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CHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE

SYSTEM
1. Introduction
2. 3-phase generation
3. 3-phase circuit
4. Definitions: phase & line voltages,
phase & line currents
5. V & I in star-connected system
6. V & I in delta-connected system
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CHAPTER 5: THREE-PHASE
SYSTEM
7. Power in 3-phase circuit
8. Measurement of power in 3-phase
Systems in Practical

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Objectives
Understand the generation of the three-phase e.m.f.s
Familiar with the delta or mesh connection of three phases
Familiar with the star or wye connection of three phases
Able to calculate voltages and currents in the delta connection
Able to calculate voltages and currents in the star connection
Understand the relationship between line and phase values in both
connections, delta and star
Able to draw phasor diagrams for delta and star connections
Able to calculate power in a three-phase system
Familiar with the measurement of power

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1. INTRODUCTION
An example of power system in Malaysia Loads

11kV 20kV (50 Hz)

Distribution
Generation Transmission

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Why the 3-phase system is needed? Single
phase system is not enough?

Comes under poly-phase or multi-phase


chapter
Self starting in induction motor
For the same power output:
Less cost
Able to transmit high powers efficiently

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Advantages of three-phase systems over single-phase supplies
For a given amount of power transmitted through a system, the three-
phase system requires conductors with a smaller cross-sectional area. This
means a saving of copper (or aluminium) and thus the original installation
costs are less.

Two voltages are available:


the star connection of the three-phases of supply, together with a neutral
conductor, allows the use of two voltages- (1) the phase voltage (2) the line
voltage. A 4-wire system is used when the load is not balanced. The
diagram of connections is shown below

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Advantages of three-phase systems over single-phase supplies (cont.)

Three-phase motors are very robust, relatively cheap, generally smaller, have
self-starting properties, provide a steadier output and require little
maintenance compared with single-phase motors.

Single-phase induction motor is not self-starting with the basic single-phase


system unless it is fitted with an auxiliary winding. With the three-phase
system, it is self-starting.

For the same power output:


Three-phase generators cost less than single-phase generators
Three-phase generators produce uniform power rather than pulsating
power
Three-phase generators operate with less vibration and noise

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2. 3-PHASE GENERATION
Must understand the generation of single phase
system first:

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2. 3-PHASE GENERATION

Refer to 3-phase system generation.

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3-phase generation:

Certain text books use A,B,C instead of R,Y,B


eRR1 sin
eYY1 sin 1200
eBB1 sin 2400 or sin 1200
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Sequence:
Positive Sequence Negative Sequence

R-Y-B R-B-Y
eRR1 sin eRR1 sin

eYY1 sin 1200
eYY1 sin 1200
eBB1 sin 120
0
eBB1 sin 120
0

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Example 1:
(Assume the system is balance and sequence is R-Y-B)

a. If ERR1= 277V00 , what are EYY1 and EBB1


Answer: EYY1= 277V 1200 EBB1= 277V1200

b. If EYY1= 347V 1200, what are ERR1 and EBB1


Answer: ERR1= 347V0 0 EBB1= 347V1200

c. If EBB1= 120V1500, what are ERR1 and EYY1


Answer: ERR1= 120V30 EYY1=120V 90
0 0

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3. 3-PHASE CIRCUIT
2 Types:

Star or wye Delta or mesh


connection connection

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Connections Between Alternator-Load :

1. Star to star 3. Combination


(star to delta or delta to star)

2. Delta to delta

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Star to star connection :
With a balanced load, the
Neutral resultant in neutral conductor
IR points is zero, IR + IY + IB = 0 hence
R this conductor can be
neglected.
IN

Zry
N Neutral conductor n
Y I
B Y

IB

With neutral conductor, known as


four-wire star-connected system

Without neutral conductor, known as


three-wire star-connected system

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4. DEFINITIONS
Definitions (Star) :

Line Voltages
ERY, EYB, EBR Line voltages at the generator
Vry, Vyb, Vbr Line voltages at the load
Phase Voltages
ERN, EYN, EBN Phase voltages at the generator
Vrn, Vyn, Vbn Phase voltages at the load
Line Currents = Phase Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib
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Definitions (Delta) :

Line Currents
Ir, Iy, Ib Currents in the line conductors
Phase Currents
Iry, Iyb, Ibr Currents through phases
Line Voltages = Phase Voltages
Vry, Vyb, Vbr

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5. V & I IN STAR-CONNECTED SYSTEM
In order to get the relationship between line and phase voltages for a star
circuit, consider the following figure: R

By KVL:
oVRY = VRn + ( - VYn ) = VRn- VYn 1
+
VRn +

-
VRY
Now assume a magnitude V for each phase voltage and
n
take VRn as reference. The sequence is R-Y-B and the - -
system is balance. Therefore: VYn

VRn V0 0 o2 1: +

2 VRY = VRn VYn


VYn V 120 0 Y

= V0 V 120
0 0
VBn V120 0
= V 1 j 0 V 0.5 j 0.866
= V 1.5 j0.866
= 1.732V30 0
= 3V30 0
= 3VRn 300
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Repeat for the other two line voltages: R

+
- VRn
n -
- VBR
-
VBn VYn
+ n
+ +
-
VBn
B Y +
- VYB +

VYB = VYn VBn VBR = VBn VRn

= 3VYn 900 = 3VBn 150 0

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Conclusion for Voltages and currents in a star-connected
system : just for a balanced star
connection. Otherwise,
derive from KVL.

VLine = 3VPhase Phase 300

VPhase =
V Line

Line 30 0
3

Phasor Diagram: VRY = 3VRn Rn 300


VYB = 3VYn Yn 300
VBR = 3VBn Bn 300

ILine = IPhase
VLine VPhase
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Example (Balanced Star-Connected System)
For the following circuit, suppose ERN = 120V0 0 , Zrn = Zyn = Zbn = 12 j9

a) Determine the phase voltages at the load.


b) Determine the line voltages at the load.
c) Show all voltages on a phasor diagram.
d) Calculate IR, then determine IY and IB by inspection.
e) Verify answer in d) by direct computation.

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Solution:
a) VRn = ERn. Thus, Vrn 120V0
0

Since the system is balanced, V yn 120V 120 & Vbn 120V120


0 0

0

b) Since the system is balanced,Vry 3Vrn 30 3 120V 0 30 208V30
0 0

V yb 208V 90 0 & Vbr 208V150 0

c) The phasors are shown below:

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d) The currents:
Vrn 1200 0 1200 0
Ir 8.0 A36.87 0

Z rn 12 j 9 15 36.87 0

I y 8.0 A 36.87 0 1200 8.0 A 83.130
Ib 8.0 A36.87 0
120 8.0 A156.87
0 0

e) Direct calculation:

V yn 120V 120 0
Iy 8.0 A 83.13 0

Z yn 15 36.87 0

Vbn 120V120 0
Ib 8.0 A156.87 0

Z bn 15 36.87 0

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Exercise (Unbalanced Star-Connected System)
For the figure below, VRN = 120V0 0. Calculate the currents, power to each
phase and total power.

Answers:
I r 12 A36.9 0
I y 6 A 156.90
I b 24 A120 0
I n 26.8 A107.2 0

Pr = 1152W
Py = 576W
Pb = 2880W
PT = 4608W

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6. V & I IN DELTA-CONNECTED SYSTEM
In order to get the relationship between line and phase voltages for a delta
circuit, consider the following figure:
VRY = Vry
VYB = Vyb
VBR = Vbr

VBR
VRY

VYB

In order to get the relationships between line and phase currents KCL will be
used. By KCL, at node r:
oIr + Ibr = Iry
oIr = Iry Ibr .. 1

oNow assume a magnitude I for each phase current and take Iry as reference.
The sequence is R-Y-B and the system is balance. Therefore:

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I ry I0 0 Repeat for the other two line currents:
2
I yb I 1200
I br I120 0 Iy = I yb I ry
Iry
0
3I yb 150 Zry
o2 1:
Ir = I ry I br Iyb

= I0 0 I120 0 Zyb
y

= I 1 j0 I 0.5 j0.866 Iy

= I 1.5 j 0.866
= 1.732 I 30 0
= 3I 30 0
Ib = Ibr I yb
= 3I ry 30 0 Ibr
Zbr

3I br 900
Iyb

Ib
Zyb
b

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Conclusion for Voltages and currents in a delta-
connected system :

ILine =
3I Phase Phase 300
IPhase =
I Line

Line 300
3

Phasor Diagram:
Ir =
3I ry ry 300
Iy = 3I
yb yb 30
0

Ib = 3I
br br 30
0

VLine = VPhase
ILine IPhase

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Example (Balanced Delta-Connected System)
For the circuit in the previous slide page, suppose Vry = 240V15 ,
0

Zry = Zyb = Zbr = 12 + j3


a) Determine the phase currents.
b) Determine the line currents.
c) Sketch the phasor diagram.

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Solution:

Vry 24015 0
a) I ry 23.0 A 1.70 0 I yb 23.0 A 121.7 0
Z ry 10 j 3
I br 23.0 A118.30
b) I r 3I ry 30 0 39.8 A 31.7 0
I y 39.8 A 151.7 0
I b 39.8 A88.30

c)

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Exercise (Unbalanced Delta-Connected System)

For the figure below, Vry = 240V0 0. Calculate the currents, power to each
phase and total power.

Answers:
Iry = 9.6 A0 0
Iyb = 20 A 180
0

Ibr = 15 A150
0

Ir = 23.8 A 18.4 0
Iy = 29.6 A180 0
Ib =10.3 A46.9 0

Pry = 2304 W
Pyb = 2400 W
Pbr = 3118 W

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Comparison of star and delta connections
Loads connected in delta dissipate three times more power than
when connected in star to the same supply.

For the same power, the phase currents must be the same for both
delta and star connections (since power = 3 I p 2 R p ). Hence the line
current in delta-connected system is greater than the line current in
the corresponding star-connected system. To achieve the same
phase current in a star-connected system as in a delta-connected
system, the line voltage in the system is 3 times the line voltage in
a delta system.

Thus for a given power transfer, a delta system is associated with


larger line currents (and thus larger conductor cross-sectional area)
and a star system is associated with larger line voltage (and thus
greater insulation).

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7. Power in 3-phase circuit
To find total power in a balanced system,
determined power of one phase, then
multiply by three.
PT 3P 3 V I cos W
For both star &
delta connections

To find total power in an unbalanced system,


determined power of each phase, then sum
all of them.
For both star &
PT PR PY PB delta connections

[VR IR cos R VY IY cos Y VB IB cos B ]W

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For the balanced system, we know that:
PT 3P 3 V I cos W
It is also useful to have a formula in terms of
line quantities:
For a star load For a delta load
x 3
I I L 3
3 3 V VL
VL 3x IL
V 3 I
3 3 3
I L cos W
VL
cos W
IL
PT 3 PT 3 VL
3 3
PT 3 VL I L cos W PT 3 VL I L cos W
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Summary of Power Formulas for
Balanced Star & Delta Circuits

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8. Measurement of power in 3-phase
Systems
Practically, there
are 2 popular
methods

One Wattmeter Two Wattmeter


Method* Method

*Can be 3
wattmeter
method, if weve
3 meters

For star-connected balanced load, with For balanced/unbalanced load, star


neutral point accessible or delta
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One Wattmeter Method

If a wattmeter W is connected with its current


coil in one line and the voltage circuit between
that line and the neutral point, the reading on
the wattmeter gives the power per phase:

Total active power = 3 x wattmeter reading

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Two-Wattmeter Method

Total active power


= Wattmeter 1 reading + Wattmeter 2 reading

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Proof that for Two-Wattmeter Method, PT = W1+ W2:

For Wattmeter 1 For Wattmeter 2

Current through coil of W1 = iR Current through coil of W2 = iB

p.d. across voltage circuit of W1 = VRY p.d. across voltage circuit of W1 = VBY
VRN VYN
VRY By KVL VBY By KVL
VYN VRY = VRN - VYN VBN VBY = VBN - VYN

PW1 = iR ( VRN VYN ) PW2 = iB ( VBN VYN )

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PW1 = iR ( VRN VYN ) PW2 = iB ( VBN VYN )

PT = PW1 + PW2

PT = iR ( VRN VYN ) + iB ( VBN VYN )


= iR VRN + iB VBN - VYN ( iR + iB )

Apply KCL at the neutral junction:

IR + IY + IB = 0

IR + I B = - IY

PT = iR VRN + iB VBN + iY VYN

The sum of the two wattmeter readings gives the total active power under
all conditions.
We only need two wattmeters to read 3-phase active power

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Sometimes, with analog wattmeters, one of the meter
will read backward.
To get an upscale reading, reverse either its voltage
or current connection. Then, put the negative sign in
front of the reading. Example: - 400W
Example:
1. In two-wattmeter method, the readings are 2 kW and 5
kW respectively. What is the total active power?
Ans: 7 kW

2. In two-wattmeter method, the readings are 5 kW and


-2 kW respectively. What is the total active power?
Ans: 3 kW

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For balanced loads at unity power factor, the indications of the two
wattmeters will be identical.
When the load power factor is 50 percent, one meter will indicate
zero and the other will indicate the total three-phase power.
At power factors between 50 and 100 percent, one meter will
indicate higher power than the other.
At power factors lower than 50 percent, the indication on one of the
meters will be negative and the total three-phase power will be the
power indicated by one meter less the negative indicated power of
the other.
At zero power factor, the wattmeters will have identical indications
but of opposite signs, indicating zero power. Thus, there is a definite
ratio of meter indications for each value of circuit power factor.

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From the two-wattmeter method, we can get power
factor by using

Formulas Ratio of wattmeter readings vs PF graph

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1. Formulas:
Detail can be obtained in Hughes reference book, page 664
1
Power Factor = 2
Plow
1 Phigh = The higher of
Phigh the 2 readings
1 3 Plow = The lower of the
Plow
1 2 readings
Phigh

Phigh Plow
tan = 3 Once you get the , PF
P P can be obtained.
high low
PF = cos

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2. Ratio of wattmeter readings vs PF graph:
Obtain Plow
Phigh

Then, use the following graph:

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Example:
The input power to a three-phase motor was measured by the 2-wattmeter
method. The readings were 5.2kW and -1.7kW, and the line voltage was 400V.
Calculate:
a) The total active power
b) The total power factor
c) The line current

Answer:
a) PT = 5.2 + ( -1.7) = 3.5 kW

1 1
b) Use any method; 0.281
2 2
1.7 1 0.3269
1 1 3
1 3 5.2 1 0.3269
1 1.7

5.2

b) PT = 1.73 x IL x VL x cos
3500 = 1.73 x IL x 400 x 0.281 IL= 18A

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Conclusion of Power System Loads

The above figure shows briefly how both single-phase & three-phase maybe
connected to the power system.
Residential and business customers require only single-phase, while industrial
customers sometimes require both.
In order to approximately balance the system, the TNB tries to connect one-
third of its single phase loads to each phase.

Real loads are seldom expressed in term of resistance, capacitance and


inductance. They are describe in terms of power, PF and so on. Eg: 100W bulb,
not 240 bulb!
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