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INTRODUCTION

The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of
Napoleon Bonaparte.
During this period, French citizen razed and redesigned their countrys political
landscape, uprooting centuries-old institution such as absolute monarchy and the
feudal system.
The French revolution was influenced by Enlightment ideals, particularly the concepts
of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights.
Although it failed to achieve all of its goals and at times degenerated into a chaotic
bloodbath, the movement played a critical role in shaping modern nations by showing
the world the power inherent in the will of the people.
ALTHOUGH MANY ACCOUNTS OF THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION FOCUS ON THE ACTIONS OF THE
GIRONDINS AND JACOBINS, NEARLY EVERY MAJOR
STEP OF THE REVOLUTION WAS INCITED BY THE
SANS-CULOTTES. SUPPORT OR REFUTE THIS
STATEMENT

WE SUPPORT THE STATEMENT BASED ON A FEW FACTORS


GIRONDINS
Girondin, also called Brissotin, a label applied to a loose grouping of republican politicians,
some of them originally from the department of the Gironde, who played a leading role in the
Legislative Assembly from October 1791 to September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The Girondins were part of the Jacobins but then later separated.
The Girondins were a more moderate thinking group and known for their opposite thinking
from the Jacobins.
Jacques Pierre Brissot, Jean Marie Roland and his wife Marie Roland were strong supporters of
the Girondins club.
Meeting would take place in Madame Rolands salon.
The Girondins wanted to engaged in war to bring the nation together and gain political power.
They supported the idea of having a war against Austria in 1792.
Girondists loved the king although they wished for a few changes.
The Fall of Girondin
3. France suffered defeat. Most French
1. Girodin Successfully military officers, noblemen have fled
increased his influence for 2. The first 6 months abroad. Volunteers of the revolution are
declaring war and then of war (war with eager but some are not trained.
losing his influence as his Austria on April 20, Between soldiers and officers, there
policy and war effort 1792) was a mutual suspicion. For example,
failed. an event when an officer who told his
soldier to step down was accused of
being defective then killed.

4. The Legislative Assembly 5. The situation was further


has enacted a new law but has aggravated by the Girondin
been abolished by the king. The tribes when the Austrian and
Girondin party has accused the Prussian troops marched to the
king and the minister as a French border.
traitor to the country.
On August 10, the king's residence in Tuileries was attacked by the masses and there was a
massacre. As a result the king has been deposed the throne.
20 September 1792- The National Assembly commenced its trial and proposes to abolish the
monarchy system.
King Louis XVI was discussed in December 1792 and sentenced to January 1793.
Girondin has shown their unconfirmed attitude which shows that they deliberately delayed the
action.
Therefore, they have been deployed as royal clan tribes. From that incident, San Cullotes always
demanded that Girondin be removed from the National Assembly.
Finally, San Cullotes successed in getting rid of Girondin after rebelling in Paris from May 31 to
June 2, 1793. Their revolt was a retaliation against Girondin's obscene plans in which the Girondin
had established a committee at the National Assembly to arrest the leaders of San Culotes such as
Hebert and Valert.
JACOBINS
Members of the Third Estate and National Constituent Assembly who had favoured a republic rather
than a constitutional monarchy.
The Jacobins were the most radical and ruthless of the political group formed in the wake of the
French Revolution
Led by Maximillien Robespierre, who drew his power from the Paris Commune.
Georges Danton and Jean-Paul Marat, also important figures.
Believed the king must be executed to preserve the republic.
Pressure the National Convention to take more radical measures.
The club originally began in Brittany but then later on moves to the Estates General.
Many people of the Bourgeoise class were member of the club.
The Jacobins did not want to engage in war and also began to counter react in opposition to the
Girondins.
They wanted immediate execution of Louis XVI. They believed that King Louis XVI had commited
treason by engaging powers with foreign countries.
The Reign of Terror was a time when Jacobins executed who ever were against them.
Maximillien Robespierre
Robespierre was part of the Estates-General, Constituent Assembly and the Jacobin
club.
He was called The Incorruptible and dicatateur sanguinaire (bloodthirsty dictator).
Robespierre wished for liberty and spoke up for the third estate.
He declare himself ni monarchist ni republicain (neither monarchist nor republican)
at the Jacobin club.
SANS-CULOTTES- THE PARISIAN WORKING CLASS
The sans culottes were the working class people of Paris, so named because they
wore long trousers (pantaloons) rather than the knee breeches favoured by the
aristocracy.
The sans-culottes were a radical group of people from the third estate who
represented Pariss working poor. They were neither too poor nor too rich but
they were below the bourgeoise class.
They were common people who were often tradesmen, shop owners, artisans of
factory workers.
Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat vigorously defended the sans-culottes and their
ideas. Marat acted as if he was leader for the sans-culottes.
They spoke out against the new government.
They supported the Reign of Terror and like the Jacobin supported the
revolution.
The sans-culottes were big supporters of the Jacobin group mountains.
The leaders of the Parisian sans culottes were found in the sectional assemblies and the
Commune, particularly after August 1792. Most sans culottes themselves were not
involved in organised politics.
Broadly speaking, the sans culottes wanted a democratic government with universal
suffrage, as well as price controls on food and other essential goods. Their political
aims beyond that are a matter of debate.
The sans culottes are best known for their use of mob violence and intimidation to
bring about political change. They were involved in almost all of the violent journes in
Paris in 1789-93.
During the radical period in 1793-94, propaganda and popular culture celebrated
the sans culottes as the humble vanguard of the French Revolution. Their political
impact, however, was negated by the growing centralisation of Jacobin power.
THE STORMING OF TUILERIES
War was declared on Austria, which had taken the side of the overthrown aristocracy,
in April 1792 and in July Prussia declared war on France, leading to the invasion of
the country by Austrian and Prussian Troops.
The king however continued to maintain contacts with Austria and Prussia.
On August 10, 1792 - anti-monarchy Jacobins with the help from the sans-culottes
stormed Tuileries, trashing the palace and capturing Louis XVI and his family as they
tried to escape.
in December, Louis XVI was put on trial for treason, found guilty and executed in
January 1793. Months later, on October 16, 1793, his wife, Marie-Antoinette, also
met the same fate.
The sans-culottes invaded the Tuileries and killed 600-800 of the king Swiss Guards.
THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY
The Committee of Public Safety followed a moderate course after its creation but proved weak and
ineffective.
Once again, at this time the sans-culottes proved to be a formidable force in effecting change during the
Revolution. Already upset about the composition of the National Conventionwhich remained
dominated by middle- and upper-class bourgeoisiethey became even more angry upon learning that
many of the Girondins leaders expected them to bolster the failing war effort.
After a few months under the committee, the sans-culottes finally reached their boiling point.
In June 1793, They (under the leadership of Marat) stormed the National Convention and accused the
Girondins of representing the aristocracy. Seeing an opportunity, Maximilien Robespierre, the leader of
the Jacobins, joined the violence of the sans-culottes to take control of the convention, banish the
Girondins, and install the Jacobins in power.
The Jacobins dominated the Committee of Public Safety which effectively ran France after the fall of
the Girondins &became the face of the Terror
Though the Girondins and the Jacobins were both on the extreme left, and shared many of the same
radical republican convictions, the Jacobins were much more brutally efficient in setting up a war
government. A Committee of Public Safety was established to act as a war cabinet.
The Paris commune compelled the Legislative Assembly to assemble a new committee to write a
constitution for france
The committee was to be chosen by election
It was named the convention after the American constitutional convention of 1787
The convention met on 21 September, 1792 and declared france a republic, that is, a nation governed
by an elected assembly without a monarch

In the autumn of 1792, the revolutionary government, having written off the idea of a constitutional
monarchy, set about electing a National Convention of delegates to oversee the country.
In late September, therefore, the first election took place under the rules of the Constitution of 1791.
Only a third of the newly elected convention members had sat on a previous assembly, and a great
number of new faces belonged to either the Jacobins or the Girondins.
The first action of the convention, on September 21, 1792, was to abolish the monarchy. And the next
day, the Republic of France was founded.
SEPTEMBER MASSACRES
The Brunswick Manifesto was a harsh warning issued to the people of France by
Charles, Duke of Brunswick, demanding the protection of the king and the
restoration of royal authority.
beginning on September 2 1792 , the hysterical sans-culottes, having got rumors of
counterrevolutionary talk, and angered by the publication in Paris of the August 3
Brunswick Manifesto, raided Pariss prisons and murdered more than 1,000 prisoners.
After the attack on the Tuileries & the September Massacres, Robespierre & the
Jacobins were the ones to insist on a republic being set up. Support from sans culottes
The Paris Commune legitimized these killing
SANS-CULOTTES
A recurring theme throughout the French Revolution was the idea that there is power in
numbers, and the sans-culottes represented without doubt the best example of the power of the
masses. Although the National Assembly was the governing body during the early stages of the
Revolution, it had little control over the symbolic events that incited revolutionary favour, such
as the storming of the Bastille, the Great Fear, and the womens march on Versailles.
Later in the Revolution, the sans-culottes continued to prove influential, as they were involved in
the storming of Tuileries, which led to King Louis XVIs deposition, and stormed the National
Convention, which gave Robespierre and the Jacobins the opportunity to take control. Although
the Reign of Terror and subsequent Thermidorian Reaction suppressed sans culotte activity later
in the Revolution, the decline was also due in part to diminished revolutionary spirit and apathy
on the part of the government of the Directory. Nevertheless, in the crucial early and middle
stages of the Revolution, the sans-culottes proved to be remarkably effective at forcing change-
change that otherwise might not have occurred.