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Submitted by
Pratheesh.A.P
15030608
Nipun Lal
S5 EEE
Roll.no.34
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CONTENTS
Introduction
Theory Of Operation
Working Principle
Classification of eddy current brakes
Advantages & Disadvantages
Applications
Conclusion

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INTRODUCTION
An eddy current brake, like a conventional friction brake, is responsible for
slowing an object, such as a train or a roller coaster etc.

Unlike the friction brakes, which apply pressure on two separate objects, eddy
current brakes slow an object by creating eddy currents through electromagnetic
induction which create resistance.

It slows an object by creating eddy currents .

Braking action is made by varying the strength of the magnetic field.

Braking force depends on speed of object.

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What are Eddy Currents ?
Eddy currents are swirling
reverse currents induced
on the surface of metal
conductors by a changing
magnetic field.
They can be attractive as
well as repulsive.

FIG1

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WORKING PRINCIPLE
Eddy current brake is based on two basic laws of electro magnetics , which are

1. Faradays law of electro magnetic induction :-when a conductor cuts magnetic


flux an emf is induced in the conductor, induced emf is proportional to the strength
of magnetic field & speed of conductor.

2. Lenz law :- An induced electro motive force (emf) always gives rise to a current
whose magnetic field opposes the original change in magnet field.

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WORKING PRINCIPLE (Cont)
The direction of the current is in such a way as to oppose
the cause, i.e. movement of the disc.

Thus the moving conductor will experience a drag force


from the magnet that opposes its motion, proportional to
its velocity. The electrical energy of the eddy currents is
dissipated as heat due to the electrical resistance of the
conductor.
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FIG2
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FIG3
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TYPES OF EDDY CURRENT BRAKES

Circular eddy current brakes Linear eddy current brakes

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CIRCULAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKES
In a circular, disk or rotary eddy current brake, the conductor is a flat disk rotor that
turns between the poles of the magnet.

Consisting of a conductive non-ferromagnetic metal disc (rotor) attached to the axle


of the vehicle's wheel, with an electromagnet located with its poles on each side of
the disk, so the magnetic field passes through the disk. .

The movement of the disc through the magnetic field of the electromagnets creates
eddy currents in the discs.

The electromagnet allows the braking force to be varied. When no current is passed
through the electromagnet's winding, there is no braking force. When the driver
steps on the brake pedal, current is passed through the electromagnet windings,
creating a magnetic field, The larger the current in the winding, the larger the eddy
currents and the stronger the braking force.
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CIRCULAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKES

The kinetic energy of the vehicle's motion is dissipated in Joule heating by


the eddy currents passing through the disk's resistance, so like conventional
friction disk brakes, the disk becomes hot.

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FIG4

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FIG5
Circular eddy current brake on 700 Series Shinkansen, a Japanese
bullet train. 15
LINEAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKES
In a linear eddy current brake, the conductive piece is a straight rail or track
that the magnet moves along.

The linear eddy current brake consists of a magnetic yoke with electrical coils
positioned along the rail, which are being magnetized alternating as south and
north magnetic poles. This magnet does not touch the rail, as with the
magnetic brake, but is held at a constant small distance from the rail
(approximately 7 mm).

When the magnet is moved along the rail, it generates a non-stationary


magnetic field in the head of the rail, which then generates electrical tension
(Faraday's induction law), and causes eddy currents.

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LINEAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKES
These disturb the magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic force is
diverted to the opposite of the direction of the movement thus creating a
horizontal force component, which works against the movement of the
magnet.

The braking energy of the vehicle is converted in eddy current losses which
lead to a warming of the rail.

Braking force is low at low speeds and high at high speeds.

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FIG6

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Eddy current brakes on the Intamin roller coaster Goliath at Walibi Holland(Netherlands)

FIG7 19
ADVANTAGES

1) It uses electromagnetic force and not friction.

2) No contact, therefore no wear or tear.

3) High brake forces at high speeds.

4) Long Life

5) Low maintenance

6) Operates at any rotational speed

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DISADVANTAGES
Braking force diminishes as speed diminishes.

no ability to hold the load in position at standstill.

ECB is used with ordinary mechanical brakes.

very tough design.

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APPLICATIONS
In high speed trains.

In roller coaster for braking and smooth functioning.

It is also used in vehicles but still not widely used.

For high speed passenger and goods vehicle

Eddy current brakes are best substitutes for ordinary brakes, which are
being used nowadays in road vehicles even in trains, because of their jerk-
free operation.

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FUTURE ASPECT
In future ordinary brakes will be replaced by the ECB completely.

By the use of ECB in future we can control high speed train completely.

By some new invention of extra mechanism we can use ECB for slow speed
vehicles also.

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CONCLUSION
ECB is a good invention for the speed control of high speed vehicles

It makes use of opposing tendency of eddy current.

We can control the speed of high speed vehicles without wear and tear in
parts of it.

Drawback of ordinary mechanical braking system can be overcome by


application of ECB.

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REFERENCES

[1] Virendra Kumar Maurya, et.al, Eddy current braking embedded system,
International Journal of Applied Engineering and Technology ISSN: 2277-
212X , Vol.1,January 2011.

[2] Shivanshu Shrivastava, A Parametric Analysis of Magnetic Braking The


Eddy Current Brakes For High Speed and Power Automobiles and
Locomotives Using Simulink International Journal of Advanced Research
in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 3, Issue 8,
August 2014.

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