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Lesson

Preparation and
Building
Background
By Sam Kellar, Danielle Remy, Haley Mulroy, Sarah Breen, and
Katie ONeill
Objectives
Content Objectives

Identify content objectives for English learners (ELs) that are aligned to state,
local, or national standards.

Incorporate supplementary materials suitable for ELs


What is the SIOP Model?
The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model is a research-based and validated instructional
model that has proven effective in addressing the academic needs of English learners throughout the United
States.

As the number of English learners increases in schools across the United States, educators are seeking effective
ways to help them succeed in K-12 ESL, content area, and bilingual classrooms. Research shows that when
teachers fully implement the SIOP Model, English learners' academic performance improves. In addition, teachers
report that SIOP-based teaching benefits all students, not just those who are learning English as an additional
language.

SIOP instruction also benefits students learning content through another language.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSVKj0Ye8dc
Lesson Preparation
1. Content 2. Language
Objectives Objectives
3. Appropriate
Content Concepts

4. 6. 5.
Supplementary Meaningfu Adaptation
Materials l Activities of Content
1.Content Objectives
Content objectives explain what students should know and be able to do by
the end of a lesson

Oftentimes, content objectives are written in a way that is difficult to


understand or too general.

Content objectives should be:

Stated simply

Given to the students orally and in writing

Geared toward specific grade-level content


Content Objectives
It is important for students to be aware of the content objectives.

They should be written on the board and should be shared verbally.

The students get practice reading, speaking, and hearing the proper
pronunciation of English words.

It also gets the students focused on what they will be learning.


2. Language Objectives
Statements that identify what students should know and be able to do while
using English

Since learning a new language is a process, language objectives may range


from process-oriented to performance-oriented statements

Both productive and receptive language skills should be addressed in


language objectives.

Should be written on the board and shared verbally


Language Objectives
Language objectives can be geared toward:

Vocabulary

Reading comprehension

Predicting

Summarizing

Writing

Brainstorm

Outline
Writing Content and Language
Objectives
Content Objectives

Students will be able to identify the key parts of a flower and explain each of their functions.

Students will be able to add single digit numbers within 10.

Students will be able to compare characteristics of each of the four seasons.

Pick one content objective and write a language objective to go along with it!

Then turn to the person next to you and share your objective.
3.Appropriate Content Concepts
The following must be considered when choosing the appropriate
concepts to plan into a lesson:

The students first language literacy (L1)

The students second language proficiency (L2)

The students reading ability

Inclusion of cultural and age appropriate materials

The level of reading difficulty


3. contd
It is inappropriate to use the curriculum materials and books from much
earlier grades.

Scaffolding should be implemented in the case where students are


developing literacy for the first time.

Ideally, there should be specialized courses that help accelerate the students
learning

EXAMPLE: FAST Math developed by Fairfax County Public Schools (1993)


3. contd
Lastly, reflect on background experience that is needed to learn and apply
concepts.

Include ways to activate the students prior knowledge related most to them.
4. Supplementary Materials
The use of materials is very important for students who do not have grade-
level academic backgrounds and/or who have language and learning
difficulties.

With supplementary materials, the student can see, hear, feel, perform,
create, and participate in order to make connections and construct personal
meanings.
4. contd
Examples of materials that can be used to create context and support content
concepts:

Hands-on manipulatives

Realia

Pictures

Visuals

Multimedia

Demonstrations
4. realia
Realia are real life objects that allow the student to make connections to
their own lives.

EXAMPLE:

Bank deposit slips for a lesson on banking

Nutrition labels for a lesson on health


4. Hi-lo readers
Hi-lo readers refers to texts that are high in interest but have a lower
readability with many visuals.

EXAMPLE:

The Big Idea by Ellen Schecter

Luz is determined to turn a run-down vacant lot into a garden, but she
must convince her neighbors to help.
4. Adapted text & related
literature
Adapted texts are readings where the reading ability level is reduced but
the major concepts remain the same.

Related literature enables readers to respond to the text with personal


feeling. AKA Aesthetic Response

Rosenblatts Transactional Experience:

Aesthetic responses to literature promotes a deeper understanding


of the concepts that are depicted.
5. Adaptation of Content
Many schools require the use of textbooks too difficult for ELL students to read.
The following strategies help adapt this information so that the content concepts
can be learned.

Suggestions for adapting text to make it more accessible:

a. Summarizing the text to focus on the key points of the information

b. Elaborating the text to add information


Summarizing the text to focus
on the key points
EXAMPLE:

Electrons have negative electric charges and orbit around the core, nucleus, of
an atom

can be changed to

Electrons have negative charges. They orbit around the core of the atom. The
core of the atom is called the nucleus
6. Meaningful Activities
Students are more successful when they are able to make connections between
what they know and what they are learning by relating classroom experiences to
their own lives.

They are described as authentic because they represent a reality for a student.

This is important for an ELL student because they are learning to attach labels
and terms to things that are already familiar to them.
Building Background

7. Concepts 8. Links between


Linked to Past Learning
Students and New
Backgrounds Learning
9. Developing Key
Vocabulary:
Academic
7. Concepts Linked to Students
Backgrounds
Knowledge of the world provides a basis for understanding, learning, and
remembering facts and ideas found in stories and texts.

Children from culturally diverse backgrounds may struggle with


comprehension of a text or concept because their background knowledge
does not match the culture of the text.

When students lack prior knowledge teachers should:

1. Teach vocabulary as a prereading step

2. Provide experiences

3. Introduce a conceptual framework that will enable students to develop appropriate


background information
8. Links Between Past Learning
and New Learning
In order for learning to occur, new information must be integrated with what students
have previously learned.

Many students benefit from having the teacher explicitly point out how past learning is
related to the information at hand.

Links between past learning and new learning can be made through:

Discussion

Graphic organizer

Previously used class notes

Powerpoint slides related to the topic


9. Developing Key Vocabulary:
Academic Language
Defined as: the set of words, grammar, and organizational strategies used to describe complex
ideas, high-order thinking processes, and abstract concepts.

Academic language is of critical importance in content classrooms.

Many English learners come to school in the US with well-developed vocabularies and an
understanding of academic language of various disciplines.

It is important to help them make connections between what they know about the structure of
their home language and what theyre learning about English.

For beginning ELs, the instruction in English and academic language must be more explicit and
comprehensive.

This is supported by the elementary/secondary classroom teacher through SIOP lessons.


Works Cited
http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/connect-students-background-knowledge-
content-ell-classroom