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# Basic Engine Systems

Product Support

## LACD Specialist College

July 2008
Introductions:

Name
Dealer
Position / Years There
Agenda
Engine Families
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lube System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Parts Differentiation
REMAN
Resources
Engine Families
C-15/C18/3400 M43
C-9/C-11/C-13 (186 - 1044 kW) (5400 -
(227 - 492 kW) 16200 kW)
3116/3126/C-7
(86 - 313 kW)

## 3000 Series 3500 Family

(507 - 2500 kW)
400 Series
(3.7 - 45 kW)
4000 Series
(322 - 1886 kW)
M25 M32
3200 Family (1800 -
800 Series M20 (2880 -
(93 - 336kW) 2700 kW)
(39 - 60 kW) (1020 - 8000 kW)
3300 Family 1710 kW)
3600 Family
1100 Series (63 - 300 kW) (1350 - 7200 kW)
(49 - 186 kW)

## This represents only a fraction of the engine offerings Caterpillar produces

Common Engine Terms
Bore
Stroke
Compression Ratio
Displacement
Horsepower
Bore Size

## The diameter of the

cylinder

Measured in inches
or millimeters
Stroke

## How far the piston

moves from TDC to
BDC

## Equal to twice the

Compression Ratio

## Ratio between the cylinder

volume with the piston at
BDC and the volume with
the piston at TDC

## Compression ratio of our

engines are approximately
a 16:1 (non-ACERT) and
18:1 (ACERT)
Displacement
Engine size is
expressed in liters
or cubic inches

(3.14 X B 2)
Displacement = X Stroke X No. of Cyls.
4
Horsepower
Horsepower is the rate of doing work (how quickly a force is
applied through a distance)

## 1 horsepower = 550 lb/ft per second

= 33,000 lb/ft per minute
Engine Model Numbers
3208 Engine:
3200 = Engine Family & Relative Size
(3000, 3200, 3300, 3400, 3500, 3600)

08 = number of Cylinders
Depending on engine family, could
be 04, 06, 08, 12, 16, 18, or 24
Engine Model Numbers
3116 Engine
3100 = Engine Family

## 11 = 1.1 liters per cylinder, so:

3126 has 1.2 liters per cylinder
3176 has 1.7 liters per cylinder
6 = number of cylinders (4 or 6)
Engine Model Numbers
C-10, 10 liter truck engine
3176C is used in all other applications
C-12, 12 liter truck engine
3196C is used in all other applications
C7 replaced the 3126 engine
C-9 replaced the 3306 engine
On-Highway & D6
Engine Model Numbers
3406 Engine
3406E was a 14.6 liter engine until 1998
In 1998, 3406E was 14.6 or 15.8 liter for truck
3456 was the 15.8 liter in any non-truck
application
In 2000, 14.6 liter and 15.8 liter became C-15 and
C-16 for truck, industrial applications
In 2003, 15.2 liter truck is ACERT C15
3000/3100 Series Features

## Dry Sleeve/Parent Bore

Parent Bore 3116/26, C7,3208
Dry Sleeve - 3054 3054

## Light weight with high

horsepower to weight ratios
3126B
3000 Series - Service Strategy
Current Serviceability
Components only - 3003, 3013, 3024, 3034
Piece Parts - 3046, 3054, 3056, 3066
Reman as volume/need dictates
Rebuild Strategy
3003 - 3034, expected engine life equals machine life
3046 - 3066, limited rebuild opportunity

## 3003 3013 3024 3034

C6.6 Series Features
using ACERT Technology

## C6.6 Replaces the 3056E

1.1 Liter per Cylinder, Inline 6
4 valves per cylinder
Fully Electronically Controlled
Common Rail Fuel system
C6.6
Sculpted Block design reduced noise

## Cross flow design and

refined port geometry

Improved breathing

## Reduced pumping loss

Better combustion
C7 Series Features
using ACERT Technology

## C7 Replaces the 3116, 3126

Cylinder block increased tensile strength
HEUI fuel system
Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling
C7
3100 & C7 Series - Service Strategy
Current Serviceability
Piece Parts For All

Rebuild Strategy
Cost effective rebuild for all
models
Reman components and
limited short blocks, bare
blocks, and piston packs
available

3100
3300/3400 Series Features

## One piece block

Replaceable valve guides and seats
Caterpillar fuel system
Replaceable wet cylinder liners
Roller cam followers and steel camshaft
Totally hardened forged steel crankshaft

3400 HEUI
C9 Series Features
using ACERT Technology
C9 Replaces the 3300
8.8 liter (537 cu in)
HEUI fuel system C9
Cross Flow heads ( 4 valves per cylinder)
Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling
Improved block and head material strength
Mid-supported liner
Integral oil cooler
Reduced weight, leaks and engine width
C11/C13 Series Features
using ACERT Technology

## C11 Replaces the 3176, C-10

C13 Replaces the 3196, C-12
C11
MEUI fuel system
Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling
C13
C15/C18 Series Features
using ACERT Technology
C15 Replaces the 3406E, C-15

## ADEM A4 Electronic Control Module

Variable injection timing
Controls quantity of fuel
Optimizes fuel pressure
Transient control for both speeds and loads C15
MEUI fuel system
Turbocharged and Air to Air aftercooling
C27 Series Features using ACERT Technology
C27 replaces 3412
Gear-train for cams moved to back
Reduces noise & vibration
Tight system tolerances - pistons & liners
More complete fuel combustion
Reduced blow-by
Fewer emissions
New block eliminates bends/turns
to improve airflow
Proven MEUI fuel system
Engine oil & filter changes
increased to 500 hours under
most operating conditions Used on D10T, 773F, 775F
C32 Series Features using ACERT Technology
C32 replaces 3508B
structural strength
improved air flow
Increased compression ratio
of 16.5:1
Proven MEUI fuel system
Engine oil & filter changes
increased to 500 hours under Used on 777F & D11T (fall 07)
most operating conditions
3300/3400 C7- C32 Series - Service
Strategy

Current Serviceability
Piece parts and sub-
components for all models.

Rebuild Strategy
Cost effective rebuild for all
models
Reman components, short
blocks, long blocks and
engines available
3406
3500 Series Features
One piece high strength cast engine block

## Caterpillar fuel system 3500B

3500 Series - Service Strategy
Current Serviceability
Piece parts for all

Rebuild Strategy
Cost effective rebuild for all models
Reman components, short blocks,
long blocks and engines available

3500 Machine
Engine/Machine Usage Chart
Series TTT TTL OHT HEX WL
3000 D3C III - D5C III -- 301.5 - 320B 906 - 939C
C6.6 D5N 953, 963 924 - 938
3100 D5M - D6M -- 322B - 345B 924F - 962G
C7 D6N 322, 325 950, 962
3300 D6R - D7R -- 330B - 350 L 966F - 980F
C9 D6R 973 330D
C11 725, 730 966
C13 345 972
3400 D8R - D10R 769 - 775 375 - 5080 980G - 990 II
C15 D8T 735,740 980H
C18 D9T 771 385C 988H
C27 D10T
3500 D11R 777 - 797 5130 - 5230 992G - 994D
Engine Build Locations
Build Location Engine Models
Peterborough, England 3011 3013 3024 3034 3054 3056 C1.5 C2.2 C6.6

## Griffen, Georgia 3408 3412 C27 C30 C32

Mossville, Illinois 3406 3456 C-10 C11 C-12 C13 C15 C-16 C18

Lafayette, Indiana 3508 3512 3516 3520 3524 C175-12 C175-16 C175-20 3606 3608 3612 3616

Keil, Germany CM20 CM25 CM32 CM43 GCM34 M20 M25 M32 M43

## Electric Power Modules Packaged @ FG Wilson or Griffen Georgia

Agenda
Engine Families
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lube System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Parts Differentiation
REMAN
Resources
Engine Wear
Definition of Wear
Contact
Pressure
Relative Motion
Normal & Abnormal wear
Major wear items
Cylinder liners
Piston rings
Turbo bearings and seals
Valves, guides, and seats
Main and rod bearings
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
The Combustion Process 4 Stroke Cycle

Intake Compression
The Combustion Process 4 Stroke Cycle

Power Exhaust
The Combustion Process 4 Stroke Cycle
Reciprocation & Rotation
Oil Consumption and Blow-by
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Internal Components
3126B/C7
Valve Train
5
4
1. Cam lobe
6 3
2. Lifter
3. Pushrods
4. Rocker arms
7
5. Bridge (intake)
6. Valve spring 8
7. Exhaust valve
2
8. Intake valves

1
Pistons, Rings, & Liners

Cylinder liner
O-ring seals
Piston
Piston rings
Piston pin and
retainer
C15 Piston Assembly

## Piston is one piece design

Connecting Rod
A connecting rod
connects the
piston to the
crankshaft

C15
installed on top of the
block
The camshaft turns at
the speed of the
crankshaft to control
intake & exhaust
operation
Cat Compression Brake

Intake Valve
Actuation is part of the
Caterpillar compression
brake.
Crankshaft
Rod Bearing Journals

Front Rear

Web
Main Bearing Journals

Counterweights

## There are 2 rotations of the crankshaft for each 4 stroke cycle!

Cylinder Block
The cylinder block is the
central component of
any engine
It houses the
components that make
up the Serious Nucleus
of the engine
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Turbocharger
An exhaust driven air compressor
Impeller on the left
Turbine on the right
Connecting shaft, free floating
bearings, oil lubricated center housing

## Causes of Premature Wear or Failure

Poor oil quality
Dirt ingestion
Hot engine shut down
Waste Gate Turbocharger The wastegate is opened by the
high pressure boost in the compressor
side of the turbo.

## Some of the exhaust gas then

Wastegate bypasses the turbine and escapes or
wastes to the exhaust stack.

Small turbo,
No wastegate

Boost
Small turbo,
with wastegate

No wastegate

## Spins up quicker for good engine response

Regulates turbo speed & prevents over-speeding Engine Load
Heat exchanger for inlet air
Aftercooling
Series of metal tubes through which hot
inlet air flows

## Heat from the air flowing from the tubes is

absorbed through the tube walls and carried
away

2 types
Air to air (ATAAC)
Jacket water (JWAC)
Causes of Premature Wearout &
Failure of Aftercoolers

## Most common cause -- failure of the

turbocharger compressor wheel

## Damages aftercooler tubes

Coolant leakage into inlet air stream

## Poor coolant maintenance may cause

pitting/corrosion of the aftercooler tubes

## Results in water to air leakage

Hydraulic lock on the engine
Water Pump

## Flow of the coolant begins at the

water pump
Pump impeller creates the flow
Water pumps are gear or belt
driven
Water pump seals
Separates engine oil from coolant
Oil Cooler

## Engine coolant flows from the

water pump directly into the oil
cooler
Oil carries heat away from critical
engine parts
Heat is transferred from the oil to
the engine coolant
Oil Cooler

## Coolant flows through copper

tubes in the oil cooler housing

the tubes

## Scale build-up caused by

improper cooling system
maintenance can be cleaned out
of tubes
Engine components

Air compressor
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Importance of Cooling System
40-60% Of All Engine Downtime Is Associated With
Cooling System Problems

## Important Customer Reminders:

Use proper start up procedures
Clean debris from the radiator and fan
Inspect the water pump for leaks
Select the right coolant
Function of Cooling System
Maintain proper engine temperature
for optimum performance
Dissipates excess heat from other
machine systems:
Engine
Transmission
Hydraulic
Cools compressed inlet
air to optimize combustion
Cooling System Components

1 Water Pump
2 Oil Cooler
3 Passages through
4 Temp. Regulator &
Regulator Housing
6 Pressure Cap
7 Hoses & Pipes
Causes of Cooling System Wear & Failure
Single most common problem poor coolant quality
Due to
Using coolant that does not meet Cats specifications
Not keeping the cooling system topped off
Using coolant past its useful life
Other problems include:
Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler
Causes hydraulic lock
From reusing old radiators and hosing
Failure to service the coolant relief valve
most cooling system problems can be avoided
with proper maintenance practices!
Cooling Systems

cylinder liners

## Absorbs heat from the

combustion chamber

Prevents breakdown of
oil film between pistons
and liners
Cooling Systems

## Coolant flows through

passages in the cylinder block

## Water seals between the head

and block prevent coolant
leaks

## Some engines have water

ferrules to direct coolant to
critical areas
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Importance Lubrication System
70-80% crank failures are due to oil contamination.
Function of Lubrication System

Cleans
Parts
Cylinder Walls
Cools
Seals & Lubricates
Support
Separate
Lubrication System Components
1 Oil Pump
2 Relief Valve
3 Oil Cooler
4 Oil Filter
5 Bypass Valves
6 Oil Level Gauge
(Dipstick)
7 Oil Pressure Gauge
8 Oil Pan
Engine Lube System
Causes of Lube System Wear & Failure
Single largest problem is short engine life due to
excessive soot in the oil
Poor quality/low performance engine oil
Extended oil change intervals
Poor maintenance practices
Fuel dilution
Wear (Lube System Caused)
Seals/Bearings
Turbo
Crank - Main/Rod
Valve, Guide
Methods to control soot levels in engine oil:
High quality engine oils contain
High performance, full flow, lube filter
options
Bypass filtration devices: centrifugal
or barrier filters Soot particles
Oil renewal systems (for large mining agglomerating together

machines)

Barrier Filter

Centrifugal Filter
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics

## Single Fuel System

Function of Fuel System
Meters the amount
of fuel to achieve
desired power

Regulates engine
speed and timing
sequence

Helps control
emissions
Fuel System Operation
Types of Fuel Systems
Pump & Line Unit Injection
Current Scroll Fuel System MUI
New Scroll Fuel System EUI
Sleeve Metering Fuel System (SMFS) HEUI
Program Electronic Engine Controls (PEEC) Common Rail
(Single Fuel)
1973 1981 1983 1988 1994
CSFS MUI NSFS EUI HEUI

Pre 1970 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005

Timeline
1974 1987 2004
SMFS PEEC Rail
Fuel Delivery - History
Pre-Combustion (PC)
Direct Injection (DI)
Fuel Line Fuel Line

Fuel Injector
Electrical Wire Fuel Injector
Mechanically
Glow Plug Nozzle Controlled
Fuel Injector Unit Injector
Assembly
Housing
Pre-Combustion

Piston Piston
Heat Plug

## Pre-Combustion Direct Injection Direct Injection

Pencil Style Unit Injector
Sleeve Metering Fuel System

Barrel

Fill Port
Plunger

Sleeve

Spill Port

## Filling Begin Continue End

Injection Injection Injection
Scroll Metering Fuel System

## Pump & line governor

Few moving parts
Simple mechanical governor
Easy starting & service
More tolerant of dirt
Economical
MUI System
A unit injector is positioned
above each cylinder

A mechanically actuated
governor controls fuel rate
(scroll metered) with
flyweights and springs

Timing is fixed
EUI System
A unit injector is
positioned above each
cylinder

An Electronic Control
Module (ECM) controls
fuel rate and timing

Injectors are
mechanically actuated by
a camshaft
EUI - Injector Fill
Without pressure from
the rocker arm, a
spring keeps the
plunger retracted

## Fuel flows into the

injector through the fill
/ spill port, past the
solenoid valve and into
the barrel
EUI - Injection
On a signal from the
ECM, the solenoid
closes the fuel valve
Pressure elevates at
the tip to the 5,500 psi
needed to unseat the
valve
Injection begins
EUI - Injection
Fuel continues to inject
until the ECM signals the
solenoid to open the valve

## Injection timing and

duration is controlled by the
ECM
HEUI System

## A unit injector is positioned

above each cylinder

## An Electronic Control Module

(ECM) controls fuel rate,
timing, and injection pressure

## The injector is hydraulically

actuated
Cat Fuel System Single Fuel

Fuel Manifold

Pump

C6.6 Injector
Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes
Short unit injector life due to excessive abrasive particles in
the fuel
Abrasive particles damage sealing surfaces causing leakage of
high pressure fuel and low engine power
Abrasive particles are inherent in most fuels
Most particles can be removed by using High Efficiency filters

## Injector seizure due to excess water in the fuel

Always small amounts of water in fuel, which is harmless
Excess water in fuel reduces the lubricating film strength of fuel
and causes seizure of the injector plunger and barrel
Maximum amount of allowable water in fuel is 0.1%
Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes
Injector sticking or seizure due to fuel overheating
Fuel in the injector cooks and produces varnish which
causes components to stick or seize
Viscosity of hot fuel is inadequate and the fuel film
thickness will not provide adequate protection against
scuffing or seizure of the plunger and barrel
Fuel overheating can be caused by operating in extreme
ambient temperatures. An auxiliary fuel cooler installed in
the fuel supply line to the cylinder heads may be required
to limit fuel temperatures
Running fuel tank too low, or running out of fuel causes
the fuel to cycle through the engine too frequently and
becomes very hot. This can be avoided by keeping the
fuel tank levels at full or above
Fuel System Wear & Failure Causes
Poor quality oil
Fuel may be low in viscosity or lubricity. Fuel which is old
or oxidized often contains excessive gums or resins which
promotes injector sticking or seizure.
Effect of Work Environment
Dust
Temperature/Climate
Hours of continuous operation
Terrain
System Improvement
Reduce system damage caused by fuel
Water Separator
Primary Fuel Filter
Bypass Flow

## Minimize tip failure caused by aeration

Maintain fuel supply pressure
Stripping Out Water
Water Separator
Second line of defense
All free water
87% emulsified water
Injector damage
Removing Larger Debris
Primary Fuel Filter
10+ micron particle retention
prevents premature secondary
fuel filter plugging
protects fuel transfer pump
Remove Fine Abrasives
Secondary Fuel Filter
2 micron and larger
98% efficient
Reduces wear on fuel injectors and pumps
Essential for higher pressure systems
Extends life of older systems as well
Double Filter/Double Life
Series filtration
Second filter safety net
Second filtering pass
Filter failure
- Double injector wear life
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Air Intake & Exhaust System Functions
Boost air at 300
Inlet air from air - 400
cleaners Inlet air from air
cleaners

Exhaust out
Air manifold

## From exhaust ports

quantities of clean Compresses the
filtered intake air intake air into the
cylinders in order to
Removes exhaust gases from the product more power
cylinders and reduces exhaust noise
Air System
Air System Components

Precleaner
Air Filters
Filter Service
Indicator
Turbochargers
Aftercooler
Intake & Exhaust
Manifolds
Muffler
Air System Operation
Flow
1. Precleaner
2. Air Filters
3. Turbocharger
4. Intake Manifold &
5. Combustion
Chamber
6. Exhaust Manifold
Wear
Turbocharger
Bearings
Seals
Air System Wear & Failure Causes
Single most common problem dust ingestion
Causes accelerated abrasive wear of piston rings & liners
Most often caused by inlet leaks around flexible joints in
air inlet piping
May also be caused by defective/damaged air filters, or
poor maintenance practices
Plugged air filters
Turbo failures
Coolant to air leaks in the aftercooler
Hydraulic lock
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lubrication System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Electronic Control Module (ECM)
Caterpillars Electronic Control Module (ECM)
and sensors control and monitor key
engine function, including:
Fuel temperature.
Engine oil temperature.
Oil pressure.
Atmospheric pressure.
Coolant temperature.
Injection actuation pressure
Throttle position
Injection timing & duration
Logged faults
Features & Benefits of Electronics
Features Benefits
Electronic Engine Control Improved Emissions
Engine Speed Governing Increased Performance &
Torque Shaping Reliability
Fuel-air Ratio Control Improved Diagnostics
Cold Mode Strategies Meet customer needs for
Altitude Derating New Features / Advanced
Fuel Temperature Compensation Technology
Information Management
Accurate Tracking
Stored Results
Engine Monitoring
Fluid Level
Fluid Pressure
Fluid Temperature

Generations of Experience

## 1987 1991 1993 1998 32-bit 2004 32-bit

PEEC II
PEEC III

Proven Reliability
Electronic Control Module

## What if an ECM Fails?

Troubleshooting guides help identify a component
or harness problem
Limp home modes
Ability to flash files at repair site

## ECM Replacement Options?

No serviceable piece parts
Some Reman offerings exist
Electronic Control Module
What if a Sensor or Wiring Harness Fails?
Decision to repair or replace depends on the problem
Sensors and harness segments are serviceable
Replacing an entire harness is a last resort
PEHJ0145
Agenda
Engine Families
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lube System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Parts Differentiation
REMAN
Resources
Engine Parts Quality
Total System Design
"Same as Caterpillar"
Motives
Parts Availability
Design Modifications
Quality
Reusability
Repair Solutions
New, Reman, Classic,
Kits

Competition Caterpillar
Cut corners to lower costs Rigid tolerances

Competition Caterpillar
missing water holes

Competition Caterpillar
Blocked passages Rigid cleaning process
Features
Properly machined parts
Rigid Cleaning Process
Rigid Tolerances
Right design for the system
Optimal cooling
Less likelihood of leaks developing and so less chance of problems
related to leaking and/or overheating
More durable
Longer life
More reliable operation
Less downtime so ultimately lower cost
Valves

Competition Caterpillar
Turning marks Precisely ground
Exhaust Valves

Competition Caterpillar
material than industry standard
Features
Precisely ground
High strength material
More facing material than
industry standard
Estimate Repairs
Increased protection against valve lip cracking and stem breakage
Increased strength that allows for reusability through 1 or 2 overhauls
Greater fatigue strength
Longer wear life
More durable
More reliable operation
Less downtime so ultimately lower cost
Discussion
Cylinder Liners
Competition
Not roll burnished
Flange thickness out of spec
O-Ring grooves not chamfered
Increased chance of cracking

Caterpillar
Roll burnished
Chamfered O-Ring seal grooves
Heat treated
Cylinder Liners

Competition Caterpillar
Random cross hatch pattern Uniform cross hatch pattern
Cylinder Liners

Competition Caterpillar
Not machined to hone off Pre-honed to preserve life
saw-tooth peaks and disperse oil better
Cylinder Liners
Features
Uniform cross hatch pattern
Roll burnished
Chamfered O-Ring seal grooves
Heat treated
Perfect fit
Cylinder Liners
Proper oil distribution
Longer liner life
Increased strength; reduced
susceptibility to cracking
Leakage prevention
Reusable at first overhaul
Lower repair / maintenance
costs over time
Higher productivity
Less downtime
Piston Rings

Competition Caterpillar
Flat-faced top ring Barrel-faced top ring
Piston Rings

Competition Caterpillar
Thin chrome or Correct chrome or
plasma plating plasma plating
Piston Rings

Features
Reduced oil consumption
Barrel-faced top ring
Increased cylinder liner / ring life
Correct chrome or plasma plating
Less susceptible to breakage
High-strength ductile iron
Less downtime
Heat treated
Lower operating costs
Nickel Ring Band Pistons

C7 Piston
Competition Caterpillar
Ring bands disbonded Controlled casting process
Grooves do not meet flatness, Ultrasonic inspection
size, or location specifications Improved reusability
Features
Pistons
Nickel-band ring
Specially ground, tapered
Controlled casting process
Precise fit
Better sealing
Proper bonding
C7 Piston
Less blow-by
Less carbon deposit Lowered chance of seizure
Delivers more power Less downtime caused by part failure
Longer wear Lower operating costs
Reusable
One Piece Steel Piston
Used on 3408, 3412, 3500 & all ACERT engines
Increased structural capability
Machined from a single steel forging
Eliminates need for a separate aluminum skirt &
possible breakage
Eliminates possible debond of ring groove
Reduced thermal expansion allows piston fit
to be tighter for a reduction in liner cavitation
Reduction in surface area provides less
friction and helps fuel consumption
Higher Oil Flow
Bigger piston oil gallery & new oil jets
Runs cooler thus reducing piston carbon deposit
and oil consumption
New ring pack
25% reduction in blow-by
No bushings to replace in 3408 & 3412
Fractured Split Rod Technology
Models 3114, 3116, 3126, C7, C9, C11 and C13
Features
Forged for high strength
213-3193
Rod able to accept higher loads
C7 Eliminates fretting on joint face
Eliminates locating dowel

C11 223-9133
C13 223-9150

160-8199
C9 IRM PELJ0174
Crankshafts

Caterpillar Competition
Proprietary hardening Not Reusable
process-tough core Rough surface finish
Excellent reusability Oversized journals
Polished surface finish Increased bearing friction
to <5 microns
Precise journal grinding
Integral Seals

## Edge Bonded (Metal Carrier) Void-Volume (Plastic Carrier)

Benefits
Improved bolt torque retention vs. flat gaskets
Ease of assembly vs. flat gasket
Availability in gasket & seal kits
Unitized Design Crankshaft Seal
For 3400 Series & C15 Engines
Old Style Clamped PTFE
New Style
Elements Bonded Elastomeric
Flanged Wear Sleeve Substrate
PTFE
Dirt Lip

## PTFE Oil Lip

Wear Sleeve Flange

## Wear Sleeve Axial Dirt Lip

Reduced potential for leakage Significantly longer seal life
Easier installation Up to 2X improvement in on-highway truck
Reduced installation damage Up to 3X improvement in earth-moving
Minimized contamination
Increased reliability
Valve Covers
Composite

Less noise

Aluminum
Two piece composite/aluminum Used on all ACERT engines
Fully isolated C7 thru C32
Reduces noise up to 1dBA
Steel spacer core sandwiched
between two layers of spring steel

## Multi layered steel

Improved durability
Sealing
Crush strength
Creep resistance
Joint stability
Used on all ACERT
Heavy Duty Water
Temperature Regulators Prevents contamination
Lip Seal at the top of the
from infiltrating into
Guide
For Various Engine sensitive area
Applications Piston
Regulator is not stuck in
Help retain grease which
one position due to
is used to reduce friction
contamination or loss of
in the guide area
grease within guide area

## 247-7133 Open Temp Engine does not run cold

or hot due to a stuck
87-90 deg C regulator

## 248-5513 Open Temp

81-84 deg C Lower maintenance costs

## New Lip Seal Guide Improved engine life

Agenda
Engine Families
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lube System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Differentiation
REMAN
Resources
Cat Remanufactured Products
What is Remanufacturing?

## Differences between RepairRebuildRemanufacture

Repair

Usually simple
Fixes only a specific
problem
May not use genuine CAT
parts depending on labor
source.
Rebuild
Usually retains the component identity
More than a simple repair
Usually done by dealer, customer or
re-builder
Restores to near original condition
May not use genuine Cat parts
Re-builder assumes the warranty
liability
Requires investments in tools, equip.,
training, etc
Rebuild and return or exchange
turnaround time involved
Remanufacture
Consistent factory environment
Process and quality control
changes
Harvest components (looses its
original identity)
Uses 100% genuine Cat parts
Cat Reman carries standard parts
warranty
Requires cores exchange only
Reman Sale \$40 \$60 Core Deposit
Core Deposit \$60 Returned
Price of New \$100

## No Core = No Reman Product

Cat Product Support Strategy Remans Role
New Cat Parts
Cat Do It Myself Reman Parts
Product Support
Work With Me OPTIONS Dealer Exchange
Strategy
Do It For Me Classic Parts
(One Voice)
Used Parts

## Support Cat Dealer repair option & exchange programs

Lower repair costs
Prime path for On-Highway Truck & lower volume dealers
Peak shaving for dealers with component rebuild centers (CRCs)

## Help Cat Dealers manage MARC & CSA contracts profitability

Expand product coverage through accelerated NPI
Help alleviate technician shortages (Technician-in-a-Box)
Reman Engine Product Coverage
On-Highway Truck Engines
Long Blocks
Short Blocks
Crankshafts
Camshafts & Kits
Short and Long Blocks
Cylinder Kits
Complete Engines
Fuel Nozzles & Injectors
Fuel Injection Pumps
Fuel Air Ratio Controls
Water Pumps
Crankshafts
Oil Pumps
Starters Connecting Rods
Alternators
Oil Coolers Camshafts
Air Compressors
Rocker Arms Kits
Water pumps Lifters
Rocker Arms Fuel
Cylinder Packs Pistons Packs Injection
Agenda
Engine Families
Engine Works & Wears
Engine Wear
Combustion Process
Internal Components
External Components
Cooling System
Lube System
Fuel System
Air System
Electronics
Parts Differentiation
REMAN
Resources
Types of Resource Tools

Printed Material

Electronic Media

Training Systems

Intranet InfoCast

People
Printed Material
Datasheets Customer Reference Material
Information Release Memos IRMs
Parts Competitive Bulletins PCBs
Brochures:
Cat Machines ACERT Technology AEXQ0020-01
Improving Engine Component Durability SEBF1018
Improving Fuel System Durability SENR9620
One Safe Source PECP9067-01
Caterpillar Performance Handbook SEBD0345
Electronic Media
SIS Service Information System
https://sis.cat.com/sisweb/servlet/cat.cis.sis.PController.CSSISMainServlet
TMI Technical Marketing Information
http://tmiweb.cat.com/tmi/servlet/cat.edis.tmiweb.tmihome.TMIHomeServlet
ESL Electronic Sales Library
https://nacd.cat.com/infocast/frames/machine/doc/
DSN Dealer Solution Network https://cpi.cat.com/cpi/Dealer/index.htm
Cat Campaign Central/Promotion Packager https://www.catcampaigncentral.com
Training Systems
Caterpillar University (CLMS): http://clms.cat.com/

## PSSR Training Engine Parts Quality, Building

Power Train Solutions, Etc.
Questions????