SYSTEM
1. Introduction
2. 3phase generation
3. 3phase circuit
4. Definitions: phase & line voltages,
phase & line currents
5. V & I in starconnected system
6. V & I in deltaconnected system
Threephase System
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CHAPTER 5: THREEPHASE
SYSTEM
7. Power in 3phase circuit
8. Measurement of power in 3phase
Systems in Practical
Threephase System
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Objectives
Understand the generation of the threephase e.m.f.s
Familiar with the delta or mesh connection of three phases
Familiar with the star or wye connection of three phases
Able to calculate voltages and currents in the delta connection
Able to calculate voltages and currents in the star connection
Understand the relationship between line and phase values in both
connections, delta and star
Able to draw phasor diagrams for delta and star connections
Able to calculate power in a threephase system
Familiar with the measurement of power
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1. INTRODUCTION
An example of power system in Malaysia Loads
Distribution
Generation Transmission
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Why the 3phase system is needed? Single
phase system is not enough?
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Advantages of threephase systems over singlephase supplies
For a given amount of power transmitted through a system, the three
phase system requires conductors with a smaller crosssectional area. This
means a saving of copper (or aluminium) and thus the original installation
costs are less.
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Advantages of threephase systems over singlephase supplies (cont.)
Threephase motors are very robust, relatively cheap, generally smaller, have
selfstarting properties, provide a steadier output and require little
maintenance compared with singlephase motors.
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2. 3PHASE GENERATION
Must understand the generation of single phase
system first:
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2. 3PHASE GENERATION
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3phase generation:
RYB RBY
eRR1 sin eRR1 sin
eYY1 sin 1200
eYY1 sin 1200
eBB1 sin 120
0
eBB1 sin 120
0
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Example 1:
(Assume the system is balance and sequence is RYB)
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3. 3PHASE CIRCUIT
2 Types:
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Connections Between AlternatorLoad :
2. Delta to delta
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Star to star connection :
With a balanced load, the
Neutral resultant in neutral conductor
IR points is zero, IR + IY + IB = 0 hence
R this conductor can be
neglected.
IN
Zry
N Neutral conductor n
Y I
B Y
IB
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4. DEFINITIONS
Definitions (Star) :
Line Voltages
ERY, EYB, EBR Line voltages at the generator
Vry, Vyb, Vbr Line voltages at the load
Phase Voltages
ERN, EYN, EBN Phase voltages at the generator
Vrn, Vyn, Vbn Phase voltages at the load
Line Currents = Phase Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib
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Definitions (Delta) :
Line Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib Currents in the line conductors
Phase Currents
Iry, Iyb, Ibr Currents through phases
Line Voltages = Phase Voltages
Vry, Vyb, Vbr
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5. V & I IN STARCONNECTED SYSTEM
In order to get the relationship between line and phase voltages for a star
circuit, consider the following figure: R
By KVL:
oVRY = VRn + (  VYn ) = VRn VYn 1
+
VRn +

VRY
Now assume a magnitude V for each phase voltage and
n
take VRn as reference. The sequence is RYB and the  
system is balance. Therefore: VYn
VRn V0 0 o2 1: +
= V0 V 120
0 0
VBn V120 0
= V 1 j 0 V 0.5 j 0.866
= V 1.5 j0.866
= 1.732V30 0
= 3V30 0
= 3VRn 300
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Repeat for the other two line voltages: R
+
 VRn
n 
 VBR

VBn VYn
+ n
+ +

VBn
B Y +
 VYB +
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Conclusion for Voltages and currents in a starconnected
system : just for a balanced star
connection. Otherwise,
derive from KVL.
VPhase =
V Line
Line 30 0
3
ILine = IPhase
VLine VPhase
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Example (Balanced StarConnected System)
For the following circuit, suppose ERN = 120V0 0 , Zrn = Zyn = Zbn = 12 j9
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Solution:
a) VRn = ERn. Thus, Vrn 120V0
0
0
b) Since the system is balanced,Vry 3Vrn 30 3 120V 0 30 208V30
0 0
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d) The currents:
Vrn 1200 0 1200 0
Ir 8.0 A36.87 0
Z rn 12 j 9 15 36.87 0
I y 8.0 A 36.87 0 1200 8.0 A 83.130
Ib 8.0 A36.87 0
120 8.0 A156.87
0 0
e) Direct calculation:
V yn 120V 120 0
Iy 8.0 A 83.13 0
Z yn 15 36.87 0
Vbn 120V120 0
Ib 8.0 A156.87 0
Z bn 15 36.87 0
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Exercise (Unbalanced StarConnected System)
For the figure below, VRN = 120V0 0. Calculate the currents, power to each
phase and total power.
Answers:
I r 12 A36.9 0
I y 6 A 156.90
I b 24 A120 0
I n 26.8 A107.2 0
Pr = 1152W
Py = 576W
Pb = 2880W
PT = 4608W
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6. V & I IN DELTACONNECTED SYSTEM
In order to get the relationship between line and phase voltages for a delta
circuit, consider the following figure:
VRY = Vry
VYB = Vyb
VBR = Vbr
VBR
VRY
VYB
In order to get the relationships between line and phase currents KCL will be
used. By KCL, at node r:
oIr + Ibr = Iry
oIr = Iry Ibr .. 1
oNow assume a magnitude I for each phase current and take Iry as reference.
The sequence is RYB and the system is balance. Therefore:
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I ry I0 0 Repeat for the other two line currents:
2
I yb I 1200
I br I120 0 Iy = I yb I ry
Iry
0
3I yb 150 Zry
o2 1:
Ir = I ry I br Iyb
= I0 0 I120 0 Zyb
y
= I 1 j0 I 0.5 j0.866 Iy
= I 1.5 j 0.866
= 1.732 I 30 0
= 3I 30 0
Ib = Ibr I yb
= 3I ry 30 0 Ibr
Zbr
3I br 900
Iyb
Ib
Zyb
b
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Conclusion for Voltages and currents in a delta
connected system :
ILine =
3I Phase Phase 300
IPhase =
I Line
Line 300
3
Phasor Diagram:
Ir =
3I ry ry 300
Iy = 3I
yb yb 30
0
Ib = 3I
br br 30
0
VLine = VPhase
ILine IPhase
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Example (Balanced DeltaConnected System)
For the circuit in the previous slide page, suppose Vry = 240V15 ,
0
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Solution:
Vry 24015 0
a) I ry 23.0 A 1.70 0 I yb 23.0 A 121.7 0
Z ry 10 j 3
I br 23.0 A118.30
b) I r 3I ry 30 0 39.8 A 31.7 0
I y 39.8 A 151.7 0
I b 39.8 A88.30
c)
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Exercise (Unbalanced DeltaConnected System)
For the figure below, Vry = 240V0 0. Calculate the currents, power to each
phase and total power.
Answers:
Iry = 9.6 A0 0
Iyb = 20 A 180
0
Ibr = 15 A150
0
Ir = 23.8 A 18.4 0
Iy = 29.6 A180 0
Ib =10.3 A46.9 0
Pry = 2304 W
Pyb = 2400 W
Pbr = 3118 W
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Comparison of star and delta connections
Loads connected in delta dissipate three times more power than
when connected in star to the same supply.
For the same power, the phase currents must be the same for both
delta and star connections (since power = 3 I p 2 R p ). Hence the line
current in deltaconnected system is greater than the line current in
the corresponding starconnected system. To achieve the same
phase current in a starconnected system as in a deltaconnected
system, the line voltage in the system is 3 times the line voltage in
a delta system.
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7. Power in 3phase circuit
To find total power in a balanced system,
determined power of one phase, then
multiply by three.
PT 3P 3 V I cos W
For both star &
delta connections
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For the balanced system, we know that:
PT 3P 3 V I cos W
It is also useful to have a formula in terms of
line quantities:
For a star load For a delta load
x 3
I I L 3
3 3 V VL
VL 3x IL
V 3 I
3 3 3
I L cos W
VL
cos W
IL
PT 3 PT 3 VL
3 3
PT 3 VL I L cos W PT 3 VL I L cos W
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Summary of Power Formulas for
Balanced Star & Delta Circuits
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8. Measurement of power in 3phase
Systems
Practically, there
are 2 popular
methods
*Can be 3
wattmeter
method, if weve
3 meters
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TwoWattmeter Method
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Proof that for TwoWattmeter Method, PT = W1+ W2:
p.d. across voltage circuit of W1 = VRY p.d. across voltage circuit of W1 = VBY
VRN VYN
VRY By KVL VBY By KVL
VYN VRY = VRN  VYN VBN VBY = VBN  VYN
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PW1 = iR ( VRN VYN ) PW2 = iB ( VBN VYN )
PT = PW1 + PW2
IR + IY + IB = 0
IR + I B =  IY
The sum of the two wattmeter readings gives the total active power under
all conditions.
We only need two wattmeters to read 3phase active power
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Sometimes, with analog wattmeters, one of the meter
will read backward.
To get an upscale reading, reverse either its voltage
or current connection. Then, put the negative sign in
front of the reading. Example:  400W
Example:
1. In twowattmeter method, the readings are 2 kW and 5
kW respectively. What is the total active power?
Ans: 7 kW
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For balanced loads at unity power factor, the indications of the two
wattmeters will be identical.
When the load power factor is 50 percent, one meter will indicate
zero and the other will indicate the total threephase power.
At power factors between 50 and 100 percent, one meter will
indicate higher power than the other.
At power factors lower than 50 percent, the indication on one of the
meters will be negative and the total threephase power will be the
power indicated by one meter less the negative indicated power of
the other.
At zero power factor, the wattmeters will have identical indications
but of opposite signs, indicating zero power. Thus, there is a definite
ratio of meter indications for each value of circuit power factor.
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From the twowattmeter method, we can get power
factor by using
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1. Formulas:
Detail can be obtained in Hughes reference book, page 664
1
Power Factor = 2
Plow
1 Phigh = The higher of
Phigh the 2 readings
1 3 Plow = The lower of the
Plow
1 2 readings
Phigh
Phigh Plow
tan = 3 Once you get the , PF
P P can be obtained.
high low
PF = cos
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2. Ratio of wattmeter readings vs PF graph:
Obtain Plow
Phigh
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Example:
The input power to a threephase motor was measured by the 2wattmeter
method. The readings were 5.2kW and 1.7kW, and the line voltage was 400V.
Calculate:
a) The total active power
b) The total power factor
c) The line current
Answer:
a) PT = 5.2 + ( 1.7) = 3.5 kW
1 1
b) Use any method; 0.281
2 2
1.7 1 0.3269
1 1 3
1 3 5.2 1 0.3269
1 1.7
5.2
b) PT = 1.73 x IL x VL x cos
3500 = 1.73 x IL x 400 x 0.281 IL= 18A
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Conclusion of Power System Loads
The above figure shows briefly how both singlephase & threephase maybe
connected to the power system.
Residential and business customers require only singlephase, while industrial
customers sometimes require both.
In order to approximately balance the system, the TNB tries to connect one
third of its single phase loads to each phase.