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Camillo, Rosselle C.

Also known simply as phage; a virus that
attacks and infects bacteria.
The term derived from the Greek word phagein
which means to eat bacteria.
Found in any bacterial colonies. Mostly in soil
and sea water.
Resistance to antibiotics
Carries only genetics information needed for
replication of their nucleic acid and synthesis of
their protein coats.
Hankin (1896) reported that the waters of the
Ganges and Jumna rivers in India had marked
antibacterial action (against Vibrio cholerae, restrict
epidemic) which could pass through a very fine
porcelain filter; this activity was destroyed by
Edward Twort (1915) and Felix d'Herelle (1917)
independently reported isolating filterable entities
capable of destroying bacterial cultures and of
producing small cleared areas on bacterial lawns.
It was F d'Herelle, a Canadian working at the Pasteur
Institute in Paris, who gave them the name
"bacteriophages"-- using the suffix phage (1922).
Knowledge of the phage structure,
understanding the mechanism of
phage-cell surface interaction, and
revealing the process of switching the
cell replication machinery for phage
propagation would allow the design of
phages specific for bacterial illnesses.
The Major parts of Bacteriophage

Capsid protein coat that makes

up most the virus and gives it a
Nucleic Acid genetic information
in the form of DNA or RNA.
Envelope an additional protective
coating usually made up of lipids,
proteins and carbs.
The lytic cycle: The phage infects a
bacterium, hijacks the bacterium to
make lots of phages, and then kills the
cell by making it explode (lyse).
The lysogenic cycle: The phage infects
a bacterium and inserts its DNA into the
bacterial chromosome, allowing the
phage DNA (now called a prophage) to
be copied and passed on along with
the cell's own DNA.
Phage therapy is the use of
bacteriophage viruses to combat
bacteria instead of using antibiotics.
Bacteriophage only attacks bacteria
nothing else which make it useful in
medicine as it does not affect the
patient only the bacteria,
Phage bacteria are the therapeutic use
of bacteriophage to threat pathogenic
bacterial infections.
Nucleic acid properties.
Phage morphology.
Isa procedure for characterizing
and detecting bacteria strain by
their reaction whether they are
susceptible or resistance to
various known strain of phage.