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The Basics of

Lubricants and lubrication

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Meaning of lubrication

Friction - is created when there is


relative motion between two surfaces
Resistance to motion is defined as
friction
Lubrication is use of a material
between surfaces to reduce friction
Any material used is called a lubricant

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Methods of lubrication

Two main methods


Hydrodynamic lubrication
Boundary lubrication

Hydrodynamic lubrication
Also called complete or full flow
Occurs when two surfaces are
completely separated by a fluid film
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Methods of lubrication cont..

Two main methods


Hydrodynamic lubrication
Boundary lubrication

Boundary lubrication
Occurs when Hydrodynamic lubrication
fails.
By adsorption or chemical reaction
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Types of Lubricant - Physical

Liquid
Solid
Semi solid
Gases

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Types of Lubricant - Physical

Liquid
Typical lubricants are liquid/fluids
Mineral oil or synthetic oils
Solid
Graphite
Semi solid
Greases
Gases

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Typical lubricants - Application

Engine oils
Gear Oils
Turbine Oils
Hydraulic Oils
Metal working oils
Cutting oils
Forming Oils
Rust preventives
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Typical lubricants - Application

Heat Transfer Oils


Heat Treatment Oils
Quenching Oils
Tempering Oils
Refrigeration Oils
Rubber Process Oils
Ink process Oils

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Lubricant - Components

Base Oils
Mineral by-products of crude oil refining
process.
Base oils are polymerized or
synthesized further and called synthetic
Additives
Natural
Synthetic

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Function of a lubricant

Lubricate - Reduce friction


Cooling - Heat transfer
Cleaning - Detergency
Noise pollution - dampening
Sealing prevent leakage
Protection prevent wear

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Lubricate reduce friction

The effects of friction


Metal to metal contact
Leads to wear and tear
Generates heat
Results in Power loss
Lubricant reduces friction by
forming a film
Reduces ill effect of friction
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Cooling

When fuel is burnt in an engine


33% is useful power
33% removed by cooling water
33% by lube oil and radiation
Lube oil removes heat from all areas
and brings it to the engine sump.
Improper cooling can lead to over
heating, lead to wear, distortion and
failure.
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Cleaning

Cleans carbon and varnish deposits


Flushes the entire system removing
Soot
Deposits
Acids
Wear products
Moisture
Removes external contaminants dust,
moisture (external)
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Noise reduction

Reduce noise
By preventing metal to metal contact

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Sealing

Oil film
Between piston ring and liner
Helps in creating a gas tight seal

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Protection

Protection against acids and


moisture

Very important to increase life of


component and equipment

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Properties of lubricants

Kinematic viscosity
Viscosity index
Pour Point
Flash Point
Total Base Number (TBN)

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Properties of lubricants

Kinematic viscosity
Measure of internal resistance to flow
Decreases with increase in temperature
Important in lubricant selection
Increase in used oil indicates oxidation
Specified at 40C and 100C
Measured in Centi Stokes (CSt)

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Kinematic Viscosity -
Recommendations

Low Viscosity oils used


High speeds
Low pressure
Low temperature
High Viscosity oils used
Low speeds
High pressure
High temperature
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Properties of lubricants

Viscosity index
Measure of fluids change of viscosity
with temperature.
Empirical number
Higher the VI lower will be the
change of viscosity with temperature
Indicator of temperature range of
operations

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Properties of lubricants

Pour Point
Lowest temperature at which the fluid
will flow
Indicates lowest operating
temperature
Measured in C

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Properties of lubricants

Flash Point
Lowest temperature at which the vapor
above the liquid will ignite under flame
Indicated safe maximum temperature of
operation.
Indicator of volatility
Measured in C

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Properties of lubricants

Total Base Number (TBN)


Measured the acid neutralizing
reserve in oil.
Important for deciding discard of oil
Decreases due to
Oxidation of oil
Water contamination
Fuel contamination
Measured in Mg KOH/gm of oil

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Lab Tests - for lubricants

Kinematic viscosity ASTM D 445


Viscosity index ASTM D 2250
Pour Point ASTM D 97
Flash Point ASTM D 92 (COC)
ASTM D 93 (PMCC)
Total Base Number ASTM D 664
(TBN)

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What are additives

Lubricant additives
classified on their functional capability
Enhance existing property
Suppress undesirable property
Impart new property

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What are additives
What they do in Engine Oils
Protect metal surfaces
- (rings, bearings, gears, etc.)
Extend the range of lubricant
applicability
Extend lubricant life

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Surface Protective additives

Anti wear
Corrosion & Rust inhibitor
Detergent
Dispersant
Friction modifier

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Surface Protective additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Anti wear
Purpose Reduce friction & wear.
Prevent scoring & seizure
Typical Organic Phosphates, acid phosphates,
compounds organic sulfur and chlorine compounds
etc.
Function
Chemical reaction with metal surface
and forms a film.
Prevents metal-to-metal contact

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Surface Protective additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Corrosion and Rust Inhibitor
Purpose Prevent corrosion and rusting of the
metallic parts in contact with lubricant
Typical Metal phenolates, Basic Metal
compounds sulphonates, fatty acid & Amines.

Function
Preferential adsorbtion of polar
constituent on metal surface.
Provide protective film
Neutralize corrosive acids

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Surface Protective additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Detergents
Purpose Keep surface free of deposits
Typical Metallo organic compounds of Sodium,
compounds Calcium and Magnesium phenolates
Phosphonates and sulphonates
Function Chemical reaction with sludge and
varnish percursors to neutralize them
and keep them soluble

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Surface Protective additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Dispersant
Purpose Keep insoluble contaminants
dispersed in the lubricant
Typical Alkylsuccinimides, alkylsuccinic esters
compounds and mannich reaction products
Function Contaminants are bonded by polar
attraction to dispersant molecules.
Prevented from agglomerating
Kept in suspension due to solubility of
dispersant

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Surface Protective additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Friction modifier
Purpose Alters coefficient of friction
Typical Organic fatty acids and amides.
compounds Lard Oil, high molecular weight
organic phosphorus.
Phosphoric acid esters
Function Preferential adsorbtion of surface
active materials

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Pour Point Depressant
Purpose Enable lubricant to flow at lo
temperature
Typical Alkylated naphthalene
compounds Phenolic polymers, Ploymethacrylates
Maleate/fumerate copolymer esters
Function Modify wax crystal formation to reduce
interlocking

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Seal swell Agent
Purpose Swell elastomeric seals, gaskets
Typical Organic phosphates
compounds Aromatic hydro carbons
Function Chemical reaction with with elastomer
to cause slight swell.

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Viscosity modifier
Purpose Reduce the rate of viscosity change
with temperature
Typical Polymers and copolymers of olefins,
compounds methacrylates, dienes
Alkylated styrenes.
Function
Polymers expand with increasing
temperatures
This counteract oil thinning

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Antifoamant
Purpose Prevent lubricant from forming a
persistent foam
Typical Silicone polymers
compounds Organic copolymers
Function Reduce Surface tension to speed
collapse of foam

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Antioxidant
Purpose Retard oxidative decomposition
Typical
compounds Hindered phenols, Aromatic Amines,
sulfurized phenols
Function Decompose peroxides
Terminates free-radical reactions

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Performance additives
- Automotive Lubricants
Additive type Metal deactivator
Purpose Reduce catalytic effect of metals on
oxidation rate
Typical Organic complexes containing
compounds nitrogen or sulfur
Amines, sulphides and Phosphates
Function
Forms inactive film on metal surfaces
by complexing with metallic ions

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Lubricant - Nomenclature
and Specifications
Nomenclature
Crankcase oils - SAE numbers
Viscosity classification ISO 3448
Grease NLGI Numbers

Performance
Crankcase oils - Performance levels
Crankcase oils OEM Specifications
US Military US-MIL-2104

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Major specifying
organizations
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
(USA)
API - American Petroleum Institute
US Military Specs US - MIL 2104 -
CCMC European Specification
ISO International Standard Organization
ISO 3348
NLGI National Lubricating Grease Institute

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SAE viscosity grades for
engine oils

Designated
With corresponding viscosity
For high temperature application
Warmer areas/regions
SAE 20
SAE 30
SAE 40
SAE 10
SAE 50
SAE 60
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SAE viscosity grades for
engine oils

Designated
With corresponding viscosity
For low temperature application
Colder areas/regions
SAE 0 W
SAE 5 W
SAE 10 W
SAE 15 W
SAE 20 W
SAE 25 W
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SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity
classification Winter Service
Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities
Engine cranking Max. Temp for Vis. at 100C, High shear
SAE Max. cPs at Temp pumping viscosity cSt (cP) 150C
Viscosity of 60,000 cP(C)
Grade
(C) Min Max & 106 S-
Min

Winter Service
0W 6200@ -35 -40 3.8 - --

5W 6200@ -30 -35 3.8 -


10W 7000@ -25 -30 4.1 -
15W 7000@ -20 -25 5.6 -
20W 9500@ -15 -20 5.6 -
25W 13000@ -10 -15 9.3
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SAE Crankcase Oil - Viscosity
classification Summer Service
Low temp viscosities High temp viscosities
Engine Max. Temp for Vis. at 100C, cSt High shear
SAE cranking Max. pumping (cP) 150C &
Viscosity cPs at Temp viscosity of Min Max 106 S- Min
Grade 60,000 cP(C)
(C)
Summer Service
20 -- - 5.6 <9.3 2.6
30 -- - 9.3 <12.5 2.9
40 -- - 12.5 <16.3 3.5
40 -- - 12.5 <16.3 3.7
50 -- - 16.3 <21.9 3.7
60 -- - 21.9 <26.1 3.7
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API Automotive Gasoline Engine
Service Categories SA, SB,
Category Related Ind Engine Test Requirements
Definitions
SA Straight Min None

SB Inhibited only CRC L-4 Sequence IIA Sequence IIIA

SC 1964 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IIA Sequence IIIA


Sequence IV Sequence V Fuel -1% S
SD 1968 Models CRC L-38 Sequence IIB Sequence IIIB
Sequence IV Sequence VB Falcon Rust
Caterpillar L-1 Caterpillar IH

SE 1972 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IIB Sequence IIIC


Sequence IIID Sequence VC Sequence VD
SF 1980 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IID Sequence IIID
Sequence IIIE Sequence VD

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API Automotive Gasoline Engine
Service Categories SA, SB,
Category Related Ind Engine Test Requirements
Definitions
SG 1989 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IID Sequence IIIE
Sequence VE Caterpillar IH2

SH 1994 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IID Sequence IIIE


Sequence VE
Category SA, SB, SC, SD, SE,SF,SG,SH have been declared as obsolete.

SJ 1997 Models CRC-L-38 Sequence IID Sequence IIIE


Sequence VE

SL 2001 Models Sequence IIIF Sequence IVA Sequence VG


Sequence VIII

SM 2004 Models Sequence IIIG Sequence IVA Sequence VG


Sequence VIII

Category SJ, SL, SM, are currently valid.


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API Automotive Diesel Engine
Service Categories CA, CB,
Category Related Engine Test Requirements
US Mil spec
CA MIL-L-2104A CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel 0.4% S

CB MIL-L-2104A CRC L-38 Caterpillar L-1 Fuel 0.4% S


Supplement 1
CC MIL-L-2104B CRC L-38 Sequence IID Caterpillar IH2
MIL-L-46152B
CD MIL-L-2104C/D/E, CRC L-38 Caterpillar I G2
MIL-L-45199B,
Series 3
CD-II MIL-L-2104D/E CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1 G2 Detroit Diesel
2 stroke Hvy Dty 6V53T
CE None CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1 G2 Cummins NTC 400
Mack T-6 Mack T-7

CF None CRC L-38 Caterpillar 1M-PC


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API Automotive Diesel Engine
Service Categories CA, CB,
Category Related Ind Engine Test Requirements
Spec
CF-2 None CRC L-38 Detroit Diesel 6V92TA Caterpillar 1M-PC

CF-4 None CRC L-38 Cummins NTC-400 Caterpillar 1K


Mack T-7
CG-4 None CRC L-38 Sequence IIIE Caterpillar 1N
Mack T-8 RFWT
CH-4 None Mack T8E Sequence IIIE Caterpillar 1P, 1K
RFWT Mach T-9 Cummins M 11
CI-4 None RFWT Cummins M11 EGR Caterpillar 1R, 1K
EOAT Mack T-8E, T-10 Sequence IIIF
CI-4Plus None RFWT Cummins M11 EGR Caterpillar 1R, 1K
EOAT Mack T-8E, T-10,T-11 Sequence IIIF

CA to CE obsolete; CF onwards are currently valid


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ISO 3448 Kin Vis - CSt 40C
vs SUS 100F (40C)
Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100F

VG 2 2.2 1.98 2.42


VG 3 3.2 2.88 3.52
VG 5 4.6 4.14 5.06
VG 7 6.8 6.12 7.48
VG 10 10 9 11 60
VG 15 15 13.5 16.5 75
VG 22 22 19.8 24.2 105
VG 32 32 28.8 35.2 150
VG 46 46 41.4 50.6 215
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ISO 3448 Kin Vis - CSt 40C
versus SUS 100F (40C)
Midpoint Minimum Maximum SUS 100F

VG 68 68 61.2 74.8 315


VG 100 100 90 110 465
VG 150 150 135 165 700
VG 220 220 198 242 1000
VG 320 320 288 352 1500
VG 460 460 414 506 2150
VG 680 680 612 748 3150
VG 1000 1000 900 1100 4650
VG 1500 1500 1350 1650 7000
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National Lubricating Grease
Institute - NLGI Numbers
NLGI Grade Number ASTM worked penetration 77F
(25C)
000 445 - 475
00 400 - 430
0 355 - 385
1 310 - 340
2 265 - 295
3 220 - 250
4 175 - 205
5 130 - 160
6 85 - 115
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Thank you

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