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Chapter 4

Elements and Compounds

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Write formulae to represent ions and molecules
Write balanced equations including state symbols
to represent chemical reactions referred to in the
syllabus
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
An element
When mercuric oxide is heated, it
decomposes into oxygen and
mercury.
However, both oxygen and mercury
cannot be broken down into
anything simpler. An element is a substance which
cannot be broken down into any
Oxygen and mercury are examples simpler substances by chemical
means.
of elements.
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Elements
Elements are the fundamental building blocks of matter
in our universe.
There are about 92 natural elements and more than 10
man-made elements.
Each element has a name and a chemical symbol.
A list of elements with their symbols is given in the
Periodic Table.
The Periodic Table of the Elements
http://www.chemicool.com/
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Atoms of elements
An element is made up of only
one kind of atom.
For example, gold is made up of
only gold atoms.
Oxygen is made up of molecules
each consisting of two oxygen
atoms, while ozone is made up of
molecules each containing three
oxygen atoms.
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Metals and non-metals
Elements can be classified into metals and
non-metals.
Metals are usually hard and shiny. They
are malleable and ductile and are good Copper: a metal

conductors of heat and electricity.


Non-metals are usually soft and brittle, and
are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
There are more metals than non-metals.
Sulphur: a non- metal
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Quick check 1
1. Magnesium is an element. Explain what this
statement means.
2. A piece of copper can be broken down into very tiny
pieces, hence copper is not an element. Explain what
is wrong with this statement.
3. Give the symbol for each of the following elements.
State whether it is a metal or non-metal.
(a) Mercury, (b) Lead, (c) Silver,
(d) Chlorine, (e) Strontium, (f) Tungsten.
Solution
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Solution to Quick Check 1
1. Magnesium is an element because it cannot be broken down into
simpler substances. Magnesium is made up of magnesium atoms
and nothing else.
2. A piece of copper can be broken down into very tiny pieces but
each tiny piece of copper is still made up of only copper atoms,
hence copper is an element.
3. (a) Mercury: Hg (metal), (b) Lead: Pb (metal), (c) Silver: Ag (metal),
(d) Chlorine: Cl (non-metal), (e) Strontium: Sr (metal),
(f) tungsten: W (metal).

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Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
A Compound
Mercuric oxide is not an element because it is made
up of mercury and oxygen.
It is called a compound.

A compound is a substance made up of two or more


elements chemically combined together.

Element + Element Compound


Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Atoms of compounds
A compound is made up of molecules.
A molecule of a compound is made up of two or
more different types of atoms chemically joined
together.

water molecules carbon dioxide methane molecules


molecules
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Formulae of compounds
As a compound has a fixed composition,
it can be represented by a formula.
The formula of a compound shows:
the symbols of the elements present
the ratio of the atoms present
For example, water has the formula H2O. H2O
shows 2 hydrogen atoms
and 1 oxygen atom
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Formulae of some compounds
Compound Formula Ratio of atoms

Carbon dioxide CO2 1 carbon atom with 2


oxygen atoms
Methane CH4 1 carbon atom with 4
hydrogen atoms
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 2 hydrogen atoms with
1 sulphur atom and 4
oxygen atoms
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 1 magnesium atom
with 2 oxygen atoms
and 2 hydrogen atoms
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Valency of an element
To help us write chemical formulae more easily, we can
use the valency of an element.
The valency of an element can be treated as the
combining power of an element.
The valency of an element is related to the electronic
structure of the atom and the Group number of the
element in the Periodic Table.
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Valencies of some common elements (metals)
Metal Valency Symbol (cation)
(Hydrogen) 1 H+
Sodium 1 Na+
Potassium 1 K+
Copper(I) 1 Cu+
Calcium 2 Ca2+
Magnesium 2 Mg2+
Zinc 2 Zn2+
Copper(II) 2 Cu2+
Iron(II) 2 Fe2+
Aluminium 3 Al3+
Iron(III) 3 Fe3+
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Valencies of some common elements
(non-metals)
Non-metal Valency Symbol (anion)
Chlorine 1 Cl

Bromine 1 Br

Iodine 1 I

Oxygen 2 O2

Sulphur 2 S2

Nitrogen 3 N3
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Valencies of some group atoms
Name Valency Symbol

Ammonium 1 NH4+

Hydroxide 1 OH

Nitrate 1 NO3

Hydrogen carbonate 1 HCO3

Sulphate 2 SO42

Carbonate 2 CO32
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Writing formulae
Metals (or cations) can react with non-metals (or anions).
When a formula is formed, the positive charges of the cation
have to be balanced by the negative charges of the anion.
The total charge of a neutral compound must be zero.
Examples:
1. Sodium chloride: Na+ + Cl NaCl
2. Copper(II) oxide: Cu2+ + O2 MgO
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Writing formula
Example 3: magnesium chloride
Mg2+ + (Cl)x 2 MgCl2

Example 4: aluminium oxide


(Al3+)x2 + (O2)x3 Al2O3

Example 5: ammonium sulphate


(NH4+)x2 + (SO42) (NH4)2SO4
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Quick check 3
Write the formula for each of the following compounds:
Name Formula
Sodium bromide
Potassium sulphate
Calcium hydrogen carbonate
Magnesium nitrate
Copper(I) oxide
Copper(II) carbonate
Iron(II) chloride
Iron(III) chloride
Aluminium sulphate Solution
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Solution to Quick check 3
Name Formula
Sodium bromide NaBr
Potassium sulphate K2SO4
Calcium hydrogen carbonate Ca(HCO3)2
Magnesium nitrate Mg(NO3)2
Copper(I) oxide Cu2O
Copper(II) carbonate CuCO3
Iron(II) chloride FeCl2
Iron(III) chloride FeCl3
Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3
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Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Writing chemical equations
Word equation Mercury + oxygen mercuric oxide
[ Reactants ] [ product ]

A chemical equation tells us what chemical changes take


place during a reaction.
It tells us what the reactants (things that react) and what the
products (things that are formed) are.
A chemical equation must be balanced.
This means that the total number and types of atoms on the
right side of the equation must be equal to those on the left
side of the equation. This is because atoms cannot be
created or destroyed.
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Writing chemical equations
Mercury + oxygen mercuric oxide
Step 1: Write down the chemical formula for each
reactant and product:
Hg + O2 HgO

Step 2: Count the number of atoms on each side of


the equation:
Left side: 1 Hg atom + 2 O atoms
Right side: 1 Hg atom + 1 O atom
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Balancing chemical equations
The equation is not balanced because the right side has
1 less oxygen atom.
Step 3: To balance the equation, add 2 in front of HgO,
and again count the number of atoms on both
sides of the equation:
Hg + O2 2 HgO
Left side: 1 Hg atom + 2 O atoms
Right side: 2 Hg atoms + 2 O atoms

The equation is still not balanced because the left side


has 1 less mercury atom.
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Writing chemical equations
Step 4: To balance the equation, add 2 in front of Hg,
and again count the number of atoms on both
sides of the equation:
2 Hg + O2 2 HgO
Left side: 2 Hg atom + 2 O atoms
Right side: 2 Hg atoms + 2 O atoms

The equation is now correctly balanced.


2 Hg + O2 2 HgO
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
State symbols in chemical equations
The state symbols tell us the physical states of the reactants
and products in a chemical reaction.
(s) solid state
(l) liquid state
(g) gaseous state
(aq) aqueous state (solution in water)

E.g. Write a balanced chemical equation, with state symbols, for the
reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and limestone chips (calcium
carbonate).
2 HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Quick check 4
1. Balance the following chemical equations by writing
numbers in the blank spaces provided:
a) __ Ca + __ O2 __ CaO
b) __ N2 + __ H2 __ NH3
c) __ C2H4 + __ O2 __ CO2 + __ H2O
d) __ Mg + __ Fe2O3 __ MgO + __ Fe
e) __ NH3 + __ O2 __ N2 + __ H2O
f) __ Pb(NO3)2 __ PbO + __ NO2 + __ O2
g) __ KClO3 __ KCl + __ O2
h) __ CaCl2 + __ Na2CO3 __ CaCO3 + __ NaCl
Solution
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Quick check 4
2. Write balanced chemical equations with state symbols
for the following word equations:
a) Magnesium + Oxygen Magnesium oxide
b) Hydrogen + Oxygen Water
c) Mercuric(II) oxide Mercury + Oxygen
d) Sodium + Oxygen Sodium oxide
e) Ammonia + Sulphuric acid Ammonium sulphate
f) Ammonium chloride + Sodium hydroxide Sodium chloride + water + ammonia
g) Zinc + Hydrochloric acid Zinc chloride + hydrogen

Solution
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Solution to Quick check 4
Q1.

a) 2_Ca + __ O2 2_ CaO
b) __ N2 + 3_H2 2_ NH3
c) __ C2H4 + 3_O2 2_CO2 + 2_H2O
d) 3 Mg + __ Fe2O3 3_ MgO + 2_ Fe
e) 4_NH3 + 3_O2 2_N2 + 6 H2O
f) 2_ Pb(NO3)2 2_PbO + 4_ NO2 + __ O2
g) 2_ KClO3 2_KCl + 3_O2
h) __ CaCl2 + __ Na2CO3 __ CaCO3 + 2_NaCl Return
Chapter 4
Elements and Compounds
Solution to Quick check 4
Q2.

a) 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)


b) 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)
c) 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g)
d) 4Na(s) + O2(g) 2Na2O(s)
e) 2NH3(g) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
f) NH4Cl(s) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + NH3(g)
g) Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

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