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Optimization Technique

-Genetic Algorithm
Its a procedure to make a system or design as
effective, especially involving the mathematical

To minimize the cost of production or to

maximize the efficiency of production.
A genetic algorithm (or short GA) is a
search technique used in computing to find
true or approximate solutions to
optimization and search problems.
Genetic algorithms are categorized as global
search heuristics.
Genetic algorithms are a particular class of
evolutionary algorithms.
Based on the mechanics of biological
Initially developed by John Holland, University
of Michigan (1970s)
These algorithms are now used by a majority
of Fortune 500 companies to solve difficult
scheduling, data fitting, trend spotting and
budgeting problems, and virtually any other
type of combinatorial optimization problem.
Biological Evolution:
Organisms produce a number of offspring similar
to themselves but can have variations due to:
Mutations(random changes)
Some offspring survive, and produce
next generations, and some dont:
A typical genetic algorithm requires two things
to be defined:
a genetic representation of the solution
a fitness function to evaluate the solution
Problems which appear to be particularly
appropriate for solution by genetic algorithms
include timetabling and scheduling problems, and
many scheduling software packages are based on
GAs. GAs have also been applied to engineering
Genetic algorithms are often applied as an
approach to solve global optimization problems.
As a general rule of thumb genetic algorithms
might be useful in problem domains that have a
complex fitness landscape as recombination is
designed to move the population away from
local optima that a traditional hill climbing
algorithm might get stuck in.
What Do We Mean By Genetic
It is started with a set of randomly generated
solutions and recombine pairs of them at
random to produce offspring.
Only the best offspring and parents are kept
to produce the next generation.
It Is A Search Technique
Applications :
Automated design of mechatronic systems
using bond graphs and genetic
programming (NSF).
Code-breaking, using the GA to search
large solution spaces of ciphers for the one
correct decryption.
Design of water distribution systems.
Distributed computer network topologies.
Electronic circuit design, known as
Evolvable hardware.
Application : continue.

Software engineering.
Traveling Salesman Problem.

Mobile communications infrastructure


Electronic circuit design, known as Evolvable

Genetic Algorithm Presenting
Generation Cycle
As with the human race, the
-weakest candidates are
eliminated from the gene
pool, and each successive
generation of individuals
contains stronger and
stronger characteristics. Its
survival of the fittest, and the
unique processes of crossover
and mutation conspire to keep
the species as strong as
Advantages :

A GA has a number of advantages.

It can quickly scan a vast solution set.
Bad proposals do not effect the end solution
negatively as they are simply discarded.
The inductive nature of the GA means that it
doesn't have to know any rules of the problem -
it works by its own internal rules.
This is very useful for complex or loosely
defined problems.
Disadvantages :
A practical disadvantage of the genetic
algorithm involves longer running times on
the computer. Fortunately, this disadvantage
continues to be minimized by the ever-
increasing processing speeds of today's
Evolutionary algorithms have been around since the
early sixties. They apply the rules of nature: evolution
through selection of the fittest individuals, the
individuals representing solutions to a mathematical
Genetic algorithms are so far generally the best and
most robust kind of evolutionary algorithms.
A.D. Channon, and R.I. Damper, "Towards the
Evolutionary Emergence of Increasingly Complex
Advantageous Behaviours". International Journal of
Systems Science, 31(7), pp. 843-860, 2000.
C.A. Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design
John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed., 1997.
Chakraborty .R .C, Fundamentals of Genetic
Algorithms, AI Course Lecture 39-40, June 01,2010.