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infrasound ultrasound
frequencies below 20 Hz frequencies above 20,000 Hz
E.g. : elephants, earthquake E.g. : bats, dolphins, dogs
Used in medicine treatment
-bats always have the night
shift -First they emit sound.
-bats are gifted with a system
of locating things with sound
-sound waves bounce on objects and reflect back to the bat
-time taken for the sound waves to reach the strawberry and return
back to the bats ear tells it how far the strawberry is
Transducer use as sensor/detector
There is a special material in transducer probe called a "piezo
electric crystal". This material has a very special property.
Expands when a voltage is applied to an piezo electric
crystal it expands and transmit.
Compressed switches to listening mode (listen the
ultrasound waves that return back)
If the voltage is rapidly applied and removed repeatedly, the
piezo electric crystal rapidly expands and relaxes, creating
ultrasound waves.
The above examples show only one crystal.
In reality, ultrasound probes are composed of a large number
of individual piezo electric crystals.
Air is the enemy of ultrasound
Ultrasound waves tend to reflect strongly wherever air meets
biological tissue.
If there is even a small bubble between the probe and the
patients skin, the ultrasound waves will be reflected away
instead of penetrating the skin.
On the other hand, ultrasound travels very easily through
For this reason, it is common to use a thick liquid ( jelly )
between the probe and the patients skin.
The thick liquid helps to keep away air bubbles and allows
easy passage of the ultrasound wave
1. refraction

2. reflection
Waves become thinner when penetrating tissues
What will alter the act of ultrasound waves?
- different density of tissues
Refraction - slightly bent away when continues into
the second substance (pink arrow).

Reflected - the wave (blue arrow) is reflected back
to the probe
difference of density, amount of ultrasound
many reflected waves probe image
Strong reflections = white dots
- diaphragm, gallstones, bone
Weaker reflections = grey dots
- most solid organs, thick fluid
No reflections = black dots
- fluid within a cyst, urine, blood
Note: d = VT/2
Almighty Allah says, (Verily, Allah! With Him (Alone) is the
knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows
that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will
earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will
die. Verily, Allah is All Knower, All Aware (of
things).) (Luqman 31: 34)
Allah gives man His guidance to think and to create the
ultrasound machine for man to know the Greatness of Allah in
mans creation.