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Palestrante Principal: Dr.

Paulo Fernando Ribeiro


pribeiro@calvin.edu
http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/
Co-Chairman of the Power Quality Steering Committee of the IEEE (EUA)
Professor do Calvin College (EUA)
Programa

16 de Junho (Segunda-feira)

09:00 09:40 Inscries no local


09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
10:00 12:15 - Harmnicos
- Breve Introduo
- Modelagem
- Fontes e Aspectos Probabilsticos
- Instrumentao
- ndices Harmnicos
- Normas / Recomendaes
12:30 - 14:00 - Almoo
Programa

16 de Junho (Segunda-feira)

12:30 - 14:00 - Almoo


14:10 - 15:50 - Harmnicos
- Contratos e Seguros
- Aspectos Econmicos / Custos
16:00 - 16:25 - Coffee Break
16:30 - 17:30 Debates Mesa Redonda
Programa

17 de Junho (Tera-feira)

08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso


- Breve Introduo
- Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
- Instrumentao
10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break
10:45 - 12:15 - Distrbios na Tenso
- ndices
- Normas / Recomendaes
12:20 - 14:00 - Almoo
Programa

17 de Junho (Tera-feira)

14:10 - 15:50 - Distrbios na Tenso


- Aspectos Econmicos / Custos
16:00 - 16:25 - Coffee Break
16:30 - 17:30 - Debates Mesa Redonda
Programa

18 de Junho (Quarta-feira)

08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica


- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio
- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio
10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica
- Programas de Qualidade de Energia
- Aspectos Econmicos / Custos
- Contratos / Seguros de Qualidade
-12:50 - 14:10 Almoo
Programa

18 de Junho (Quarta-feira)

14:15 - 15:20 Debates Mesa Redonda


15:20 - 15:30 Sesso de Encerramento
15:30 - 15:45 Declarao Impressa
What We Will Learn

Objective: PQ State-of-the-Art: Integrated Perspective


Review Basics Concepts and Facts (from an Integrated Perspective)
New Topics and Ideas
Impact of New Technologies
Impact of New De-Regulated Environment
Cost and Contractual Issues
Contextualize: Brazilian Reality

Approach: Workshop, Open Forum, Discussion, Discussion, etc.

Acknowledgement: Mark McGranaghan, IEEE, ONS, EPRI, Internet


Vision
"Where there is no vision, the people perish"
Proverbs 29:18

Philosophy

No aspect of reality should be viewed in isolation

Strategy
Initiative
What is the Cost of Power Quality?

What is the Value of Power Quality (Future)?

How are Customers Addressing Power Quality Needs


and Risks?

What Needs to Be done?


Power Quality Reality

Power Quality is a serious issue that touches almost


all
industrial,
commercial and
residential
customers in some way.
Power Quality - Challenges

Flexible

Reliable

Comprehensive

Cost Effective (Micro and Macro)


Power Quality Technical Facts - Differentiating

Steady- State Issues.

Transient - Protection Issues

Electrical Noise - Issues

Wiring Guidelines - Issues


Power Quality Approach - Integrated
All sectors need to understand the overall picture so that
these decisions can be made in an intelligent way.

Power Quality Solutions should take into consideration:

Importance of Power Quality


Changing Nature of Customer Loads
Program Objectives (Service, Load Growth, Profit)
Customer Interface
Education and Training
Monitoring and Site Surveys
Power Quality Approach - Integrated

All sectors need to understand the overall picture so that


these decisions can be made in an intelligent way.

Power Quality Solutions should take into consideration:


Solutions to Power Quality Problems
Organizational Analysis
Customer Service Functions
Marketing Functions
Engineering Functions
Legal/Regulatory Considerations
Market Research - Market Size - Market Structure
Power Quality Approach - Integrated
All sectors need to understand the overall picture so that
these decisions can be made in an intelligent way.

Power Quality Solutions should take into consideration:


Customer Characteristics
Competitive Position
Marketing Strategies
Developing a Business Plan
Need for the PQ Program
Program Objectives
Power Quality Integrating Principles

What is power quality?


Expectations, Specifications, Minimum Requirements

Why are we concerned about power quality?


Consequences of power quality problems
The cost of power quality problems
The benefits of power quality design

What are the sensitive loads.

What is the life-cycle to power quality issue costs and benefits


First cost vs. problem costs
Whose costs?
Designs that set correct expectations throughout the life cycle
Power Quality Integrating Principles

1. Understand the problem


2. Find the real cause before you find the best solution
3. The solution must be always cost effective
4. Be open and work closely with the customer
5. Be Pro-Active, Not Reactive
6. Do not go after magic solutions
7. Educate utility and customers

8. Offer alternative PQ Services


9. Be aware of legal issues
10. Satisfy the customers - They are always right
What You Will Learn
Integrated Picture PQ Concern

Industry System Monitoring System Studies


Assessments (Permanent or (Simulations)
Surveys)

Performance Indices Actual Performance

Expected Compare with


Performance Indices

Identify
Responsibility and
Solutions

Information , Regulation,
and Industry Interaction
Implement Solutions
and Assess
Performance
Analysis and Simulation
Tools and Proced.

Education and
Information Periodic Reporting
Programs Monitoring and Perform.
Assessment System.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment."

Of all power quality problems, approximately 60% are internally


generated within the home or business. Twenty percent(20%) are the
result of neighboring customers.Fifteen percent(15%) are the result of
natural phenomenon such as lightning, tree limbs, and animal contacts.
And five(5%) are normal utility operations such as the operation of a
circuit breaker.

IEEE PES Working Group


P1433 Power Quality Definitions
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment."

P1433 3.2.50 Power Disturbance


Any deviation from the nominal value (or from some selected thresholds
based on load tolerance) of the input ac power characteristics.
When monitoring electric power, with many devices, thresholds are
established to define what constitutes a power disturbance. Often, these
thresholds are determined by the type of problem that is occurring. For
example, if a certain piece of equipment is failing, device specific thresholds
will be used (i.e. voltage limitations and noise limitations from the
manufacturer) to establish the definition of a power disturbance.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment."
P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality
The concept of powering and grounding sensitive equipment in a manner that
is suitable to the operation of that equipment.
NOTEWithin the industry, alternate definitions or interpretations of power
quality have been used, reflecting different points of view. Therefore, this
definition might not be exclusive, pending development of a broader
consensus.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment."

P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality


A point of view of an equipment designer or manufacturer might be that
power quality is a perfect sinusoidal wave, with no variations in the voltage,
and no noise present on the grounding system. A point of view of an
electrical utility engineer might be that power quality is simply voltage
availability or outage minutes. Finally, a point of view of an end-user, is that
power quality or quality power is simply the power that works for
whatever equipment the end-user is applying. While each hypothetical point
of view has a clear difference, it is clear that none is properly focused.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment."

P1433 3.2.51 Power Quality


An environment where the equipment designer or manufacturer clearly states
the equipment needs, and the electrical utility engineer indicates the system
delivery characteristics, and the end-user then predicts and understands the
equipment operational disturbances that will likely be encountered on a
yearly basis is a better scenario. This allows a cost justification to be
performed by the end-user to either improve equipment operation by
installing additional components or improve the electrical supply system
through installation of additional, or alteration of existing components.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment.
Utility Facilities Wafer
Services Systems Processing
Systems
Infrastructure
Equipment

Process
Facilities Equipment
Utility Supplied Electrical
Power Distribution
System
Support
Equipment

Power Monitoring Power Monitoring Ride-Through Ride-Through


and Conditioning and Conditioning Techniques Techniques
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Disturbance / Quality?


Definitions
Any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency
deviations that results in the failure or misoperation of customer
equipment.

Test Equipment Out of Spec Problem Definition


Overheating Transformers
Nuisance Tripping
Data Corruption
Equipment/Hardware Failure
Your Problem ...
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

PQ Check List

What sensitive electronic equipment is experiencing problems? (type, location, etc.)


Nature of the problems? (data loss, lockups, component damage, flickering lights, etc.)
When do the problems occur? (time of day, day of week, particular system operation, etc.)
How long have problems occurred? (since installation, just recently, seasonally, etc.)
Coincident problems occurring at the same time? (lights flicker, motors slow down, etc.)
Possible problem sources at site? (arc welders, air conditioning, copy machines, etc.)
Existing protection for equipment? (surge suppressor, isolation transformer, etc.)
Has protection equipment helped the problems? (getting better, no change, getting worse, etc.)
Has the wiring and grounding of the building been checked? (missing connections, improper
connections, poor quality connections - high impedance, etc.)
Has the quality of the supplied AC voltage been checked? (use True RMS meters)
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Approach
Problem Definition Why is PQ important?
Philosophy Responsibilities What needs to be done? By whom?
Flexibility to allow for different system characteristics

Data Collection (format, etc.)


Management Duration, Management, etc.
Tracking System Performance
Where, When, How?

Indices (definitions, conditions)


Technical Monitoring (functional specs, etc)
Standards
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

PQ Check List

Voltage Sag
Overall
Susceptibility Weak Link
Percentage
Ranking
EMO Circuit:
1 Pilot Relay (33%) and Main Contactor 47%
(14%)
DC Power Supplies:
2 19%
PC (7%), Contoller (7%), I/O (5%)
3 Phase Power Supplies:
3 12%
Magnetron (5%), RF (5%), Ion (2%)
4 Vacuum Pumps 12%

5 Turbo Pumps 7%

6 AC Inverter Drives 2%
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

PQ Check List

Disturbance Data
All Semiconductor Sites

110%
100%
Percent of Nominal Voltage

90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1 10 100 1000
Duration (cycles)

CBEMA CURVE
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions
IEEE Power Quality Standards
IEEE SCC-22: Power Quality Standards Coordinating Committee
IEEE 1159:Monitoring Electric Power Quality
IEEE 1159.1: Guide For Recorder and Data Acquisition Requirements
IEEE 1159.2: Power Quality Event Characterization
IEEE 1159.3: Data File Format for Power Quality Data Interchange
IEEE P1564:Voltage Sag Indices
IEEE 1346:Power System Compatibility with Process Equipment
IEEE P1100: Power and Grounding Electronic Equipment (Emerald Book)
IEEE 1433: Power Quality Definitions
IEEE P1453: Voltage flicker
IEEE 519: Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions
IEEE Power Quality Standards
IEEE Harmonics Working Group
Single-phase Harmonics Task Force
IEEE P519A Guide for Applying Harmonic Limits on Power Systems
Interharmonics Task Force
Harmonics Modeling and Simulation Task Force
Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonics Task Force
Surge Protective Devices Committee
Seventeen sub-committee links can be found at the "Sub-committee pages" link...
IEEE P446: Emergency and standby power
IEEE P1409: Distribution Custom Power
IEEE P1547: Distributed Resources and Electric Power Systems Interconnection
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions
IEC Power Quality Standards
61000-1-X - Definitions and methodology
61000-2-X - Environment (e.g. 61000-2-4 is compatibility levels in industrial plants)
61000-3-X - Limits (e.g. 61000-3-4 is limits on harmonics emissions)
61000-4-X - Tests and measurements (e.g. 61000-4-30 is power quality measurements)
61000-5-X - Installation and mitigation
61000-6-X - Generic immunity & emissions standards
IEC SC77A: Low frequency EMC Phenomena -- essentially equivalent of "power quality"
in American terminology
TC 77/WG 1: Terminology (part of the parent Technical Committee)
SC 77A/WG 1: Harmonics and other low-frequency disturbances
SC 77A/WG 6: Low frequency immunity tests
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?

Definitions
IEC Power Quality Standards
SC 77A/WG 2: Voltage fluctuations and other low-frequency disturbances
SC 77A/WG 8: Electromagnetic interference related to the network frequency
SC 77A/WG 9: Power Quality measurement methods
SC 77A/PT 61000-3-1: Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-1: Limits -
Overview of emission standards and guides. Technical Report
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?

Definitions
Other PQ Standards
UIE: International Union for Electricity Applications
CENELEC: European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
UNIPEDE: International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy
ANSI: American National Standards Institute
ANSI C62: Guides and standards on surge protection
ANSI C84.1: Voltage ratings for equipment and power systems
ANSI C57.110: Transformer derating for supplying non-linear loads
CIGRE: International Council on Large Electric Systems
CIRED: International Conference on Electricity Distribution
CBEMA / ITIC curve
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions (Other Sources)

IEC 1000-2-1 - Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) - Part 2 Environment, "Description of the


Environment -- Electromagnetic Environment for Low Frequency Conducted Disturbances and
Signaling in Public Power Supply Systems," Section 1, 1990.
IEC 50(161)(1990) - International Electrotechnical Vocabulary, Chapter 161: Electromagnetic
Compatibility.
IEEE STD 100-1992, IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms (ANSI).
IEEE Standard 1100-1992, Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive
Electronic Equipment. (Emerald Book).
IEEE STD 1159-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality.
IEEE STD 1250-1995, IEEE Guide for Service to Equipment Sensitive to Momentary Voltage
Disturbances.
IEEE STD 1346-1998, IEEE Recommended Practice for Evaluating Electric Power System
Compatibility With Electronic Process Equipment.
IEEE STD 519-1992, IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in
Electrical Power Systems.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions (Other Sources)

IEEE STD 142-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems. (Green Book)
IEEE STD 446-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems
for Industrial and Commercial Applications. (Orange Book).
IEEE STD 141-1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for
Industrial Plants. (Red Book).
IEEE C62.22-1991, IEEE Guide for the Application of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters for
Alternating-Current Systems.
IEC Publications are available from IEC Sales Department, Case Postale 131, 3 rue de Varembe,
CH 1211, Geneve 20, Switzerland/Suisse. IEC publications are also available in the United
States from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street,
13th Floor, New York, NY 10036. Telephone: (212) 642-4900.
IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
Service Center, 445 Hoes Lane, Post Office Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA.
Telephone: (212) 705-7900.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


Definitions (Other Sources)

ANSI publications are available from the Sales Department, American National Standards
Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, 13th Floor, New York, NY 10036, USA. Telephone: (212) 642-
4900.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) documents are available from the National
Technical Information Services (NITS), United States Department of Commerce, 5285 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161. Telephone: (703) 487-4650.
UIE publications are available from the Union Internationale de Electrothermie, Tour
Atlantiquee F - 92 0A0 Paris Ladefense Cedex 06 France. Telephone: 011 331 41 26 56 48,
Fax: 011 331 41 26 56 49.
Basic Measuring Instruments publications are available from BMI -- Order Administration,
3250 Jay Street, Santa Clara, CA 95054. Telephone: 1-800-876-5355.
Dranetz Technologies publications are available from Dranetz Technologies Incorporated, 1000
New Durham Road, Edison, NJ 08818. Telephone: (908) 287-3580.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?

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09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?


09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

What is Power / Voltage Quality?

Phenomena Steady Disturbance Indices and


State Phenomena compatibility levels

Continuity XXX DEC, FEC


Voltage Regulation XXX -5% <Vn< +5%

Frequency XXX XXX 1Hz <fc < +1Hz


Variation CP99.9%
Flicker XXX PstD95%< 1.0
PltS95% < 0.8
Unbalance XXX V2/V1 < 2.0%
CP95%
Harmonics XXX THD < 3.0%
CP95%
Voltage Sags XXX SARFI70

Transients XXX Peak overvoltage (pu)


09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$


Cost Categories
Lost production PQ $

Scrap
Restart costs
Labor PQ Level

Repair and replacement costs


Process inefficiency

PowerQuality ( A B C )dPd $
A - Electric parameters
B - Economic Parameters
C - Structure of the Sector
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost

Intangible Costs
Increased Business Risk
Lost Business Opportunity
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost

Assessing the PQ Cost


for The Utility

kWh not Distributed Investiment in PQuality Legal

Total Cost Utility


09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost


Assessing The Cost
of Mitigation for The Utility

Types of Disturbance
Impulses
Distortions, etc.

Level of Quality

Filtering, Power Conditioners, Motor-generator, etc.,

Total Cost of Mitigation

B
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost

Assessing the PQ Benefit


for The Utility

Return on Investiment Reduced Losses


Market Effects
New Customers Improved Efficiency

Total Benefit - Utility

C
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost

Cost of Disturbance Cost of Mitigation Benefit due to Mitigation

A B B C C

Financial Analysis

Net Benefit

Payback
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Integrated Macroeconomic/Financial Analysis

Why are we concerned with PQ? Costs Cost


Benefit Cost Benefit Cost Benefit Cost
Sensitive Customer Distuurbing Customer Utility

Integrated Macroeconomic/Fina ncial Analysis

Cost Benefit Curves Cost Benefit Curves Cost Benefit Curves


Sensitive Customer Disturbing Customer Utility
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

How does the deregulated environment affects PQ?


Reduced Investment (Operation, Maintenance, etc)
Responsibilities
Power Electronics Penetration (T, D, and User-End)
Distributed Generation (DG): Trends, Interconnection Issues
Regulating Control / Coordination Issues
Randomly Varying Sources (PV, Wind)

What is New in PQ?


T&D Technologies, Instrumentation, Modeling, etc., Initiatives
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Deregulation and Regulation

Power quality will have to be regulated. As deregulation takes over the industry, the
temptation to let the level of service and investment in the system deteriorate is obvious.
Regulators will want to prevent this be requiring some basic level of quality and reliability.
Indices are being developed and standardized to facilitate the characterizing of power
quality levels on the system. EPRI completed a 2 year monitoring project to provide
benchmark indices describing power quality levels on distribution systems in the United
States. The Europeans have already started the process with the Euronorms (EN50160)
that define levels of power quality that can be expected in a number of important
categories (harmonics, flicker, regulation, unbalance, disturbances).
Utilities will have to report power quality performance statistics and make sure that the
performance does not significantly deteriorate over time. The regulations governing power
quality will be part of the overall regulations for operating the distribution part of the
electricity supply business (often called the lines company). This will require more system
monitoring and analytical tools to predict performance as part of the system design
process.
The regulations will only address a base level of power quality and will be evaluated on a
system-wide basis.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Deregulation

What will the Power Quality Program Look Like?


Power quality programs of the future will have a number of very important functions.
They will coordinate system monitoring and analyses to benchmark system
performance, evaluate problem conditions, and prioritize system investments to improve
performance.
They will coordinate with system planning and design groups to include the evaluation
of power quality impacts in the system design process.
They will provide a full range of services for customers both within and outside their
traditional service territories. These will include in-plant monitoring services with on-
line analysis of performance and recommendations for system improvements. They will
install and maintain equipment to improve performance and energy efficiency. They will
analyze specific problems and develop solutions and then follow through with actual
implementation management.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Deregulation

What will the Power Quality Program Look Like?


They will develop alliances with equipment manufacturers and other service providers
in order to offer system solutions to customers and take advantage of quantity discounts.
They will develop expertise in these products and services so that there is an added
value to the customer.
The power quality services will be integrated with much larger service packages that
will include a full information system for the customer (power quality, energy use,
billing information, equipment performance, etc.), energy management functions, and
equipment maintenance contracts.

Deregulation will not mean the end of power quality evaluations as an important
function within the electric utility industry. On the contrary, power quality is only
increasing in importance as competition becomes the standard and utilities look for new
ways to service their customer base.
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
New T&D Technologies

TL
HVDC
SVC
TL TL Substation
Generation
FACTS
DL
Excitation
DL

Alternate Sources
Load Load Load
1 2 3
Customer B

Home Automation
UPS Load Load Load
Motor Drives 1 2 3
Customer A
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
T&D Technologies
Power System Value Chain

Environmental
Maintainability
Availability
Safety
Efficiency
Reliability
Performance
Price
Power Quality

Energy Communication
Power
INPUTS Generation Delivery Conversion Processing OUTPUTS
Light / Motion

Central T&D AC-AC Motion


Station Supplies

SMES FACTS UPS Appliances


Batteries SMES
PQ Parks

Power Electronics Systems and Components

Utility User
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Different Levels of Action
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Development of PQ Standards and Specifications
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura
Evaluation Procedure
09:40 09:55 Sesso de Abertura

Challenges
Distribution and Power Quality Strategic - EPRI Roadmap - Difficult Challenges

Improved Transmission Capacity, Grid Control, and Stability


Maintain and Strengthen Portfolio of Generation Options
Accelerated Development of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies
Achieving Low/Zero Emissions of Key Pollutants
Improved Power Quality and Reliability for Precision Electricity Users
Increasing Robustness, Resilience, and Security of Energy Infrastructure
Creation of the Infrastructure for a Digital Society
Advances in Enabling Technology Platforms
Exploiting the Strategic Value of Storage Technologies
High Efficiency End Uses of Energy
Maintaining and Improving Water Availability and Quality
Global Electrification
Development of Electricity-Based Transportation Systems
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

-Breve Introduo

Tenso x Corrente, Harmnicos x Transitrios


-Modelagem

-Gerao Distribuda
-Fontes e Aspectos Probabilsticos
-Instrumentao
-ndices Harmnicos
-Normas / Recomendaes
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Tenso x Corrente

Ohm's, Watt's, and Kirkoff's laws, and Impedance

Voltage - System Approach

Current Equipment Approach

Limits (V or I ?)

Harmnicos x Transitrios

Harmonics (multiple of the fundamental)

Transients (natural resoance frequencies, short-duration)


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Nonlinear loads, such as power electronic equipment, produce non-


sinusoidal current waveforms when energized with a sinusoidal voltage.
They inject currents at harmonic (integer multiple of the fundamental
frequency) frequencies into the system. Harmonic currents, and the
voltage distortion they create as they flow through the system
impedance, can reduce equipment operating reliability and service life
(0-100th harmonic).
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Modelagem (Sources)
-Current injection model.

-Frequency- or time-domain
Norton equivalent circuit model.

-Harmonic coupling matrix model.

-Time- or frequency-domain
device model used with frequency-
domain network model.

-Time-domain model.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Modelagem (System and Loads)

Sensitivity Analysis
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Modelagem (System and Loads)
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Modelagem (System and Loads)


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Modelagem (Solution)

Harmonic Power Flow Solutions:


In this analysis, the harmonic sources are also represented as current sources.
However, their magnitudes and phases are updated using an iterative scheme
based on detailed (voltage-dependent) harmonic source models. Inter-phase
coupling of the harmonic-sources can be modeled with good accuracy. The
harmonic iteration scheme solves the network one frequency at a time. The
calculated nodal voltages are then used to update the current source model. In
theory, simultaneous solutions of all harmonic orders like those used in the
HARMFLO program can also be developed for the multiphase analysis, but the
algorithm would be extremely complex.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Modelagem (Solution)

Harmonic Power Flow Solutions:


In this analysis, the harmonic sources are also represented as current sources.
However, their magnitudes and phases are updated using an iterative scheme
based on detailed (voltage-dependent) harmonic source models. Inter-phase
coupling of the harmonic-sources can be modeled with good accuracy. The
harmonic iteration scheme solves the network one frequency at a time. The
calculated nodal voltages are then used to update the current source model. In
theory, simultaneous solutions of all harmonic orders like those used in the
HARMFLO program can also be developed for the multiphase analysis, but the
algorithm would be extremely complex.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos
Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

THD
V

THD
1.2%V

0.8%

0.4%
An Inevitable Reality
0.0%
2/2 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8

The causes of variations are the continuous changes in system configurations, linear
load demands and operating modes of non linear loads
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics


Harmonic Indices The variations
Aspects to be
Considered generally have a
Probability Functions random character
and the only way one
Statistical measures
can describe the
behavior of such
Summation Laws
characteristics is in
Harmonic Impedances statistical terms

Time-dependent Limits
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Harmonic phases angles are randomly varying:

Im(V5) Im(V23)

Re(V5) Re(V23)
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Marginal probability density function

0.4

fX
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
X
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics
Time ranges involved (hours, day, etc.)

Time interval between readings and the window width

Application to estimate the thermal effects of


harmonics

Multimodal patterns

The time factor is completely lost and the same pdf can correspond to
different time varying harmonics, with consequent different thermal responses
of electrical components
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics
Conditional probability density functions
Example: pdf of the 5th Harmonic Voltage given that its amplitude is
greater than or equal to 6%
2 f*V5 4.5
fV5
4
3.5
1.5
3
2.5


1
2
1.5
0.5 1
0.5
0 0
V6%V5
V5 V6% V5 V5

to reduce the volume of data to be analyzed


to represent extreme events
to introduce intriguing new statistical measures
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Statistical Measures
average value m

standard deviation s

95% probability value PC95%

99% probability value PC99%

maximum value MAX

The IEC 1000-3-6 and EN 50160 refer to PC95% and MAX


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Harmonic pdfs with the same PC95% and MAX can cause different effects

x0.95 x0.95

m = 0.70 s = 0.27 m = 0.27 s = 0.16


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Summation Laws

Two semi-empirical approaches have been proposed in literature in order to


allow easy and fast evaluation in practical applications such as standards

I h k hjI hj
j h = summation exponent
dependent on harmonic order

U h h U hjh
j
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Summation Laws

The laws should be continuously verified to take into


account:
new electronic components
the presence of unbalanced conditions

the influence of the network supplying


the harmonic sources
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics

Harmonic Impedances

Usually, the network harmonic impedances are assigned with reference to


deterministic values and without taking into account the correlation with
disturbing currents

The network harmonic impedance has statistical behavior due to:


network component uncertainties
load variability (including power factor correction capacitors)
supply system variability
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Time-Varying Nature of Harmonics
Time-Dependent Limits
Up to now the studies on harmonic effects mainly (but not only) refer to
static distortions
Studies are needed on harmonic effects when time-varying distortion is
applied

THDV

TH
1.2%

DV
0.8%

0.4%
Equipment
0.0%
2/2 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Proposition For IEEE 519
IEEE 519-1992 introduced the concept of probability distribution plots to characterise
variations in harmonic levels.

A reasonable method of using these types of plots to evaluate harmonic levels would be
to compare the steady state harmonic limits with the measured harmonic level that is not
exceeded 95% of the time (the 95% probability point). This is consistent with the
evaluation of compatibility levels in IEC standards.
In order to further develop this topic the IEEE Probabilistic Aspect of Harmonics Task
Force is preparing a proposal for the Std. 519 in which the time-varying nature of
harmonics voltages are considered in the establishment of the limits.
Any limits on the short duration harmonic levels should be based on the possible
impacts of these harmonic levels. Effects such as metering error and equipment ageing
are the accumulated result of harmonic levels over time. Other effects include the
sensitive electronics to short burst of high harmonic levels or certain types of waveform
distortions.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Proposition For IEEE 519

Recommendations are being prepared, with suggested procedures and


values to be discussed by the members of the Std. 519 Revision Task Force.
These recommendations will be consistent with the 519 Application Guide.

Probability distributions and short-term disturbance limits shall be


established.

The continuous limits could be taken as, for example, the 95% probability
limit.

The values will be established based on the impact of short-term harmonics


on different equipment.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos - Proposition For IEEE 519

THDV
THDV
1.2%
0.8%
0.4%
0.0%
2/2 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8

50 100.00%
S i te 1 0 9 2 T H D H i s to g r a m C o u nt = 305
M i n im u m = 0.739
45 J une 19 - J une 26, 1992 90.00%
M a x im u m = 1 .9 4 9
R a n ge = 1 .2 1 1
40 M ean = 1.4 0 6 80.00%
M e d ia n = 1 .4 8 9
S t a n d a rd D e vi a t i o n = 0 .3 1 8
35 S t a n d a rd E rr o r = 0 .0 1 8 2 70.00%
V a ri a n c e = 0.101
S k ewnes s = -0 . 5 2 1
30 K u rt o s i s = -0 . 7 7 7
60.00%
Frequency

25 50.00%

20 40.00%

15 30.00%

10 20.00%

5 10.00%

0 0.00%
0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9
TH D B in s (% )

Table 1 Short-Term Limits


Short-Time
Limits Duration of
Disturbance
A x Continuous Limits a1 sec < T < b1 sec

B x Continuous Limits b1 sec < T< a2 min

C x Continuous Limits a2 min < T< b2 min


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos

Histogram and cumulative distribution


138kV bus voltage THD as a function of of THD levels for a week long
time measurement.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Aspectos Probabilsticos

Drawing of cumulative distribution (Ttotal) and the maximum duration and maximum duration of
individual burst (Tmaximum) for a harmonic measurement. The curve also includes a conceptual limit
for short term harmonic levels.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Monitorao and Instrumentao

Monitoring and Analysis to Evaluate Compliance

Monitoring to characterize system performance


Monitoring to characterize specific problems
Monitoring as part of an enhanced power quality service
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Monitorao and Instrumentao

Monitoring Program Components


Power quality and/or energy demand monitors
Data storage
Download computers
Web or company Intranet server

Some viewgraphs used with permission of Mark McGranaham and


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Monitorao and Instrumentao

Why monitor power systems?


Benchmark system performance levels (understand power
quality that can be expected, Allows option for expanded
power quality services)
Reliability reporting (reliability defined based on customer
impacts)
Prioritize system investments
Information service for customers
Identify and solve problems
Improve system operations and reliability
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo Example of System


Monitoring Concept
Monitorao and Instrumentao
Distribution
Substation

Transmission

Cust om er
Monitoring
Syst em

Substation
Monitoring
Sys tem

Cust om er
Monitoring
Syst em Power Quality/
Energy
Information Service

Internet/
Data Collection Data Collection
World Wide Web
Local Network

Monitoring
Database
Corporate Power Quality/
Intranet Reliability
Database Management/ Performance and
Local Data Analy sis Data Analysis
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Important components for a system


Open architecture
Systems should allow integration of different
technologies within utility and customer networks
Power Quality Data Interchange Format (PQDIF)
IEEE Standard 1159.3
Web-based access to the information
Intelligent applications
Automated reporting functions
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Documenting performance for continuous PQ variations

Disturbance magnitude
Voltage regulation
Equipment immunity test levels
Unbalance
Compatibility level
Flicker
Utility planning levels
Harmonics
Assessed level

time
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
The concept of compatibility levels
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
Monitoring to improve operations & reliability

Fault location
Capacitor bank performance assessment
Voltage regulator performance assessment
DG performance assessment
Cable fault identifier
Arrester failure identifier
Transformer loading assessment
This is where the real financial return for
system monitoring comes in
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitoring to improve operations & reliability


Example
Identifying harmonic problems

Power factor correction equipment can result in resonances that magnify


harmonic levels. The monitoring system can identify and alarm based on
these conditions before they cause equipmentHarmonic
Example Voltage Waveform showing Voltage Distortion Problem
600 failures.
Components of the Voltage Waveform
120

400 100

200 80

0 60
Voltage ( V)

Voltage (%)

-200 40

-400 20

-600 0
0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0 2 4 6 8 10
Time ( s) Harmonic Component
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitoring to improve operations & reliability


Prioritizing new applications
Faults
Fault location
Fault type
Causes of faults
Trends of fault locations indicating problems
Incipient faults for cable and arrester failures
Protective Device Operations
Timing
Coordination problems (fuses, reclosers, sectionalizers, etc.)
Misoperation identification
Breakers
Pole span
Timing
Duties and maintenance requirement
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitoring to improve operations & reliability


Capacitor operations
Capacitor location
Identification of blown fuses or unbalanced operation
Severity of transients
Breaker restrikes
Operation of transient control technology (e.g. synchronous closing)
Magnification concerns, Impacts on customers
Transformer evaluation
Loading issues
Harmonic impacts
Regulator performance and maintenance requirements
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitoring to improve operations & reliability


Distributed generation applications
Energy monitoring
Operation of protection systems and coordination with power system
protection
Harmonic impacts
Impacts on voltage regulators
Power factor issues
System performance assessment and control
Power factor control
Harmonic resonance identification and control
Feeder loading
Voltage regulation
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitoring to improve operations & reliability


Web interface to the substation -monitoring system

Managing Data (1000s miles away)


http://engr.calvin.edu/PRibeiro_WEBPAGE/
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao System Configuration


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao Data Analysis


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao Analytical Methods


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo

Monitorao and Instrumentao


Performance benchmarking is very important but difficult to justify
economically
Power system monitoring can have benefits in improving operational reliability
and efficiency these benefits can easily justify the monitoring system
Reduces time to locate and repair faults
Identification of equipment problems (possibly avoiding outages and
improving reliability)
More efficient scheduling
Dont cut too many corners build the system so that it can take advantage of
new technologies and applications (detailed waveform recording,
communication systems, open architecture, etc.)
Should be Internet-based for interfacing, ease of use, and ongoing support
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
ndices Harmnicos
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
ndices Harmnicos
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos

Breve Introduo
ndices Harmnicos

Voltage Current Power


Instantaneous Voltage Instantaneous Current Harmonic Power Spectrum
Voltage Spectrum Current Spectrum Real Power
Peak Voltage Peak Current Reactive Power
RMS Voltage RMS Current Apparent Power
Harmonic RMS Voltage Harmonic RMS Current Power Factor
Total Harmonic Dist. (THD) Total Harmonic Dist (THD) Displacement Factor
Even Harmonic Distortion Total Demand Dist (TDD)
Odd Harmonic Distortion Even Harmonic Distortion
Crest Factor Odd Harmonic Distortion
Form Factor Crest Factor
Voltage Arithmetic Sum Form Factor
Telephone Influence Factor Arithmetic Sum
Time Weighted Product
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
The Blood Pressure Analogy

Compatibility vs Absolute Measure Relative Trespass Level (RTL)

U k Uref k
RTL k max 0,
Uref k
Uk - measured or calculated harmonic voltage
Uref - harmonic voltage limit (standard or particular equipment)
k - harmonic order

8
8 8
8
6
6

RT Lk 4
RT Lk 4

2
2
0 0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 0
0 0.05 0.1
2 k 13
0 Uk .1
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
The Blood Pressure Analogy

Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index

50
HDD RTLk
2

k 2
Exponent = 2 or 4 ?
k = 50 or less ?
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index


Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons
Alternative Approach

HDD ( Fuzzy _ Logic )


1

Normal Caution Possible Severe Dangerous


Levels Problems Distortions Levels

0
a b c d e f g RTL
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure
Harmonic Distortion Diagnostic Index Applying Fuzzy Logic Comparisons
Alternative Approach Individual Harmonics (Vh)
Equipment Malfunction
Fuzzy - Color Code Criteria
No Problem
Normal
Below
Normal
Below
a

Caution
NormalOver
b

Heating

Possible Problems
c
d

Very
Hot

Imminent Problems

1
e

Normal Caution Possible Severe Dangerous


Levels Problems Distortions Levels

0
A B C D E F G RTL
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 1
U k Uref k 2
2 0
0.04
0.001 0.01 0.03
3 0.5
0.015 0.01
0.001 0.01 4 0
0.03 0.01 5 2 Uk
0.001 0.01 6 0 0.02
0.015 0.01 RTL 7 0.5 Urefk
0.001 0.01 8 0
0.009 ( VTHD Vthd )
THDD max 0
0.01 9 0
0.001
3
0.01 10 0 Vthd
0.02 0.01 11 1 110 0
0.001 0.01 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
12 0
0.015 0.01 13 0.5 2 k 13
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 1

13 13
VHDD RTLk2 VTHD

2
U k 100

k 2
k 2

VHDD 2.398 VTHD 4.541

THDD max 0
( VTHD Vthd )

Vthd

THDD 0 Vthd=5%
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 2

U k Uref k 2
2 0
0.001 0.01 0.02
3 0
0.01 0.01
0.001 0.01 4 0

0.0 0.01 5 0 Uk
0.001 0.01 6 0
0.01
0.01 0.01 RTL 7 0 Urefk
0.001 0.01 8 0
0.01 0.01 9 0
0.001 0.01 10 0
0.01 0.01 11 0 0 0
0.001 0.01 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0.01 0.01 13 0 2 k 13
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 2
13
13
VHDD RTLk2 VTHD

2
U k 100

k 2 k 2

VHDD 0 VTHD 2.249

THDD max 0
( VTHD Vthd )

Vthd

THDD 0 Vthd=5%
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 3

U k Uref k 2
2 0 0.05
0.001 0.01 0.04
3 0
0.001 0.01
4 0 Uk
0.001 0.01
5 1
0.02 0.01 Urefk 0.02
0.001 0.01 6 0
RTL 7 1
0.02 0.01
0.001 0.01 8 0 3
110 0
0.001 0.01 9 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0.001 0.01 10 0 2 k 13
0.05 0.01 11 4
0.001 0.01 12 0
0.04 0.01 13 3
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Example 3

13
13
VHDD RTLk 2 VTHD


k 2
2
U k 100


k 2

VHDD 5.196 VTHD 7.006

THDD max 0
( VTHD Vthd )

Vthd

THDD 0.401 Vthd=5%


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure
U k Uref k

0.01 0.01 2 Example 4


0.01 0.01 3 0
0.01 0.01 4 0 0.025
0.01 0.01
5 0
0.01 0.01 0.02
6 0
0.01 0.01
7 0 Uk
0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 8 0
Urefk 0.01
0.01 0.01 9 0
0.01 0.01 RTL 10 0
0.01 0.01 11 0
0.01 0.01 12 0 0.01 0
0.01 0.01 13 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.01 0.01 2 k 29
14 0
0.01 0.01
15 0
0.01 0.01
16 0
0.01 0.01
n n

17 0
VTHD U k2 100
0.01 0.01
18 0 VHDD RTLk 2
Vthd 5

0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 k 2 k 2
0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 VHDD 0 VTHD 5.292
0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01
( VTHD Vthd )
THDD max
0.01 0.01
0 THDD 0.058
0.01 0.01
Vthd
0.01 0.01
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Patterns and Diagnostics Diagnosing


Problems
If HDD > 0 Possible
If THDD = 0

If HDD = 0 No
If THDD = 0

If HDD > 0 Yes


If THDD > 0

If HDD = 0 Possible
If THDD > 0
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - ndices Harmnicos
Compatibility vs Absolute Measure

Indices may provide additional insight on diagnosing harmonic problems


HDD provides information on individual harmonic distortion compatibility
THDD provides information on total harmonic distortion compatibility
Reference values can be adjusted to individual equipment or standard
When the equipment is more sensitive to waveform distortion use HDD
When the equipment is more sensitive to heating effects use THDD
Additional rules could be incorporated to expand the concept and applications
to other power quality parameters and more realistic diagnostic evaluations.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)

Current Distortion Limits


(in % of IL) for General
Distribution Systems (120-
69,000 V)

Current Distortion Limits


(in % of IL) for General
Sub-Transmission Systems
(69,001-161,000 V)
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)

Current Distortion
Limits (in % of IL) for
General Transmission
Systems (>161,000 V)

Voltage
Distortion Limits
(in % of V1)
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)

GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING HARMONIC LIMITS

Step 1: Choose the point of common coupling,


Step 2: Characterize the harmonic-producing loads,
Step 3: Assess power factor correction needs,
Step 4: Calculate expected harmonics at the PCC,
Step 5: Design and implement solutions (if needed), and
Step 6: Verify performance with measurements.
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)

2.5 > Wi >0.5


10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

Normas / Recomendaes (IEEE 519)

1. Modeling of network components such as overhead lines, cables, transformers, etc. (The
analyst has some flexibility in selecting the level of detail needed; sensitivity studies
should be considered to determine which degrees of detail can be avoided in any particular
study.)
2. Modeling of various nonlinear loads including predefined models and the capability for
user-defined models based on measured or typical data. (It is left to the analyst to determine
what degree of sophistication is required, especially if time-domain simulation techniques
are to be used.)
3. Modeling of power factor correction capacitors should be built in to any software
being considered. (The representation of the equivalent capacitance is the most important
requirement; other details are somewhat insignificant for limit compliance evaluations.)
4. Modeling of utility system equivalents should be straightforward. (In an advanced study,
the analyst should consider the capability to represent the frequency dependence of network
equivalents.)
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo

ndices Harmnicos
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - Normas / Recomendaes
IEEE P1547.1 Standard for Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting
Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems

Scope This standard specifies the type, production, and commissioning tests that shall be performed to
demonstrate that the interconnection functions and equipment of a distributed resource (DR) conform to
IEEE Standard P1547.

Purpose
Interconnection equipment that connects distributed resources (DR) to an electric power system (EPS)
must meet the requirements specified in IEEE Standard P1547. These test procedures must provide both
repeatable results, independent of test location, and flexibility to accommodate a variety of DR
technologies

Standards currently under development are:


P1547 - Draft Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
P1547.1 - Draft Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting
Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
P1547.2 - Draft Application Guide for IEEE P1547 Draft Standard for Interconnecting Distributed
Resources with Electric Power Systems
P1547.3 - Draft Guide for Monitoring, Information Exchange and Control of DR Interconnected
with EPS
10:00 12:15 Harmnicos
Breve Introduo - Normas / Recomendaes
12:30 - 14:00 Almoo
14:10 - 15:50 - Harmnicos

Contratos e Seguros

Harmonic Distortion.
IEEE 519-1992 describes the responsibility between the customer and the
distribution system supplier in controlling harmonic distortion levels. The
distribution company is responsible for the voltage distortion and the customer is
responsible for harmonic currents being created by nonlinear loads within the
facility.

Involvement of Multiple Entities


Transmission Provider
Local Distributor
Independent Power Producers
Retail Marketers, Energy Companies
End User
14:10 - 15:50 - Harmnicos

Contratos e Seguros
16:00 - 16:25 - Coffee Break
16:30 - 17:30 Debates Mesa Redonda

Questions for Discussion and Deliberation

What is Really Power Quality? Evaluate Definitions

How Should Harmonics Be Treated (Rigid / Flexible Approach)?

How should the probabilistic nature be incorporated?

What about costs?

How does the deregulated environment affects PQ?

Topics for future research and development.

Other Questions and Issues?


16:30 - 17:30 Debates Mesa Redonda

Quiz

Example What was causing this event?


16:30 - 17:30 Debates Mesa Redonda

Quiz

More clues from the current waveform


16:30 - 17:30 Debates Mesa Redonda

Quiz

Problem -- found before failure!

Transformer tap changing


mechanism

Need for Intelligent


Diagnostic System
17 de junho (Tera-feira)

08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso


- Breve Introduo
- Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
- Instrumentao
10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break
10:45 - 12:15 - Distrbios na Tenso
- ndices
- Normas / Recomendaes
12:20 - 14:00 - Almoo
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo
-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
-Instrumentao

Voltage sags are typically characterized by the minimum rms voltage and the
duration of the sag.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo
- Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
- Instrumentao

Benchmarking voltage sag performance

Basis for evaluating ongoing system performance


Basis for evaluating economics of power quality improvement
options
Basis for implementing PQ-based contracts
Basis for attracting customers that are concerned about PQ levels
Can be basis for standards
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo
- Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

Faults on Own
Faults on Circuit
Transmission 23%
System
31%

Faults on Parallel
Circuits
46%
Example of the breakdown of voltage sag performance at an end user location illustrating the
relative causes of voltage sags between the transmission system and the distribution system.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo
-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

What is SARFI?
SARFI is an acronym for System Average RMS Variation Frequency Index. It
is a power quality index that provides a count or rate of voltage sags, swells,
and/or interruptions for a system. The size of the system is scalable: it can be
defined as a single monitoring location, a single customer service, a feeder, a
substation, groups of substations, or for an entire power delivery system. There
are two types of SARFI indices. SARFIx and SARFICURVE.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo
-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
SARFIx
SARFIx corresponds to a count or rate of voltage sags, swell and/or interruptions below a
voltage threshold. For example, SARFI90 considers voltage sags and interruptions that are
below 0.90 per unit, or 90% of a system base voltage. SARFI70 considers voltage sags and
interruptions that are below 0.70 per unit, or 70% of a system base voltage. And SARFI110
considers voltage swells that are above 1.1 per unit, or 110% of a system base voltage. The
SARFIx indices are meant to assess short-duration rms variation events only, meaning that
only those events with durations less than 60 seconds are included in its computation.
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SARFICURVE
SARFICURVE corresponds to a rate of voltage sags below an equipment compatibility
curve. For example SARFICBEMA considers voltage sags and interruptions that are
below the lower CBEMA curve. SARFIITIC considers voltage sags and interruptions
that are below the lower ITIC curve. Lastly, SARFISEMI considers voltage sags and
interruptions that are below the lower SEMI curve. These curves do not limit the
duration of an rms variation event to 60 seconds; therefore, the SARFICBEMA,
SARFIITIC, and SARFISEMI are valid for events with durations greater than cycle.

http://www.pqview.com/indices/sarfi.pdf
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The SARFI index is usually expressed as a function of equipment


sensitivity (or minimum phase magnitude). For example a

SARFI70 Indicates the annual number of voltage sags where the


retained voltage (on the minimum phase) is less than 70%. This is
equivalent to an event when the voltage is 30% below the nominal
(prefault voltage).

SARFI90 Indicates the annual number of voltage sags where the


retained voltage (on the minimum phase) is less than 90%. This is
equivalent to an event when the voltage is 10% below the nominal
(prefault voltage).

SARFICBEMA Indicates the annual number of voltage sags where


magnitude and duration of the event is outside the CBEMA equipment
sensitivity tolerance curve.
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The index is general enough so that it can be applied to any sensitivity


level. It can also be applied for a given site, or across an entire system.
This latter concept of applying a voltage sag rate statistic across an entire
system is controversial in the U.S. although reliability statistics have
been handled by calculating them across the entire system for years.

Finally, it should be noted that voltage regulation in transmission systems


have a wider variation than distribution systems. Therefore the
recommended practice is for the pre-fault voltage to define the base
voltage. In this way, the nominal voltage that is used is floating. This
practice of allowing the nominal voltage to change allows for better
triggering inside the instrument, since the voltage thresholds can be set
more closely without generating events due to normal voltage regulation
patterns.
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Example of the area of vulnerability concept.


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T Line Disturbances Vs Voltage Level

440-500 kV

220-230 kV

110-138 kV

69 kV

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Events per 100 mile / Year

Example of fault performance statistics (from recent survey of transmission


system fault performance levels from around the world).
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Expected Voltage Sag Performance

70

60 Distribution
Number of Events per Year

Transmission
50

40

30

20

10

0
Interruptions < 50% < 60% < 70% < 80% < 90%
Minimum Sag Voltage
Example of summarizing voltage sag performance at typical SARFI threshold values.
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Magnitude D uration R MS Events

500
450
400
350
Count

300
250
200
150
100 90 to 100
50 60 to 70
0
30 to 60 cyc
20 to 30 cyc

30 to 40
10 to 20 cyc
6 to 10 cyc
5 cyc

M agnitude
4 cyc

0 to 10
3 cyc
2 cyc
1 cyc

Duration

Example of characterizing voltage sag performance using a three dimensional chart showing the count
of events with magnitude and duration.
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Example of characterizing voltage sag events by summarizing magnitude and duration of events with
respect to equipment sensitivity (ITIC curve).
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What about calculation of expected performance vs. measured performance? Our results dont seem to
match the measurements.
It is theoretically possible to calculate voltage sag performance from a historical database of the system
faults. Electrotek has done this for a number of customers.
Dis turbanc e s at UNIFI

From His torical Records Computer Model

25

20

Events 1 5
Per
Year 1 0

0
3 8 kV 1 1 0 kV 2 2 0 kV Total
Fault Location

Calculated vs. actual voltage sags at an industrial plant


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Consider the following rms variation event summary table, which was hypothetically
measured at a single site:
List of RMS Variation Events Measured at a Single Monitoring Site

Time Stamp Minimum Voltage Event Duration


Jul-01-1997 09:48:52 73% 9 cycles
Jul-01-1997 09:50:16 73% 9 cycles
Jul-07-1997 14:20:12 0% 82 cycles
Jul-10-1997 15:55:23 13% 100 cycles
Jul-21-1997 09:48:52 0% 2.6 seconds
Aug-08-1997 07:35:02 49% 34 cycles
Sep-02-1997 08:30:28 0% 41 seconds
Sep-08-1997 10:30:40 59% 40 cyc
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The count of voltage sags and interruptions that would be included in the SARFI90 is 8,
as there were 8 voltage sags and interruptions measured at this location that were had a
minimum voltage below 0.9 per unit (90 percent) and between cycle and 60 seconds
in duration. This can be expressed as a rate of 3.93 events per 30 days. This is computed
by dividing the 8 events by the 92 days between July-01-1997 and Oct-01-1997, and
then multiplying by 30 to normalized to events per 30 days.
SARFIX Rates Computed from previous table

Index Count Rate per 30 Days

SARFI90 8 2.61

SARFI70 6 1.96
SARFI50 5 1.63
SARFI10 3 0.98
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- Instrumentao

Voltage sag performance on medium voltage systems

Benchmarking Project SARFI-70 SARFI-80 SARFI-90


Power Grid - Singapore 7.8 10.6 13.2
United States (DPQ Project) 17.7 27.3 49.7
Europe Mixed Systems (UNIPEDE) 44.0 NA 103.1
Europe Cable Systems (UNIPEDE) 11.0 NA 34.6
South Africa (NRS-048 indicative levels) 47.0 78.0 153.0

Brazilian System ? ? ?
Discuss
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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Comparison of UI Substation's SARFI 70 performance of the last 12 months vs. their 3 year average
16
Number of times when Substation's Bus Voltage was less

14
than 70% of Nominal per 365 days

12

10

0
NG NI A K
AY SS RE T L . 1 2 N E T S . A B W
SI EE NU
M
RE HO ES RN
E
EL ST ER ER VO ENU AVE
N
W
N
OC
K
IA
C
ET LL ST O NT RD RD NE
S SO R R DW G W O W E V V IL O N I P K A R I A I S
O N C A N S M H N I I V H T N N C F E M A B S
CR A H B OA CO ST EL T N JU R R M A H D O IN SA AP AT D B E
AS BR EA AW ND
IA IL
L
IL
L
IX RT OL QU QU TR OO GR
N GS H I M M M O E
W
W N
I N P CO
A LL

SARFI70 from Distribution Events 3 years average SARFI70 from Trasmission Events 3 years average
Substation Name
SARFI70 from Distribution Events during the last four Quarters SARFI70 from Trasmission Events during the last four Quarters

Example of comparing voltage sag performance at different substations. The chart shows the breakdown of
events caused by transmission faults vs. distribution faults and compares the three year average performance
with the last years performance for each substation.
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Basically, the flicker meter is designed so that an output value of Pst = 1.0 represents
the flicker severity where 50% of observers can detect the light variations from a 40
watt incandescent bulb. EN 50160 specifies that the Plt should be less than 1.0 for
95% of the samples over a one week period. This is a worst case limit and the
planning levels for utilities should be more strict than this.

Input Volltage
Adaptor
Demodulator Statistical
with Weighting evaluation
Smoothing
squaring Filters of
multiplier flicker level
RMS Meter
(optional)

Block diagram of flicker meter (IEC 61000-4-15)


08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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The role of unit 1 is to receive the input voltage and to generate the internal
reference level. Thus, the flicker measurements can be made independently from
the network voltage and the results will be given in percentage.
The role of the 2nd unit is to separate the voltage change causing flicker from the 50
Hz signal using a squaring demodulation.
The 3rd unit consists of two filters and optionally a range selector. The first filter
eliminates the DC component of the demodulator output and the double of the
fundamental frequency. The second one forms the transfer function of the
flickermeter, which is an answer to the modulating fluctuation (the filter simulates the
frequency response of the human visual system to the fluctuating luminaire of a bulb
caused by a sinusoidal modulation of the fundamental frequency voltage). The
transfer function of the 3rd unit is given as follows:

F(s) = [(kw1s) / (s2 + 2ls +w12)][(1 + (s/w2))]/[(1 + (s/w3)) (1 + (s/w4))]


k = 1,74802 l = 2p4,05981 w1 = 2p9,15494 w2 = 2p2,27979 w3 = 2p1,22535 w4 = 2p21,9
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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The 4th part consists of a squaring multiplier, and a first order low-pass filter. The
simulation of the human perception of flicker through the lamp, eye and brain is done
by the combination of units 2,3 and 4. So, the output of the 4th unit represents the
instantaneous perception of flicker. The 5th unit has a microprocessor, which does
the online evaluation of the flicker levels, enabling the direct calculation of the
important evaluation results. Based on the output of the 4th unit the off-line evaluation
of the data is also possible.
Because of the random nature the measured flicker value could change within a wide
interval and in a non-predictable way.
The following steps have to be made in order to generate the function.
- first, the actual values of measured flicker levels at the output of the 4th unit have to
be classified,
-when the observation period is over, calculate the cumulative probability function.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

The length of the observation period is 1 and 10 min. Based on the cumulative
probability
function the following algorithm is defined by the standard:
Pst = (K1P1 + K2P2 + .... + KnPn)^1/2
where Pst is the magnitude of the short-time flicker to be calculated, while K1 to Kn
are weighting factors and P1, P2 ..... Pn are the levels belonging to a certain
exceeding of the cumulative probability function. In the algorithm developed by IEC
there is given 5 breaking points as follows:
P0,1 the level which is exceeded only by 0,1% of the observation period
P1 the level which is exceeded only by 1% of the observation period
P3 the level which is exceeded only by 3% of the observation period
The related K factors are:
K0,1 for the 0.1% level = 0,0314 K1 for the 1% level = 0,0525 K3 for the 3% level =
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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To avoid instability the smoothed values of the percentiles were introduced


for the calculation as follows:
P50 S = (P30 + P50 + P80)/3 P10 S = (P6 + P8 + P10 + P13 + P17)/5
P3 S = (P2.2 + P3 + P4)/3 P1 S = (P0,7 + P1 + P1,5)/3

The error of the measuring method should remain always under 5%. In
practice, tests have confirmed that the above method gives correct results for
different network disturbances. The method was developed so that people feel
flicker disturbing for Pst = 1.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

The short-time flicker value with its 10-min duration is appropriate for the
measurement of the single disturbing sources but there is a need to measure
more complex disturbing sources like a group of and loads with longer and
variable time cycles. The long-time flicker-level values have to be calculated for
every 2 hours of each day of the observation period, using 12 pieces of
consecutive 10-min Pst values, originating from the given 2 hour interval,
according to the following definition

where Psti is the 10 min value calculated every 10 minutes. According to the
standards the long-time values calculated in this way - among normal
operational conditions, during any period of a week - Plt, should be 1, during
95% of the time interval.
This is equivalent with the statement that the value corresponding to the 95%
value of the CPF function is Plt 1.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)
Tables 1 and 2 summarize recommended limits for the supply system as a function of the
voltage level being evaluated. The limits take into account transfer factors that estimate the
attenuation of flicker from one voltage level to another.

Table 1. Global Flicker Limits


Limit PstD95% PltS95%

Global - Inferior 1 pu / FT 0,8 pu /FT

Global - Superior 2 pu /FT 1,6 pu / FT

Table 2. Attenuation Transfer Factors

Bus Voltage 230 kV FT = 0,65

69 kV Bus Voltage 230 kV FT = 0,80

Bus Voltage 69 kV FT = 1,00


08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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-Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

Measurement period: 7 days

10 minute Pst values


2.5

2
95% or 99%of 10-minute Pst values
1.5
Pst
1

0.5

0
00h00 24h00

Figure illustrates the procedure for performing the assessment using the
statistical values over a one week period.
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Responsibilities
The concept of ranges for the flicker limits has been suggested rather than fixed limits. Flicker
impacts are very dependent on system characteristics, load characteristics, and customer
characteristics. Therefore, adjusting the flicker limits for specific circumstances is attractive.
However, this also introduces ambiguity to the evaluation procedure.
In general, three different flicker ranges would be defined:
1. PstD95% < 1.0 Acceptable flicker levels.
2. 1.0 < PstD95% < 2.0 Precarious flicker levels that require system-dependent
evaluation. These sites may be acceptable with existing flicker levels if the attenuation factors
combined with local flicker sources at the MV levels are resulting in MV flicker levels that are
acceptable for customers. The cost of resolving the flicker problem should also be taken into
account.
3. PstD95% > 2.0 Critical flicker levels that are unacceptable.
The system-dependent evaluation would consider whether or not there are actual complaints,
system topology (different transfer functions), the costs of reducing the flicker levels,
allowance for local flicker generation, and the potential impacts.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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Issues
Are the flicker levels proposed acceptable?
The existing goals establish a limit for Pst95% at the actual PCC in the range of 1.0 to 2.0.
The requirements of a specific system will depend on transfer ratios to lower voltages and
other characteristics of the system.

What about rapid voltage (step) changes? Are they a different type of evaluation?
Rapid voltage changes occur during the connection or disconnection of loads or other
devices (e.g. capacitors or reactors) to the power system. They are a different type of
problem than an arc furnace or other time-varying load. Typical rapid voltage changes do
not exceed a magnitude of + 5 % or - 5 % of the nominal or declared voltage at LV or MV
levels. Lower limits on individual step changes are required for switching events on the
transmission system. A reasonable limit for a single step change caused by a switching
event at the HV level would be 3%. This limit is used by some transmission companies as
a criteria for sizing capacitor bank steps on the transmission system.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo - Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

Issues
What are the power quality concerns of flicker? If everyone uses compact florescent lights,
will it be a concern?
The only power quality phenomena that has been associated with flicker is the affect on lamp
voltage. Severe flicker levels have also caused operation of UPS systems, resulting in
depleting the UPS batteries. However, lamp flicker has always been the limiting criteria for
flicker. Flicker then is the effect produced on the visual human perception by a changing
emission of light by lamps subjected to fluctuations of their supply voltage.

What flicker lamp weighting curve should be used?


The latest revision to IEC 61000-4-15 includes a revised weighting curve developed for using
this meter on 60 Hz systems with 120 volt supply to the lamp, rather than the 230 volts used
in Europe. It should be remembered that a factor of about 1.25 can be applied for evaluating
flicker concerns on systems that supply 120 volt lighting, rather than 230 volt lighting.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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How should flicker be monitored?


The recommended approach is as follows:
Measure at PCC with known flicker-producing loads or systems. This
should be permanent monitoring.
Measurements at a few random locations (rotating) to characterize general
system flicker levels. A good objective would be to monitor at 5% of the system
buses for one week each year.
Measurements at any PCC with complaining customers. This is an
investigation of problems and should be performed at least until the problem is
resolved.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo - Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

How should limits be apportioned between individual customers or systems connected


to the basic grid? How should the limits be adjusted to allow for local flicker
generation?
IEC 61000-3-7 describes a procedure for apportioning the flicker limits between
different customers connected to the system. A much simpler approach that has worked
well for utilities in the US is to apply the following limit:
General limit PstS99% < 0.8 after subtracting the background contribution (use m=3
from relationship presented previously)
Special limit PstS99% < 1.0 where there is not a major concern for other sources of
flicker.
Note that these limits are more strict (99% rather than 95%) than the overall system
performance limit. Limits for individual customers must be more strict to insure that the
overall system limits can also be met.
By applying these limits at high voltage systems, the reduced flicker at lower voltage
systems due to attenuation factors (see the table presented previously) allows for local
flicker generation at these lower voltage systems, without exceeding compatibility
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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How should situations with multiple customers be handled?

Usually on the basic grid the flicker evaluation will be dominated by one load. Cases
with mulitiple loads will require fairly advanced studies. The literature gives a method of
evaluating how flicker sources combine is given by the following relationship:
It will usually be sufficient to limit individual contributions to PstS99% to less than 0.8.
Exceptions can be made when there is only one large source of flicker on the system. In
these cases, individual contribution of PstS99% of 1.0 can be acceptable.

Pst = [ (Pst1)m + (Pst2)m + ... + (Pstn)m ] (1/m)


The value of m depends on the number of sources
involved, the characteristics of the load, and the
coincidence of their operation:
m=4 arc furnace specifically run to avoid coincident melts
m=3 most types of equipment where the risks of coincident
voltage changes is small (majority of cases)
m=2 equipment where coincident stochastic noise is likely
to occur e.g. coincident melts for arc furnaces)
m=1 very high incidence of coincident voltage changes
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo - Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

Should characterization be done in the monitor or at central location? Should the


waveforms be stored?
The best approach would be to do some characterization at the monitor, so that the
results can be retrieved quickly following a major system event. Characterization
within the instrument allows summary information to be transmitted quickly.
However, if the bandwidth is available in the form of a LAN, then it is recommended
that the raw data also be stored. This may be a trend of the rms voltage for each phase.
It will allow various characterization methods to be applied. The waveform may
include important forensic information that can be analyzed to understand the nature of
what caused the fault, or how did the system protection operate.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo - Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

How should the full duration of voltage sag events be stored?


This is an important question for longer sags. Shorter sags (say less than 30 cycles)
should probably store an oscillograph of the entire waveform event. And they
should have a cycle-by-cycle trend of the rms voltage versus time.
Longer sags can be handled differently. An effective approach is to store a
beginning oscillograph (say 30 cycles) and an ending oscillograph (perhaps also 30
cycles) so that the transitory components of the event are saved. Also an rms trend,
storing the cycle-by-cycle rms values should also be saved. Next figure provides
an example of combining detailed waveform records with rms vs time plots for the
full duration of an event. If the event last for several minutes or hours, then these
rms trends may be min-max-average samples representing a length of time to
reduce the amount of data.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
-Breve Introduo - Definies (Sags, Swells, Flutuaes de Tenso, etc)

Waveform information in combination with extended rms vs. time recording for voltage
sags and interruptions.
08:30 - 10:10 Distrbios na Tenso
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Summarize of Actions
1. Maintain a fault history database.
2. Benchmark the system fault performance.
3. Develop a methodology in order to evaluate the expected voltage sag
profiles for various system locations.
4. Develop monitoring projects with new instruments for key sites to
establish confidence with the monitoring process.
5. Develop a standard reporting format for presenting voltage sag
information.
10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break
10:45 - 12:15 - Distrbios na Tenso
Normas / Recomendaes

IEEE P1564:Voltage Sag Indices


IEEE P1100: Power and Grounding Electronic Equipment (Emerald Book)
IEEE P1453: Voltage flicker
12:20 - 14:00 - Almoo
14:10 - 15:50 - Distrbios na Tenso
Debates Mesa Redonda

16:00 - 16:25 - Coffee Break

16:30 - 17:30 - Debates Mesa Redonda (Continuao)


14:10 - 15:50 - Distrbios na Tenso

Questions / Topics for Discussion e Deliberation


Distrbios na Tenso

How should we estimate performance (fault performance statistics, etc.)?.

How should we monitor the performance?

How should we continue to improve performance?

What is the best way to educate consumers?


16:00 - 16:25 - Coffee Break
16:30 - 17:30 - Debates Mesa Redonda

Questions / Topics for Discussion e Deliberation


Distrbios na Tenso

Other topics
18 de junho (Quarta-feira)

08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica


- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio
- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break

10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica


- Programas de Qualidade de Energia
- Aspectos Econmicos / Custos
- Contratos / Seguros de Qualidade
08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio


- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

Transmission system power quality


The primary purpose of the transmission system is to provide the necessary
infrastructure to reliably deliver power from bulk generation sources to local power
delivery points (distribution companies or large consumers).

Power quality performance is usually dictated by problems within a customers facility


or on a distribution network. Problems can also exist on the transmission system itself
or with generators. Power quality involves the compatibility between the
characteristics of the voltage and current and all components of the system.
08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio


- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

Transmission system power quality

Power quality on the transmission system is particularly important because it impacts


such a large number of consumers. A fault on the transmission system causes a voltage
sag that can impact customers over a wide area of the system. Harmonic distortion on
the transmission system becomes the baseline distortion for all distribution systems that
are supplied from that system, limiting the contribution available from normal loads on
the distribution system and creating the potential for resonance problems. One
capacitor switching transient on the transmission system can cause disruption for
numerous customers connected at lower voltages. Flicker caused by a large varying
load connected to the transmission system may cause complaints from customers over
many distribution systems.
08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio


- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

Transmission system power quality

Stability consideration, continuity, and frequency control are goals important to power
delivery and power quality. These aspects have traditionally been managed actively by
the transmission operators. The utility has the required frequency monitoring systems,
load shedding schemes, oscillography, and SCADA systems to deal with these
concerns. The PQ program does not change what is already being done with respect to
these systems.
08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio


- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

Transmission system power quality

Flicker, harmonics, and unbalance are concerns that only show up in regions of the
network with heavy concentration of certain industries and load types. These problems
are largely dealt with by engineering the particular situation. The PQ program should
help assess system conditions in these areas and identify possible problem conditions
before they cause system disruptions and customer equipment problems (proactive
approach).
08:30 - 10:10 Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

- Consumidores na Transmisso / Distribuio


- Interface Transmisso / Distribuio

Transmission system power quality

Concerns for disturbances such as voltage sags, transient switching events, and even
dynamic frequency excursions are more recent. The PQ program should consist of new
systems to monitor these events, and to provide better communications and reporting of
these events. Analytical tools for use in conjunction with the monitoring can assist in
tracking system performance and identifying expected performance levels. It suggests
that the transmission system operator continue to investigate the causes of faults on the
system, and identify circuits or types of equipment where a higher level of maintenance
activity is necessary.
10:15 - 10:40 - Coffee Break
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica
- Programas de Qualidade de Energia
- Aspectos Econmicos / Custos
- Contratos / Seguros de Qualidade
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Programas de Qualidade de Energia


Utility Monitoring - Benefits
Assist in preventive and predictive maintenance
- Identify source and frequency of events
- Establish precise location and timing of events
- Develop maintenance schedules based on PQ trends
Determine the need for mitigation equipment
- Monitor and trend conditions
- Analyze harmonics, voltage sag,
Assess sensitivity of process equipment to disturbances
power factor corrections
- Evaluate performance against specifications
- Make decisions based on
- Compare current and voltage
documented trends Benchmark overall system performance
Ensure equipment performance - Make multi-site comparisons
- UPS and backup systems - Energy rate comparisons
- Power quality mitigation Improve energy rates
- Identify load versus demand
- Conduct energy curtailment analysis
- Evaluate alternative rate structures
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Programas de Qualidade de Energia


Utility Monitoring - Benefits
Risk Avoidance
New international standards such as EN50160 have defined electricity as a
product.
In the U.S., U.K, and Brazil, utilities have faced court challenges requesting
compensation for poor power quality.
Utilities can only properly defend themselves during these challenges when
they monitor the quality of the product they provide.
Permanently installed monitors at the customer service entrance allow the
utility to determine if the fault occurred internal to the facility.
Permanently installed monitors at grid supply locations assist the utility in
determining if the fault occurred on another utility's system.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Programas de Qualidade de Energia


Utility Monitoring - Benefits
Manpower Efficiency
The most time consuming effort in power quality investigations usually involves the
setting of monitors and the gathering of data.
Permanently installed monitors help the utility in avoiding the installation of
temporary monitors; and, in some cases, allow the utility to determine the cause of
an event without any on-site investigation.
Substation monitoring allows the utility to determine the fault duty on breakers and
other equipment, allowing the utility to cut maintenance costs by up to 50 percent.
Advanced reporting tools such as a PQView database provide automated reporting
which minimizes the engineering required to get information from the raw data.
World Wide Web technologies enable utilities to share data across their intranets to
the rest of the organization. Or over the internet to their customers without the need
for special software or training.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Programas de Qualidade de Energia


Utility Monitoring - Benefits

Capital Investment Reductions


Monitoring allows the utility to better understand network capacity issues,
ultimately allowing it to delay or even postpone system reinforcements until they
are absolutely necessary.
Monitoring allows the utility to identify power quality focus areas, allowing it to
get the most benefit (improved power quality) from the least amount of
expenditure.

Utility Competitiveness
Monitoring projects enable utilities to offer special power quality contracts.
Monitoring at customer sites adds an important service for the customer,
differentiating the utility from its competition.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Aspectos Econmicos / Custos

Cost-of-Ownership Survey
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Facility power quality

One of the most significant findings of the survey was the impact of poor
facility power quality on production yields and costs. Power quality is
expected to become a major issue for the industry in the United States with
the growing deregulation of the utility industry.

Power problems can be reduced throughput and yield and increased


equipment maintenance, materials usage and production costs. More than
half the respondents said a "brown out" (voltage sags of 10%) would
negatively affect production. Power voltage spikes, surges and noise were
also seen as disrupting production and increasing costs.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

PQ Program
Establishing benchmarks for expected system performance in all
categories of power quality
Documentation of detailed power quality characteristics at
individual locations
Identifying problems that need to be resolved
Evaluation of solutions for resolving problems
Economic analysis of options for resolving problems
Convenient web-based access to power quality performance
information
Educational tools for describing power quality performance
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Benefits of a PQ Program

Offer options to customers with PQ concerns


Attract new business to area (regional development)
Facilitate load retention of current customers
Meet changing needs of customer's new technology
Discourage co-generation or self-generation as solutions of
PQ Problems
Enhance and public image - as customers hold company accountable
for both PQ and reliability
Add value to service
Serve customers' best interests and save customers money
Support company mission
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Table 2.
What Unfavorable Effect Would a "Brown-Out" Have on Production?
Major effect Moderate effect Little effect No effect No answer
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
Throughput of product 33.7 33.7 18.8 7.9 5.9
Yield of product 36.6 22.8 17.8 13.9 8.9
Maintenance of 33.7 27.7 24.8 5.0 8.9
equipment
Consumables used in 17.8 25.7 30.7 17.8 7.9
process
Cost of production 38.6 28.7 19.8 5.0 7.9

Table 3.
What Unfavorable Effect Would Power Voltage Spikes, Surges or Noise Have on Production?
Major effect Moderate effect Little effect No effect No
Throughput of product (%)
30.7 (%)
32.7 (%)
20.8 (%)
7.9 answer
7.9
Yield of product 31.7 31.7 16.8 10.9 8.9
Maintenance of 34.7 23.8 27.7 5.9 7.9
equipment
Consumables used in 18.8 20.8 35.6 16.8 7.9
process
Cost of production 27.7 36.6 17.8 5.9 11.9
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Cost
Microeconomics Framework for Assessing PQ Benefit Cost

The Utility Perspective

The structure or framework is based on a four step procedure.

Step 1 - Assessment of power Disturbance Cost. This should be done based on the type of
industry/process, etc. and type of disturbance. Boundary conditions should be specified to
determine the actual effect of power disturbance. Direct and indirect costs, varying from
production loss to reduced efficiency, should then be calculated.
Step 2 - Assessment of the Cost of Mitigation. This step should compute the total cost of
mitigation varying from initial monitoring and analysis to final testing of performance.
Alternative options should be suggested.
Step 3 - Assessment of Benefit due to Mitigation. This step should compute the direct/indirect
benefits plus energy savings due to mitigation.
Step 4 - Financial Computation of the Benefit-Cost - With the input from steps 1 to 3, the final
assessment of the benefit-cost and payback period should be determined for the different
options.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica
Contratos e Seguros

Requirements for Power Quality Contracts

Reliability/power quality concerns to be evaluated


Performance indices to be used
Expected level of performance (baseline)
Penalty for performance outside the expected level and/or incentives for
performance better than the expected level (financial penalties,
performance-based rates, shared savings, etc.)
Measurement/calculation methods to verify performance
Responsibilities for each party in achieving the desired performance
Responsibilities of the parties for resolving problems
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Power Quality Contracts in a Restructured Competitive Electricity Industry, Barry W. Kennedy Bonneville Power, Administration, Portland,
OR 97209, Mark McGranaghan Electrotek Concepts, Knoxville, TN 37923 - http://www.dranetz-bmi.com/pdf/contracts.pdf
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Contracts between TRANSCO and DISTCO or Direct Serve Customer


Contracts between transmission companies and distribution companies will define the
power quality requirements and responsibilities at the distribution substation interface
between the two systems.
Voltage Regulation, Unbalance, Flicker.
The steady state characteristics of the voltage being supplied by the transmission system
should be described. Responsibilities for the voltage regulation between the two
companies will be defined. Control of flicker levels requires limits on both parties. The
supplying transmission system is responsible for the overall flicker levels in the voltage.
However, the distribution company or the direct serve customer is responsible for
controlling fluctuating load characteristics.
Harmonic Distortion.
The transmission supply company is responsible for the quality of the voltage being
supplied. The distribution company or end use customer is responsible for the harmonic
loading of their system. This will typically be defined in terms of harmonic current limits
at the point of common coupling, as described in IEEE 519-1992 or similar standard.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica
Contracts between TRANSCO and DISTCO or Direct Serve Customer
Transient Voltages.

Switching capacitor banks creates transient voltages that can impact distribution systems and
end use customers due to magnification or sensitive loads. This problem was encountered in
England after deregulation and there was no definition of responsibility for controlling the
transient voltages. The transmission company declared that the transient voltages were not
excessive and the distribution companies that served the customers declared that the transients
causing the problem were being created on the transmission system. With integrated utilities
in the United States, these problems are usually solved with switching control in the
transmission capacitor banks (synchronous closing or closing resistors). Transients from
capacitor switching should be limited to very low levels (e.g. less than 1.1 pu) at this point
due to their potential for causing problems at lower voltages.
Voltage Sags and Interruptions
Expected voltage sag and interruption performance at the point of common coupling should
be defined. It is important to recognize that voltage sags can be caused by faults on the
transmission system or distribution system. Contracts that include voltage sag limits between
utilities and large customers supplied from the transmission system have already been
implemented by Detroit Edison, etc, with the large automotive manufacturing companies.
Payments or rate structures that provide compensation for voltage sag and interruption
performance outside of the specified levels should be defined.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Contracts between DISTCO and End Users (or End User Representative)
The power quality requirements at the point of common coupling between the distribution
system and end use customers must be defined. In some cases, the end user may be a
customer of the distribution company. In other cases, the end user may be represented by a
retail marketer or an energy service company. The basic power quality requirements at this
interface will probably be defined by regulations. However, opportunities for performance-
based rates or enhanced power quality service from the distribution system will create the
need for more creative contracts.

Voltage Regulation, Unbalance, Flicker.


These steady state characteristics of the voltage being supplied will be defined. Customer
requirements to control fluctuating loads, unbalanced loads, and motor starting will be part
of this contract.
Harmonic Distortion.
IEEE 519-1992 describes the split of responsibility between the customer and the
distribution system supplier in controlling harmonic distortion levels. The distribution
company is responsible for the voltage distortion and the customer is responsible for
harmonic currents being created by nonlinear loads within the facility.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Contracts between DISTCO and End Users (or End User Representative)

Transient Voltages.
Capacitor switching transients could be important due to their impact on sensitive loads.
The distribution system supplier should control the capacitor switching transient
magnitudes but the customer should be responsible for avoiding magnification problems
created by power factor correction capacitors within the facility. Basic requirements and
responsibilities for surge suppression should also be defined to avoid problems with high
frequency transients associated with lightning.
Voltage Sags and Interruptions
The contract should define expected voltage sag and interruption performance. This is an
area where enhanced performance options may be offered in cases where it may be more
economical to improve performance through modifications or power conditioning
equipment applied at the distribution system level.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Contracts between RETAILCO or ESCO and End User


The retail energy marketer or the energy service company will have separate contracts
with the end use customers. These contracts may be much more creative and complicated
than the contract that defines the basic distribution company interface with the customer.
The energy service company may offer a whole range of services for improving the power
quality, efficiency, and productivity that dictate the contract requirements. A couple of
categories that are of particular interest are discussed here.
Enhanced Power Quality Requirements to Improve Productivity.
At this level, the power quality requirements must be defined in terms of the
characteristics of the equipment being used within the facility. The power quality may be
defined in terms of the performance of the process, rather than the electrical
characteristics of the voltage and the current. The energy service company can take
responsibility for the interface with the distribution company and provide the necessary
power conditioning to assure proper operation of the facility. Payment terms for this
power quality guarantee can be in terms of shared savings from improved productivity
(similar to many contracts that specify payments to energy service companies from the
shared savings of energy efficiency improvements) or they can be fixed payments based
on the power quality improvement requirements.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Contracts between RETAILCO or ESCO and End User


The retail energy marketer or the energy service company will have separate contracts
with the end use customers. These contracts may be much more creative and complicated
than the contract that defines the basic distribution company interface with the customer.
The energy service company may offer a whole range of services for improving the power
quality, efficiency, and productivity that dictate the contract requirements. A couple of
categories that are of particular interest are discussed here.

Power Factor and Harmonic Control.


The supplying distribution system will have requirements for harmonic control that must
be met by the customer. The tariffs for the distribution system supply will probably also
include power factor penalties. The retail energy marketer or the energy service company
will have to deal with these requirements, possibly integrating harmonic control and
power factor correction with power conditioning equipment for voltage sag and transient
control.
10:45 - 12:40 - Gerenciamento da Qualidade de Energia Eltrica

Conclusions

PQ Will continue to grow in importance as the electric sector operates within a


truly free economy.

Utilities, customers and manufacturers will have to cooperate to establish a stable


model for the power quality industry sector

Differentiated Premium Power will Become a reality

Reliability and Quality will become as important as Price

An integrated Approach Is Essential


Vision, Philosophy/Strategy and Initiative

The electric sector needs to monitor closely the PQ levels and maintain investment
to keep compatible power quality over the entire grid.
12:50 - 14:10 Almoo

14:15 - 15:20 Debates Mesa Redonda

15:20 - 15:30 Sesso de Encerramento

15:30 - 15:45 Declarao Impressa


12:50 - 14:10 - Almoo
14:15 - 15:20 Debates Mesa Redonda

Why is Power Quality still an optional value added feature in


Utilities?
Why are Power Quality programs bouncing between Regulated and
Non-Regulated Sides as if they dont have a home?
Why are customers still vaguely dissatisfied?
Why havent Power Quality solutions, especially large scale ones,
been selling?
Is the level of investment sufficient to maintain acceptable PQ
levels?
What can be done?
What is your experience?
15:20 - 15:30 Sesso de Encerramento
15:30 - 15:45 Nota Impressa

Preperar declarao conjunta Primeiro Draft

Os instrutores e participantes do workshop sobre o Estado da Arte da Qualidade de Energia


Eletrica realizado na UNIFEI durante o periodo de apos intensos debates tecnicos e
avaliaes sobre o possivel impacto dessa qualidade no desempenho da rede eletrica
Brasileira concluiem que:

- o setor eletrico acompanha de perto os desenvolvimentos a niveis internacionais.


- que embora a qualidade eletrica do sistema presentemente adequada
investimentos serao necessarios para a manutencao dessa qualidade a niveis aceitaveis.
- que tendo em vista a correlacao direta entre a reducao da qualidade de energia e
custos de perdas associados, esses investimentos teram retorno garantido, se propriamente
applicados.
- uma estrategia integrada, a qual trata o problema de qualidade de forma racional e
sistemica ao inves de "correr atraz do prejuizo" necessaria para garantia desse objectivo.
- que esforco empreendido por varias empresas concessionarias e em particular
pelo Operador Nacional do Sistema (ONS) estao a niveis de paises desenvolvidos e
consequentemente a altura da capacide do setor eletrico Brassileiro.
- etc., etc., .