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PHOTOSYNTHESIS

MIA ALEXA DAGUM


Winston jake Gerolaga
Mary Antonette juanitas
Rhett Adrian seduco
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
T H E P R O C E S S W H E R E B Y G R E E N P L A N T S C O N V E RT T H E
R A D I A N T E N E R G Y O F L I G H T I N TO C H E M I C A L E N E R G Y
W H I C H I S S TO R E D I N F O O D M O L E C U L E S .
FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS TO OCCUR,
THE FOLLOWING MUST BE PRESENT .

LIGHT

CARBON DIOXIDE

GREEN PIGMENT
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

SUNLIGHT

CO 2
O2
BASIC EQUATION
PH O TOSY NT HESI S

6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 H 2 O + 6 O 2
CARBON DIOXIDE WATER GLUCOSE WATER OXYGEN
OBJECTIVES
TO MEASURE THE RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
AS AFFECTED BY SOME FACTORS

TO EXTRACT AND IDENTIFY THE PIGMENTS


INVOLVED IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS
MATERIALS
+
METHODS
E Q U I P M E N T / A P PA R AT U S
HOT PLATE

PAIR OF SCISSORS

FORCEPS

MORTAR + PESTLE
SOLUTIONS

ACETONE 95% ETHANOL

IODINE SOLUTION PHENOL RED


I N D I C AT O R

1% SODIUM 1 : 1 A C E TO N E
B I C A R B O N AT E PETROLEUM ETHER
G L A S S WA R E

4 50-ML BEAKERS 1 CAPILLARY TUBE

1 250-ML BEAKER 1 PETRI DISH

1 100-ML BEAKER 10 TEST TUBES

4 500-ML BEAKERS
SPECIMENS
Hydrilla verticullata Coleus blumen
O T H E R M AT E R I A L S
WHATMAN NO. 1
F I LT E R PA P E R

PLASTIC STRAW

RULER/METERSTICK
LIGHT AS A
A FACTOR IN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
A1 + A2
LIGHT AS A LIGHT INTENSITY
REQUIREMENT FOR AND THE RATE OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS PHOTOSYNTHESIS
1

TWO CARICATURE PLANTS WERE OBTAINED.


ONE PLANT WAS PLACED IN A DARK PLACE AND
ONE UNDER DIRECT SUNLIGHT FOR 48 HOURS.

A LEAF WAS REMOVED FROM EACH PLANT


VARIABLE AND WAS TESTED FOR STARCH
(FOLLOWING PROCEDURES.)
2

A LEAF WAS REMOVED FROM EACH PLANT


VARIABLE AND WAS TESTED FOR STARCH
(FOLLOWING PROCEDURES.)
3

TWO 50-ML BEAKERS


WERE FILLED
WITH WATER
AND WAS LABELLED
A AND B
(A: DARK; B: W/ SUNLIGHT)
4

THE LEAVES
WERE BOILED UNTIL
THE PIGMENTS
WERE REMOVED.
5

THE BOILED LEAVES


WERE TRANSFERRED
INTO SEPARATE
50-ML BEAKERS WITH
95% ETHYL ALCOHOL.
6

THE BEAKERS WERE


PUT IN A WATER BATH
AND WERE BOILED
UNTIL THE PIGMENTS
WERE EXTRACTED.
7

THE LEAVES WERE


REMOVED
AND WAS PLACED
IN A PETRI DISH.
IODINE SOLUTION
WAS ADDED UNTIL
THE LEAVES WERE COVERED.
8

THE LEAVES WERE ALLOWED TO STAND FOR


10 MINUTES IN ORDER FOR THE CHEMICAL
REACTIONS TO TAKE PLACE.
A1 + A2
LIGHT AS A LIGHT INTENSITY
REQUIREMENT FOR AND THE RATE OF
PHOTOSYNTHESIS PHOTOSYNTHESIS
1
A B C D E
FIVE TEST TUBES WERE
LABELLED A TO E AND
WAS FILLED WITH

NaHCO3

NaHCO3

NaHCO3

NaHCO3

NaHCO3
1% NaHCO 3 (SODIUM
BICARBONATE) SOLUTION
COMPLETELY.
2

ALSO, FIVE 8 -CM SPRIGS


OF HYDRILLA WERE CUT
AND WERE IMMERSED
IN SEPARATE TEST TUBES
WITH THE CUT END
SIDE UP.
3

TUBE A WAS PLACED


IN THE DARK WHILE
TUBES B TO E
WERE EXPOSED TO LIGHT
(60, 90, 120, 150 CM
AWAY FROM THE LIGHT,
RESPECTIVELY.)
4

THE TUBES WERE


ALLOWED TO
ADAPT TO THE
LIGHT CONDITION
FOR ABOUT 10 MINUTES
AND THE BUBBLES WERE
COUNTED.
CARBON DIOXIDE AS
B A REQUIREMENT FOR
P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S
1

THREE TEST TUBES


WERE MARKED A, B, AND
C AND WERE
HALF-FILLED WITH DILUTE
PHENOL RED SOLUTION.
2

USING A STRAW, CO 2 WAS


INTRODUCED BY BLOWING
INTO TUBES A AND B
UNTIL THE SOLUTIONS
WERE PALE ORANGE.
3

ONE HEALTHY Hydrilla


SPRIG WERE PLACED INTO
TUBES B AND C ONLY.
THE THREE TUBES WERE
SET INTO BRIGHT LIGHT
FOR 2 TO 3 HOURS.
S E PA R AT I O N O F
CHLOROPLAST

C PIGMENTS BY
PA P E R
C H R O M ATO G R A P H Y
C1 + C2
PIGMENT PAPER
EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY
1

TEN GRAMS OF THE


P L A N T S A M P L E WA S
W E I G H E D A N D C U T I N TO
SMALL PIECES.
T H E L E AV E S W E R E
C R U S H E D W I T H A C E TO N E
U S I N G A M O RTA R
AND PESTLE.
2

THE EXTRACT WAS


SQUEEZED INTO A
CAPILLARY TUBE.
C1 + C2
PIGMENT PAPER
EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY
1

A NARROW STRIP OF
FILTER PAPER WAS CUT
SO AS TO SERVE AS
THE CHROMATOGRAM.
THE EXTRACT WAS
SPOTTED INTO THE PAPER.
2

THE EXTRACT WAS


SPOTTED SEVERAL TIMES,
ALLOWING EACH SPOT
TO DRY. THIS WAS DONE
TWICE.
3

THE 1:1 MIXTURE OF


ACETONE AND PET.
ETHER WAS ADDED INTO
A TEST TUBE AND THE
CHROMATOGRAM WAS
CAREFULLY INSERTED.
4

THE CHROMATOGRAM
WAS ALLOWED TO
DEVELOP FOR ABOUT
15 TO 30 MINUTES.
RESULTS
+
DISCUSSION
STARCH

A C O M P L E X C A R B O H Y D R AT E

A P O LY M E R O F
GLUCOSE MOLECULES

OCCURS IN TWO MAIN FORMS:


AMYLOSE & AMYLOPECTIN

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
AMYLOSE C O N S I S T S O F P R E D O M I N A N T LY
LINEAR CHAINS OF GLUCOSE
MONOMERS LINKED BY
1 , 4 - G LY C O S I D I C B O N D S

AMYLOPECTIN CHAINS ARE BRANCHED BY


THE ADDITION OF
1 , 6 - G LY C O S I D I C B O N D S .

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
S TA R C H C O M P O S I T I O N I N P L A N T S

AMYLOSE
11 TO 37%

AMYLOPECTIN
THE REST OF
THE STARCH

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
IN AN IODINE TEST,
A M Y L O S E I N S TA R C H I S
RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
F O R M AT I O N O F A D E E P
BLUE COLOR IN THE PRESENCE
O F I O D I N E W H I L E S TA R C H
AMYLOPECTIN DOES NOT
GIVE THE COLOR.

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
S I M P L I F I E D PAT H WAY O F S TA R C H S Y N T H E S I S

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
I N T H I S E X P E R I M E N T, I T C A N B E O B S E RV E D T H AT
LEAF A (EXPOSED IN DIRECT SUNLIGHT) AND LEAF B
(PLACED IN A DARK PLACE) BOTH REACTED WITH THE
S TA R C H S O L U T I O N .

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
HOWEVER, AFTER 10 MINUTES, LEAF A IS NOTICED
TO H AV E M O R E , D A R K E R ( B L U E - B L A C K ) C O L O R
T H A N L E A F B . A B L U E - B L A C K C O L O R I N D I C AT E S
T H AT S TA R C H I S P R E S E N T. B U T I F S TA R C H A M Y L O S E
I S N O T P R E S E N T, T H E N T H E C O L O R W I L L R E M A I N
AS IT IS (YELLOW/ORANGE.)

A B

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
R AT E
O2
OF
AMOUNT
PS

AND VICE-VERSA
A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
THE AMOUNT OF TRAPPED LIGHT ENERGY
AND AMOUNT OF CO2 ALSO AFFECTS THE
R AT E O F P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S .

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
MEASURING THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN USING
A WAT E R P L A N T I S C O M M O N LY U S E D TO
M E A S U R E T H E R AT E O F P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S .

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y I S T H E L I M I T I N G FA C TO R
W H E N L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y I S TO O L O W TO A L L O W
L I G H T D E P E N D E N T R E A C T I O N S TO P R O C E E D
AT I T S M A X I M U M R AT E .

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
HIGHER INTENSITY

FA S T E R P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S
NEARER

MORE O2 GAS PRODUCED

MORE BUBBLES FORMED

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
LIGHT O2
INTENSITY VOLUME

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
AFTER LETTING THE
S A M P L E S S TA N D F O R
T W O TO T H R E E H O U R S ,
TEST TUBE A REMAINED
ORANGE AND
TEST TUBES B AND C
T U R N E D TO A
REDDISH-ORANGE SHADE.

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S R E Q U I R E S C O 2 .
C A R B O N D I O X I D E D I S S O LV E S I N
WAT E R T U R N I N G I T A C I D I C .

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
PHENOL RED IS AN
I N D I C ATO R W H I C H
TURNS ORANGE WHEN CO2
IS PRESENT AND REMAINS AS
R E D I F N O T. T H I S P R O C E S S I S
A C T U A L LY A P H C H A N G E C A U S I N G
A SHIFT IN COLOR.

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
A PLANT PLACED IN A DARK PLACE WILL
S T I L L R E S P I R E Y E T I T W I L L N O T C A R RY
O U T P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S C O M P L E T E LY.

C O 2 I S B E I N G G E N E R AT E D B Y R E S P I R AT I O N
B U T N O T C O N S U M E D B Y P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S .
T H E R E F O R E , C O 2 I S A C C U M U L AT E D I N
T H E P L A N T.

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
AS CO2 INCREASES IN THE SOLUTION,
THE
MORE ACIDIC IT WILL BECOME
THUS LOWERING THE pH.
I N T H E P R E S E N C E O F L I G H T,
CO2 pH
P L A N T S TA K E U P C O 2 A N D
THIS WILL CAUSE CO2 OF THE
S U R R O U N D I N G S TO D R O P
MAKING THE ABOVE
S TAT E M E N T R E V E R S I B L E .

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
T E S T T U B E A ( C O 2 O N LY ) R E M A I N S O R A N G E
S I N C E N O P L A N T W I L L TA K E U P T H E C A R B O N
IN THE SOLUTION. AS FOR TEST TUBES B AND C,
T H E H Y D R I L L A P L A N T W I L L TA K E U P T H E C A R B O N
C O N T E N T C A U S I N G T H E S O L U T I O N TO G O B A C K
TO I T S R E D C O L O R .

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
CHROMATOGRAPHY
T H E M E T H O D O F S E PA R AT I N G C L O S E LY R E L AT E D
COMPOUNDS, AND IN THE CASE OF PIGMENTS BY
A L L O W I N G O F S U B S TA N C E S TO D I F F U S E TO A N
A B S O R B E N T M AT E R I A L C A L L E D C H R O M ATO G R A M .
PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY

A T E C H N I Q U E U S E D TO S E PA R AT E A M I X T U R E
I N TO I T S C O M P O N E N T M O L E C U L E S .

M O L E C U L E S M O V E U P T H E PA P E R AT
D I F F E R E N T R AT E S B E C A U S E O F D I F F E R E N C E S
I N S O L U B I L I T Y, M O L E C U L A R M A S S A N D
H Y D R O G E N - B O N D I N G W I T H T H E PA P E R .

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
PIGMENTS

M O L E C U L E S T H AT A B S O R B S P E C I F I C
WAV E L E N G T H S ( E N E R G I E S ) O F L I G H T
AND REFLECT ALL OTHERS.

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENT

PRESENT IN CHLOROPLASTS OR
P H O TO S Y N T H E T I C B A C T E R I A

CAPTURES THE LIGHT ENERGY


N E C E S S A RY F O R P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S

EXTENDS THE RANGE OF LIGHT


THE PLANT ABSORBS
C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
I N PA P E R C H R O M ATO G R A P H Y, T H E P I G M E N T S
A R E D I S S O LV E D I N A S O LV E N T T H AT C A R R I E S T H E M
U P T H E PA P E R . TO S E PA R AT E T H E P I G M E N T S O F
T H E C H L O R O P L A S T S , A N O R G A N I C S O LV E N T
MUST BE USED.

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
A C E TO N E B R E A K S D O W N C H L O R O P H Y L L S
L I P I D B O N D S TO A P L A N T S T H Y L A K O I D S T R U C T U R E
AND SUSPENDS THE PIGMENT IN THE SOLUTION.

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
PIGMENTS AND THE
S O LV E N T S Y S T E M
T R AV E L S T H E PA P E R
B Y C A P I L L A RY A C T I O N .

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
O N LY O N E C O L O R
WA S V I S I B L E D U E TO
M E T H O D A N D S Y S T E M AT I C
ERRORS.

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
E V E N I F O N E R E P E AT S T H E C H R O M ATO G R A P H I C
S E PA R AT I O N S , E A C H F O R A D I F F E R E N T L E N G T H O F
T I M E , T H E P I G M E N T S W O U L D M I G R AT E A D I F F E R E N T
D I S TA N C E O N E A C H R U N .

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
T H E M I G R AT I O N O F P I G M E N T R E L AT I V E
TO M I G R AT I O N O F S O LV E N T I S E X P R E S S E D A S
A C O N S TA N T, R F ( R E F E R E N C E F R O N T ) A N D C A N B E
C A L C U L AT E D B Y U S I N G T H E F O R M U L A :

D I S TA N C E P I G M E N T M I G R AT E D
RF =
D I S TA N C E S O LV E N T F R O N T M I G R AT E D

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
R E S U LT S

S O LV E N T F R O N T 48 MM

D I S TA N C E T R AV E L L E D B Y
32 MM
THE GREEN PIGMENT

RF 0.67 MM

32 MM
RF = = 0.67 MM
48 MM

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
T H E E X P E R I M E N T S H O W E D L I T T L E TO N O
S E PA R AT I O N O F P I G M E N T S I N W H I C H T H E
O N LY C O L O R S E E N WA S G R E E N . T H I S M I G H T B E
A C A U S E O F A M E T H O D E R R O R O R I N S T R U M E N TA L
A N D S Y S T E M AT I C E R R O R S E N C O U N T E R E D .
F O R E X A M P L E , T H E C O N TA M I N AT I O N O F T H E
USED SOLUTIONS, THE ABSENCE OF
A R U B B E R S TO P P E R , E T C .

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y P A P E R C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y
CONCLUSION
T H E R E F O R E , T H E L E A F T H AT WA S E X P O S E D I N S U N L I G H T
S H O W E D M O R E P R E S E N C E O F S TA R C H T H A N T H E
L E A F T H AT WA S N O T E X P O S E D I N S U N L I G H T.

A 1 L I G H T A S A R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
B A S I C A L LY, T H E R AT E O F P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S I S
D I R E C T LY P R O P O RT I O N A L TO D I S TA N C E .

A 2 L I G H T I N T E N S I T Y A N D T H E R A T E O F P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
CARBON DIOXIDE IS A REQUIREMENT
F O R P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S A N D I S A V I TA L
FA C TO R I N O R D E R F O R P H O TO S Y N T H E S I S
TO C A R RY O N .

B C A R B O N D I O X I D E A S R E Q U I R E M E N T F O R P H O T O S Y N T H E S I S
T H E E X P E R I M E N T S H O W E D L I T T L E TO N O S E PA R AT I O N
O F P I G M E N T S I N W H I C H T H E O N LY C O L O R S E E N WA S
GREEN. THIS MIGHT BE A CAUSE OF A METHOD ERROR
O R I N S T R U M E N TA L A N D S Y S T E M AT I C E R R O R S
E N C O U N T E R E D ( E . G . , C O N TA M I N AT I O N O F S O L U T I O N S ,
A B S E N C E O F R U B B E R S TO P P E R , E T C . )

C S E P A R A T I O N O F C H L O R O P L A S T P I G M E N T S B Y C H R O M A T O G R A P H Y