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Introduction to Ergonomics

Mmtaz S. ERDEM 2004
Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design,

improvement, and installation of integrated systems of
PEOPLE, materials, information, equipment and
energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill
in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences
together with the principles and methods of
engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and
evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.

Ergonomics is a multidisciplinary activity

that assembles information on peoples
capacities and applies that information in
designing jobs, products, workplaces, and
Ergo ~ Greek word meaning work
Nomos ~ . . . laws

Introduced into literature in the 1840s by Polish

educator and scientist Jastrzebowski Wojciech.
Philosophy of Ergonomics

Fit The Task To The Person

Ergonomics Activities
Worker / Workplace Accommodation
Physiological Stress Prevention
Environmental Stress Prevention
Equipment design
Error Minimization
Factors Influencing Ergonomics
Occupational Safety & Health Legislation
Equal Employment Opportunity
Product Liability Litigation
Quality of Life Expectations
Responsible & Concerned Management
Current Emphasis in Ergonomics
Workplace Design
Musculoskeletal Cumulative Trauma Disorders
(CTD) Prevention
Manual Materials Handling (MMH)
Noise Control
Legislation & Regulations
Citing Ergonomics Violations
General Duty Clause: Each employer has the
general duty to furnish each of his employees
employment and places of employment which
are free from recognized hazards that are likely
to cause death or serious physical harm.
Types of Ergonomics
Physical- Concerned with physical interfaces including
workplace and tool design
Informational-Concerned with information interfaces
and transfer
Organizational-Concerned with the design of
organizations, jobs and activities (aka as
macroergonomics where large organizations or
entities are concerned
How do you apply Ergonomics?
Primarily, by changes in the design of workplace
or work area.
Education & Training
Proactively: Ensure that any new equipment,
tool, or products brought into the workplace are
designed with adjustability in mind.
Same thought for product design changes,
workstation modification, and methods.
Examples of Ergonomic Designs
Angled soldering iron
Bent-handle pliers
Paint brush with pistol-grip handle
Meat-cutting knife with pistol-grip handle
Adjustable chair
Adjustable computer workstation
Writing instruments
Examples of Ergonomic Designs
Assembly line that flips automobile onto its side
Moon-cut workstation
Automobile control panel
Adjustable-height conveyor belt
Adjustable computer keyboard
Many, many others!
Secret of Ergonomics

Primary Techniques of Ergonomics
Methods Analysis / Design
Workplace Design
Equipment Design
Tool Design
Operator Assignments
Note: Basic understanding of industrial
engineering, biomechanics, psychology, and
physiology, underlying these techniques.
Current Focus in Occupational
Musculoskeletal CTDs
- Of lower back
- Of upper extremities such as
* Neck
* Shoulders
* Arms
* Hands
Benefits of Ergonomics
Improved safety and health
Increased productivity
Increased operator acceptance
Improved attitude toward change
Lower workers compensation premiums
Whats Stopping Ergonomics?
Negative attitudes
Ownership conflicts
Omission from engineers training
Quick-fix focus
Costs too much!!!
Biggest Problem of All --- !

Designing for the

Average Person

--- Whoever they may be !!!

Ownership Conflicts
Safety Vs.. Human Resources
Human Resources Vs.. Medical
Medical Vs.. Safety
Engineering Vs.. All of the Above
Training of Engineers
Engineers are not taught ergonomics at
Fixation is on things, not on people
Often times, engineers are assigned ergonomics
responsibilities, simply because they have a
technical background
Quick-Fix Focus
Ergonomics Costs too Much!
Fixing Existing Problems

Typical Return on
Savings Associated
with Ergonomic
Improvements is $4
for every $1
Eliminating Potential Problems

Addressing Ergonomic
concerns in the design &
acquisition stage can
return as much as $10
of savings for every
$1 invested
Ergonomics isnt new
Fit task or work area to people
Ergonomics is accomplished by design changes
Ergonomics is stopped by several factors
Contributions come from many fields
Quantifiable benefits associated with it
Ergonomic projects pay for themselves rapidly
Questions & Comments
2 DNEM DEV(%15 ve % 10)= %25
kier kiilik gruplar ve uygulama yeri seimi(son tarih:5
Bir i ortam (fab. Hast. Vbg.) ergonomik etd.(Fiziksel
Risk Etmenleri) Ayn iyerinde kullanlan bir makinann
gzlemlenen veya anket yoluyla igrenden alnan bilgilerle
tespit edilen Ergonomik eksikleri ve dzeltici nlem
tasarm raporu. Tarih 25.12.2012
2002 ve zeri yl baz alnarak taranacak 10 ve st
makaleden seilecek en iyi rnein anlatld bir uygulama.
Onay alndktan sonra yorumlanacak (anladnz ekilde
yorumlanacak) Tarih 13 .11.2012
1 Ara snav: % 30 Laboratuar:% 5
Dnem sonu Snav; % 40