Você está na página 1de 24

A Microcontroller

Based Power
Management
System for
Standalone Micro
grids With Hybrid
Power Supply
INTRODUCTION

DISTRIBUTED generation result in enhanced continuity of


service and in increased customer participation to the
electricity market.

By allowing the network to operate in islanded conditions


these opportunities can be achieved

Fuel cells provide clean and silent operation, cost effective


supply of power
PEM FC
DESCRIPTION OF PEM FC

FC stack is fed by hydrogen from anode

Pressure reducing valve reduces the inlet

pressure to 1.8 bar

Two electro valves are placed at inlet and


FUNCTIONS OF AUTOMATIC PMS

Functions of PMS is governed by following


peculiarities
1. maximum power provided by pv array is lower
than maximum power absorbed by battery during
charging phase
2. Fc is requested to operate when the system is
disconnected from the external distribution system
OPERATING MODES OF FC
Cont.
BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE
ESTIMATION
Estimation models depends upon five basic
criteria
1.measurement of electrolyte specific gravity
2.battery current time integration
3.battery impedance /resistance estimation
4.measurement of battery open circuit voltage
5.models that take into account the electrolyte
temperature, discharge, rate and other
Cont.
The equation summarizes the methods 2, 4, 5

where
Cont.
EXPERIMENTAL
VALIDATION OF THE SOC
Initial battery SOC is adjusted to 50%
ESTIMATION

Then microgrid is activated in variable load


profiles
Thetest is stopped when predefined final
estimate value is reached
Different
test is performed for values 30%,
40%,50%,60%
Atend of each test battery is disconnected and
discharged with a constant rate
CONTROL STRATEGY AND LIMITERS OF
THE BATTERY VOLTAGE

FC output is controlled in order to track a target SOC


value,SOC*
SOC* is predetermined as an average SOC level allowing us
to:-
1. Keep the storage system in a state that is able to supply
energy in case of load request or receive energy in case of
positive net power produced by PV
2. Minimize the number of FC start-up and shut down
manoeuvres
Intervals defining FC in operation
Cont.
PMS IMPLEMENTATION INTO
A MICROCONTROLLER
FC control is implemented into a real time microcontroller
equipped with an FPGA
Microcontroller runs for four main cycles
1. Data acquisition that calculates microgrid electrical state
variables
2. Data acquisition that determinethe FC status
3. SOC estimation
4. FC set point control
Cont.

Cycle #1 processes microgrid electrical


variables

These variables are shared with cycle #3


and cycle #4 for microgrid control state

Cycle #2 is responsible for determining the


status of FC