toxic elements
volcanism

earthquake

Tsunami
Geomorpho
Sudden movement or vibration in
earths crust.
Earthquake

Release of the energy due to intense


pressure + active internal dynamism
of the earth
Types of Earthquake
1) Shallow focus EQ
2) Intermediate
focus EQ
3) Deep focus EQ

Shallow focus
destructive
Earthquakes in Japan
At Junction of 3 plates Subduction of Pacific plate
Reasons behind EQ
1st
Collision of Plate
boundaries
O-O collision
O-C collision
C-C collision
Reasons behind EQ
2nd
Divergent Plate
boundaries

O-O divergence
MOR
Reasons behind EQ

3th
Transverse plate
boundaries
Friction developed
between two plates
Reasons behind EQ
4th
Mediterranean sea
region
Numerous small
plates
Frequent
interactions
Reasons behind EQ
5th 6th
Craton = stable part of Human Induced
crust 1) RIS
Re-emergence of old 2) mining
fractures
3) Nuclear testing
Catastrophic events on earth
Their reasons and distributions
Volcanism
EQ
Geomorphology
Oceanography
volcanism

earthquake

Tsunami
Geomorpho
Submarine EQ
Sudden disturbances of underlying Tsunami
plates transmit the shock waves to
surface waves
comparison
Normal waves Tsunami waves

Speed 100 kmph Speed 700 kmph


Cover shorter distances Cover longer distances
Wavelength ~100 km Wavelength > 150 km
wavelength
Distance between two
crests of troughs =
wavelength

Waves of Tsunami are


wider than normal
waves of the ocean
water
Phase 1
EQ on ocean crust
uplift the water upward
Tsunami wave
generated
Sea water recede at
the shore
Vessels in the mid-sea
cannot recongnise the
tsunami waves
Phase 2
At coast depth
decrease wavelength
decreases wave
height increases
A huge wall of water
10-12 floor high
created
Enormous energy
released at the shore
Phase 3
Hit the coast
Tsunami- not a single
wave but multiple
waves
4th and 8th waves are
the most dangerous
Time lapse between
each waves 15 to 50
minutes
Phases of tsunami
Indian preparedness against Tsunami
Tsunami Early warning system- gives warning in
10 minutes of submarine earthquake
Indian National centre for Ocean Information
Sciences (INCOIS),Hyderabad
To capture Tsunami wave amplitude on 24x7
basis
real time sea-level sensors with bottom
pressure recorders
HF radars for coastal currents
Coastal tide gauge stations
Geomorphology
Interior of the earth
Continental drift sea floor sprading-
plate tectonic theories
Mountains plateaus plains
Catastrophic events Volcanism, EQ
and Tsunami