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HIV, Hep B, Hep C

HIV Transmission
HIV not transmitted by following
Insect bites Sharing cutlery or crockery
Dogs, cats, mice or any other Sharing towels
pets Massaging
Shaking hands Swimming pools
Hugging Donating blood
Toilet seats
Coughs or sneezes
Sharing food
HIV transmission
1. Through these bodily fluids
VAGINAL BREAST
SECRETIONS MILK
BLOOD
CERVICAL
SEMEN SECRETIONS

2. Through these acts:


H

INFECTED MOTHER: UNPROTECTED PENETRATIVE 1. INJECTION OR TRANSFUSION OR INFECTED


DURING INTERCOURSE (HOMOSEXUAL OR BLOOD / BLOOD PRODUCTS
1. PREGNANCY HETEROSEXUAL) WITH SOMEONE 2. SHARING UNSTERALISED NEEDLES WITH
2. BIRTH WHO IS INFECTED SOMEONE WHO IS INFECTED
3. BREAST FEEDING
3
HIV transmission
Unsterilized needles this includes body piercing and tattooing

Mother to baby transplacental, breast milk, perinatal (at delivery)

Contaminated blood and blood products -


In the UK all blood and tissue donations are tested for HIV and have
been since 1985
Signs and symptoms of HIV
Stage One Stage Two
Flu-like symptoms Can last for10 years
Fatigue May be free from symptoms but
Recurrent fevers may have swollen glands
Oral/genital thrush
Persistently swollen glands
Fungal infections
Weight loss
Diarrhoea
Loss of appetite
Signs and symptoms
Stage Three Stage Four
Depletion of Immune System, leading Total depletion/damage to immune
to Opportunistic infections: system
PNEUMONIA AIDS
THRUSH Acquired
HERPES Immune
TUBERCULOSIS Deficiency
UNUSUAL CANCERS (Kaposis Syndrome
Sarcoma)
CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
TOXOPLASMOSIS
Strategies HIV Prevention
Unprotected Penetrative Intercourse
A latex condom used correctly every time you have sex, is highly effective
in providing protection against HIV.
Female condoms also prevent transmission.
The only way to be 100% safe is to abstain from sexual intercourse.
Mother to child transmission:
Pregnant women can take a short course of anti-HIV drug just before the
birth which she must keep using after.
Caesarean section for delivery
Avoiding breast feeding
All three can reduce the chance of transmission to 2%.
Strategies HIV prevention
Sharing non sterilised needles:
By not sharing needles when injecting drugs a person will reduce the
chance of infection.
Many places have needle exchange programmes where old needles
can be swapped for new ones
Sterilised needles with body piercing and tattooing
Wearing protective equipment when dealing blood/fluid ie aprons,
gloves
Cover cuts
Some interesting National facts....
http://www.hivscotland.com/data-and-research/fast-facts/
www.avert.org
www.hiv.aware
HIV Diagnosis
Antibody test (blood, saliva or urine sample)
12 weeks (window) for antibodies to show up in sufficient numbers
Person can be infected and not know
If antibody positive = HIV Positive
Rapid test results in 20 mins (follow up required)
Current Treatment
The aim of antiretroviral treatment is to keep the amount of HIV in the
body at a low level. This stops any weakening of the immune system and
allows it to recover from any damage that HIV might have caused already.
The drugs are often referred to as: antiretrovirals, ARVs, anti-HIV or anti-
AIDS drugs.
Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination
therapy. Taking a combination of three or more anti-HIV drugs is
sometimes referred to as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART).
If only one drug was taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it and
the drug would stop working. Taking two or more antiretrovirals at the
same time vastly reduces the rate at which resistance would develop,
making treatment more effective in the long term