Você está na página 1de 142

Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Section 2

Steam Power Plants

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 1


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Steam Power Plants


Rankine cycle
Generation
Expansion
Condensation
Regeneration
Feed

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 2


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Rankine Cycle

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 3


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle

Stack

Combustion gases
To stack
Electric
Turbine generator
Boiler
Cooled tower
Fuel Condenser

Air Warm water

Pump Cooled water


Feedwater pump Makeup water

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 4


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


The Rankine Cycle is the most widely used cycle for
power generation

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 5


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Four Processes
1. Line 1-2 or 1-2. Reversible adiabatic expansion
through the turbine.
2. Line 2-3 or 2-3. Constant-temperature/constant-
pressure heat rejection in the condenser.
3. Line 3-4. Reversible adiabatic compression by the
pump.
4. Line 4-1 or 4-1. Constant-pressure heat addition in
the steam generator.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 6


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Four Processes

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 7


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Four Processes

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 8


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Thermodynamic Analysis
Heat added qA h1 h4 Btu/lb m (or J/kg)
Turbine work wT h1 h2 Btu/lb m (or J/kg)
Heat rejected qR h2 h3 Btu/lb m (or J/kg)
Pump work wP h4 h3 Btu/lb m (or J/kg)

Net work w net (h1 h2 ) - (h4 h3 ) Btu/lb m (or J/kg)

wnet (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 )


Thermal Efficiency nTH
qA (h1 h4 )
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 9
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
wnet (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 )
Thermal Efficiency nTH
qA (h1 h4 )

Cycle efficiency can be improved by either:


Increasing the average temperature during heat
addition (Tin).
Decreasing the condenser temperature (Tout).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 10


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Increase the amount of superheat (41)

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 11


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Disadvantages:
Amount of superheating is limited by metallurgical
considerations of the turbine (T1 < 670C). Added
benefit is that the quality of the steam at the turbine
exit is higher.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 12


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Ideal Rankine Cycle with Superheat

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 13


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Increase boiler pressure (4 1)

Increased
boiler pressure

Fixed
condenser pressure

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 14


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Disadvantages:
Requires more robust equipment.
Vapor quality at 2 lower than at 2.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 15


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency
Decrease Condenser Pressure (2 3)

Fixed boiler pressure

Decreased
condenser pressure




Ambient temperature

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 16


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle

Increasing Rankine Cycle Efficiency


Decrease Condenser Pressure (2 3)
Tout is limited to the temperature of the cooling
medium (e.g., lake at 15C need 10C temperature
difference for heat transfer so Tout > 25C)

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 17


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat
Reheat improves the cycle efficiency!!

Load
Low-
High-pressure Pressure
turbine turbine
Super Reheater
heater

Boiler

Economizer
Condenser
Pamo

Rankine Cycle with Superheat and Reheat


Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 18
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat
The cycle superheats and reheats the vapour.
The vapour in the reheat cycle at point 1 is expanded
in the high-pressure turbine to point 2.
The vapour is returned back to the steam generator
where it is reheated at constant pressure (ideally) to
a temperature near at point 1.
The reheated steam now enters the low pressure
turbine where it expands to the condenser pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 19


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 20


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat
Ideal Rankine Cycle with Reheat

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 21


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat

Turbine work wT (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 )


Pump work wP h6 h5

Net work w net (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) - (h6 h5 )

wnet (h1 h2 ) (h3 h4 ) (h6 h5 )


nTH
qA (h1 h6 ) (h3 h2 )

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 22


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

The Rankine Cycle


Reheat
The reheat pressure P2 affects the cycle efficiency.
If the reheat pressure P2 is too close to the initial
pressure P1, the increase in cycle efficiency is minimal
because only a small portion of heat is added at high
temperature.
The optimum reheat efficiency is reached when P2/P1
is between 20-25 percent.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 23


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 24


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler
Transfers heat by convection or radiation to tubes
then by conduction through the tubes to water.
Water is heated in multiple tubes exposed to the hot
gases.
The tubes are joined to a steam collector chamber at
the top (Drum).
Water is heated to the point of creating steam,
saturated steam collected in the steam drum.
Pressure is at 160 bar in steam drum, temp is 300C.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 25


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 26


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler
There are two basic types of boilers:
1. Firetube boilers - Combustion gases pass inside
boiler tubes, and heat is transferred to water on
the shell side.
2. Watertube boilers - Boiler water passes through
tubes while the exhaust gases remain in the shell
side, passing over the tube surfaces.
Although firetube boilers account for the majority
sales in terms of Units, watertube boilers account for
the majority of boiler capacity.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 27


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Firetube Boilers
Firetube boilers contain relatively large amounts of
water, which enables them to respond to load changes
with relatively little change in pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 28


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Firetube Boilers Inspection holes
Front reversing chamber
Boiler body
Inspection doors

Flue-gas-outlet

Smoke tubes

Rear reversing chamber


Insulation
Boiler stools
Fire-tube Steel bed frame

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 29


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Firetube Boilers
However, firetube boilers require more time to
initiate steaming and more time to accommodate
changes in pressure.
In addition, the large shell surface area, limits the
amount of pressure they can generate.
Operating pressure for firetube boilers is up to 21 bar
and capacity over 1500 horsepower (50000 lbs/hr).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 30


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Firetube Boilers

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 31


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Watertube Boilers
Watertube boilers are used where high steam
pressures (210 bar or higher) are required, since
tubes can withstand high internal pressures.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 32


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Watertube Boilers
Watertube boilers have high efficiencies and can
generate saturated or superheated steam.
The ability of watertube boilers to generate
superheated steam makes them attractive to
applications that require dry, high-pressure, high-
energy steam, including steam turbine power
generation.
The performance characteristics of watertube boilers
make them highly favorable in process industries,
including chemical manufacturing, pulp and paper
manufacturing, and refining.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 33
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Economizer
Before water gets to Steam Drum, it goes through the
Economizer.
It uses the thermal energy normally wasted and going
up the stack (transfers sensible heat from boiler
exhaust gases to incoming feedwater).
Prevents thermal shock to boiler components.
Adds about 140 degrees.
Actually considered part of the Feed Phase.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 34


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Economizer
Feedwater
tank Chimney

Economiser
Feedwater line

Feedwater line
Feedwater line

Boiler

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 35


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Fuel System
There are many different types of fuels used in
boilers, requiring several different types of fuel
handling systems.
Fossil fuel such as coal, oil, and gas are most
commonly used.
Waste fuels are used in many industries, particularly
the forest products, petroleum refining, and chemical
manufacturing industries where there is an available
supply of waste products such as bark, wood chips,
black liquor, and refinery gas.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 36


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Fuel System
Fuel Regulating Valve
In gaseous and liquid fuels, regulating valves
control the fuel delivered to the boiler.
In many systems these valves can be quickly shut
in response to an operating problem.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 37


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Fuel System
Fuel
The fuel types that are commonly used in boilers
include:
Natural gas
Coal
Propane
Fuel oils
Waste fuels
Fuel type significantly affects boiler operation,
including efficiency, emissions and operating cost.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 38
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Fuel System
Fuel Flow Meter
Fuel meters measure the amount of fuel delivered
to the boiler.
They provide essential data in determining boiler
efficiency.
Since the fuel flow meters measure volume or
mass of fuel, it is important to know the energy
content of the fuel when determining boiler
efficiency.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 39


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Fuel System
Burner
Burners combine the fuel and air to initiate
combustion.
There are different types of burners due to the
many different types of fuels.
Different burners have different performance
characteristics and control requirements.
Some are on/off while others allow the precise
fuel air mixture over a range of conditions.
Some burners can fire different types of fuels,
allowing boiler operation to continue despite the
loss of one fuel supply.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 40
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Blowdown System
The boiler blowdown system includes the valves and
the controls of the continuous blowdown and bottom
blowdown services.
Continuous blowdown removes a specific amount of
boiler water (often measured in terms of percentage
of feedwater flow) in order to maintain a desired
level of total dissolved solids in the boiler.
Setting the flow for continuous blowdown is typically
done in conjunction with the water treatment
program.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 41


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Blowdown System
Some continuous blowdown systems rely on the input
of sensors that detect the level of dissolved solids in
the boiler water.
The bottom blowdown is performed to remove
particulates and sludge from the bottom of the boiler.
Bottom blowdowns are periodic and are typically
performed a certain number of times per shift or
according to a set schedule.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 42


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Blowdown System
In some systems bottom blowdowns are controlled by
an automatic timer.
Bottom blowdown should never be permitted unless it
is recommended by the manufacturer.
This because in higher pressure boilers, especially
those above 50 bars, bottom blowdown may cause
water starvation in some portions of the boiler circuit.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 43


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Blowdown System
Boiler Blowdown Heat Exchangers and Flash Tank
Before the high energy blowdown water is
discharged into the environment, it is often sent to
a heat exchanger and flash tank.
Flash tanks permit the recovery of low-pressure
flash steam, which can be used in deaeration or
process heating.
They also permit the use of a smaller heat
exchanger than would be required without the
flash tank.
Such heat exchangers are most often used to
preheat boiler makeup water.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 44
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Blowdown System
Boiler Blowdown Heat Exchangers and Flash Tank
Air vent Vacuum breaker
Flash steam
Atmospheric daereator head
Make-up water
Condensate return

Pressure
gauge
Blowdown
Boiler feedtank
Flash vessel

To boiler feedpump

Residual blowdown

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 45


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air System
The combustion air system supplies the oxygen
necessary for the combustion reaction.
To provide enough air for the amount of fuel used in
industrial boilers, fans are typically used.
Dampers, inlet valves, or variable speed drives
typically control the amount of air allowed into the
boiler.
In a simple-cycle plant, air is delivered to the boiler
by one or more FD fans and the products of
combustion are extracted from it by ID fans.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 46


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air System
Forced Draft Fan
A forced draft fan is located at the inlet of a boiler
and pushes ambient air into the burner region,
ensuring that adequate air is delivered to the
combustion process.
These fans either pull air directly from the boiler
room or connect to a duct system that allows
outside air to be drawn into the boiler.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 47


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air System
Induced Draft Fan
Induced draft fans are located on the outlet gas
side of the boiler and pull free gases out.
The induced draft fan creates a slightly negative
furnace pressure that is controlled by outlet
dampers on the boiler.
In some systems where a bag house, mechanical
collector, or precipitator is involved, special
considerations should be given in sizing and
selection of this fan.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 48


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air System
Dampers
Dampers control the amount of air into and out of
a combustion chamber.
Dampers, in combination with fuel regulating
devices, are positioned by the combustion control
system to achieved fuel:air ratios.
Dampers on the boiler outlet are used to regulate
the negative furnace pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 49


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
This similar to the economizer in that it is used to
transfer energy from the flue gases back into the
system.
In this device, however, the energy is transferred to
the incoming combustion air.
Heating combustion air can raise boiler efficiency
about 1% for every 40C in temperature increase.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 50


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater

Combustion Air Flue Gas


(to boiler) (from boiler)

Inlet Air to stack

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 51


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary Regenerative (Ljungstrom)
The Ljungstrom regenerative air preheater, has a
slow-turning rotor that is packed with closely
spaced heat transfer surfaces, similar to an
automobile radiator.
The rotor turns in the gas streams, picking up heat
from the flue gas and transferring it to the
combustion air.
The element temperatures generally operate
about halfway between the flue gas and air
temperatures.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 52
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary Regenerative (Ljungstrom)

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 53


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary Regenerative (Ljungstrom)
Advantages
Smaller footprint and lighter structure, which
usually results in lower installed cost.
Replaceable heat transfer surfaces. Elements are
designed in pie-shaped "baskets" which are
relatively easy and economic to replace and
maintain performance.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 54


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary Regenerative (Ljungstrom)
Disadvantages
Has seals that leak, and leakage generally
increases with time.
Normal, as-built leakage to be expected is about
15%.
This can limit the lowest cold-end temperature
achievable, especially if cold-end corrosion is a
concern due to firing sulphur-bearing fuels.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 55


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary regenerative (Ljungstrom)
Disadvantages
Due to air-leakage, the potential for fires may be
greater.
If poor combustion occurs in the fired heater,
unburned combustibles may accumulate in the air
preheater.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 56


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Combustion Air Preheater
Rotary Regenerative (Ljungstrom)
Disadvantages

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 57


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Superheater
Gives additional thermal energy to steam, resulting in
a steam temperature that exceeds the saturation
temperature at a given pressure to produce a very
"dry" steam with absolutely no water vapour.
Additional tubes above the collector in the upper
portion of the hot gas exhaust.
Steam is now at 950oC, the highest temperature in the
system.
Minimizes erosion to blading and corrosion.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 58


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Superheater
Saturated steam
Stack
Superheated steam

Superheater pendant

Heat Water tube boiler

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 59


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Boiler control systems are designed to protect the
boiler and ensure proper boiler operation.
These systems include the following subsystems:
Combustion Control System
Flame Safeguard System
Water Level Control
Fuel Control

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 60


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation Steam from boiler

Steam
Boiler Control System flow
transmitter
Feed water
Control valve Water level Level
transmitter
Feed water

Feed water
flow
transmitter

Differential
relay

Desired P+1
value controller

Auto/manual
selector

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 61


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Combustion Control System
Manages fuel-air mixture to achieve safe and
efficient combustion.
Maintains steam system pressure.
Simple systems use linkage between the fuel-
regulating valve and the combustion air damper
(single point positioning).
A change in steam pressure results in a
proportional change in the combustion air and
fuel.
Advanced systems rely on signals from transmitters
to determine independent fuel valve and air
damper positions (Full monitoring system).
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 62
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Burner Flame Safeguard System
An arrangement of flame detection systems,
interlocks and relays which will sense the presence
of a proper flame in a surface and cause fuel to be
shut off if a hazardous condition develops.
Modern combustion systems are closely interlocked
with flame safeguard systems and also pressure-
limit switches, low-water level cutoffs, and other
safety controls that will stop the energy input to
the boiler when an unsafe condition develops.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 63


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Burner Flame Safeguard System
The flame safeguard system senses the presence of
a good flame or proper combustion and programs
the operation of a burner system, so that motors,
blowers, ignition, and fuel valves are energised
only when they are needed and then in proper
sequence.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 64


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Safety Shutoff Valves
Safety shutoff valves isolate the fuel supply in
response to certain conditions such as low or high
gas pressure or satisfied load demand.
The type of safety shutoff valves and the settings
are often determined by code or insurance
requirements.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 65


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Water Level Control
The boiler level control system ensures a safe
water level in the boiler.
The control system provides a signal to the
feedwater control valve to regulate the feed rate.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 66


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Water Level Control

Interface unit
Capacitance
Level probe
Controller
Boiler

Feedwater control valve


Spillback

Blowdown
Feedwater pump

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 67


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Water Level Control
Simple water level control systems sense only the
water level (single element systems).
More complex systems incorporate additional data
such as steam flow rate (dual element system) and
feedwater flow (triple element system) and will
provide better water level control during abrupt
load changes.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 68


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Water Level Control

Interface unit
Capacitance
Level probe

Controller
Boiler
Steam
flowmeter

Feedwater control valve


Spillback

Blowdown
Feedwater pump

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 69


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Safety Valve
The safety valve is the most important valve on
the boiler.
It keeps the boiler from exceeding its maximum
allowable working pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 70


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Pressure Control
Steam pressure controls regulate the combustion
equipment to maintain a constant pressure in the
steam header.
As the pressure rises above or falls below the
pressure setting, the control adjusts the burner
firing rate to bring the pressure back to the
setpoint.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 71


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Nonreturn Valve
The nonreturn valve is a combination shutoff and
check valve that allows steam out of the boiler,
but prevents backflow from the steam header in
the event the boiler pressure drops below that of
the header.
The valve is opened only when the pressure inside
the boiler rises slightly above the steam header
pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 72


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter
Steam flow meters can provide useful data in
assessing boiler performance, calculating boiler
efficiency, and tracking the amount of steam
required by the system.
In some systems, steam flow meters provide
measurement signal for the boiler control system.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 73


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter
There are three basic types of steam flowmeters:
Differential Pressure (DP)
Vortex
Coriolis

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 74


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Differential Pressure (DP)
In simple terms the pipeline fluid is passed through
a restriction, and the pressure differential is
measured across that restriction.
Based on the work of Daniel Bernoulli in 1738, the
relationship between the velocity of fluid passing
through the orifice is proportional to the square
root of the pressure loss across it.
Flow rate is calculated by taking the difference
between upstream and downstream pressures.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 75


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Differential Pressure (DP)

Tab
handle

Orifice
plate
Measuring
orifice

Drain
orifice

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 76


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Differential Pressure (DP)
With an orifice plate flowmeter, the restriction is
in the form of a plate which has a hole concentric
with the pipeline. This is referred to as the
primary element.
To measure the differential pressure when the
fluid is flowing, connections are made from the
upstream and downstream pressure tappings, to a
secondary device known as a DP (Differential
Pressure) cell.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 77


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Differential Pressure (DP)
Orifice plate

Vena contracta
Orifice diameter
diameter

Upstream pressure Upstream pressure


trapping trapping
DP (Differential pressure) cell

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 78


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Differential Pressure (DP)
From the DP cell, the information may be fed to a
simple flow indicator, or to a flow computer along
with temperature and/or pressure data, which
enables the system to compensate for changes in
fluid density.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 79


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation Orifice plate


Pressure sensor
(for compensation)

Boiler Control
System
Steam Flow Meter Temperature sensor
(for compensation)

Differential Pressure Impulse lines

(DP)
Differential
pressure
cell

Flow computer

Local readout

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 80


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Turbine Flow meters
The primary element consists of a multi-bladed
rotor which is mounted at right angles to the flow
and suspended in the fluid stream on a free-
running bearing.
The diameter of the rotor is slightly less than the
inside diameter of the flowmetering chamber, and
its speed of rotation is proportional to the
volumetric flow rate.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 81


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Turbine Flow meters
Output to pulse counter

Pulse pick-up

Flow

Supporting web Rotor Bearings

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 82


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Turbine Flow meters
In larger pipelines, to minimise cost, the turbine
element can be installed in a pipework bypass, or
even for the flowmeter body to incorporate a
bypass or shunt.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 83


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Turbine Flow meters

Air bleed

Bypass
Turbine

Orifice
Flow Plate
(restriction)

Output

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 84


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Vortex
These flowmeters utilise the fact that when a non-
streamlined or bluff body is placed in a fluid flow,
regular vortices are shed from the rear of the
body.
These vortices can be detected, counted and
displayed.
Over a range of flows, the rate of vortex shedding
is proportional to the flow rate, and this allows the
velocity to be measured.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 85
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Boiler Control System
Steam Flow Meter Vortex

Vortex shedder

Vortex shedder

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 86


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Automatic Boiler Control System
Automatic Combustion Control System (ACC)
Feedwater Control System (FWC)
Main feed pump differential pressure control system

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 87


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Automatic Boiler Control System
Automatic combustion control system (ACC)
Used to maintain the boiler steam-drum pressure
constant during steady and changing steam
conditions.
Measures (steam drum pressure).
Compares (actual pressure to desired).
Computes (error signal).
Corrects (air and fuel flow to furnace).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 88


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Automatic Boiler Control System
Feedwater Control System (FWC)
Regulates the supply of feedwater sent to the
boiler for use in steam production.
Measures (feedwater flow, steam flow, drum
water level).
Compares (actual level to desired level).
Computes (error signal).
Corrects (feedwater flow via feedwater control
valves).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 89


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Automatic Boiler Control System
Feedwater Control System (FWC)
Steam
flow
Water Feedwater
flow valve

Three-element
module
Drum
level
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 90
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Generation
Automatic Boiler Control System
Main feed pump differential pressure control system
Ensures that the feedwater-supply pressure is
maintained at a constant value above the steam
drum pressure.
Measures (BFP-Boiler Feed Pump discharge
pressure/Steam drum pressure).
Compares (Differential Pressure).
Computes (error signal).
Corrects (alters BFP speed via hydraulic coupling
or frequency converter).
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 91
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Expansion

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 92


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Expansion

Turbine
Thermal energy to kinetic Energy (nozzles).
Kinetic energy to mechanical work (blades).
HP-High Pressure Turbine designed to efficiently utilize
the high pressure steam.
LP-Low Pressure Turbine (in series with HP Turbine)
utilizes remaining steam pressure.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 93


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Expansion
Turbine

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 94


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Expansion
Turbine
High pressure/low pressure turbines- convert thermal
energy to mechanical energy by running the steam
through a series of nozzles and blades.
The HP turbine is optimized for the higher energy
gases and the LP turbine (which is in series with the HP
turbine) utilizes lower pressure gases to get the most
out of the steam
The whole system is based on maximizing the pressure
difference between the steam leaving the boiler and
the steam exiting the LP turbine.
This is accomplished by operating the condenser at a
high vacuum which is in turn caused by the air ejectors
and the condensing action.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 95
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 96


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
1. It converts the used steam back into water for return
to the steam generator or boiler as feedwater. This
lowers the operational cost of the plant by allowing
the clean and treated condensate to be reused.
2. It increases the cycles efficiency by allowing the
cycle to operate with the largest possible delta-T and
delta-P between the source (boiler) and the heat sink
(condenser).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 97


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 98


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
After doing its work in the turbine, the exhausted
steam exiting the low pressure turbines contacts
condenser tube bundles which have cooling water
circulating through them.
This condenses the steam back to water, so rapidly
that it creates a partial vacuum of (40-50mbar) in the
condenser.
The vacuum in effect creates a force which sucks the
steam from the last stages of the turbines.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 99


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 100


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
From the bottom of the condenser, powerful pumps
(condensate extraction pumps) force the condensate
back to the feedwater heaters to restart the cycle.
This essential cooling process requires large quantities
of water; thus, most steam-electric stations are
located on lakes or rivers.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 101


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
The condenser tubes are made of brass or stainless
steel to resist corrosion from either side. Nevertheless
they may become internally fouled during operation
by bacteria or algae in the cooling water, or by
mineral scaling, all of which inhibit heat transfer and
reduce thermodynamic efficiency.
Many systems include an automatic cleaning system
which circulates sponge rubber balls through the
tubes to scrub them clean without needing to take the
system off-line.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 102


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
After the steam condenses the saturated liquid
continues to transfer heat to the cooling water as it
falls to the bottom of the condenser, or hotwell.
This is called subcooling, and a certain amount is
desirable, since a few degrees subcooling prevents
condensate pump cavitation.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 103


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
The Condenser
BAFFLE AND TUBE
SUPPORT PLATES
EXHAUST STEAM AIR OUTLET
INLET

COOLING
WATER
INLET

COOLING
WATER HOT WELL
CONDENSATE OUTLET
DISCHARGE

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 104


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Main Condensate Extraction Pump
Condensate pumps move condensate from receiver
tanks (condenser) back to the boiler.
Normally electric-driven.
Non-positive displacement.
Located below hotwell to provide sufficient Net
Positive Suction Head (NPSH) to prevent cavitation!!!

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 105


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Main Condensate Extraction Pump

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 106


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
The condenser vacuum should be maintained in order
to allow maximum expansion of the steam, and
therefore, maximum work.
If the condenser were perfectly air-tight, it would be
necessary only to condense the steam and remove the
condensate to create and maintain a vacuum.
It is however, impossible to prevent the entrance of
air and other noncondensable gases into the
condenser.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 107


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
This necessitates the use of air ejectors or vacuum
pumps to establish and help maintain condenser
vacuum.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 108


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
Air ejectors are essentially jet pumps.
High pressure steam flows through the nozzle and the
condenser gases flow around the nozzle into the
throat of the diffuser.
The high velocity steam enters the diffuser where its
molecules strike other molecules. These are carried
along with other molecules, creating a low pressure
area around the mouth of the nozzle.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 109


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
This low pressure area will draw more gases from
around the nozzle into the throat of the diffuser.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 110


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
Steam ejectors are supplied steam either from the
boiler (auxiliary steam) or from a bleed point in the
turbine.
Steam ejectors are normally cooled by condensate
returning to the boiler. The steam ejectors thus
preheat the condensate.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 111


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Condensation
Steam Ejectors
VENT TO AFTER- SECOND-STAGE FIRST-STAGE
ATMOSPHERE CONDENSER AIR EJECTOR AIR EJECTOR
(VIA EXHAUST FAN)
AUX. STEAM
GLAND 150 TO
EXHAUST 275 RS.I
STEAM VENT EXHAUST

MAIN
TO
CONDENSER
DEAERATING
29HG
TANK

GLAND
EXHAUST
DRAIN INTER
CONDENSER
CONDENSER
26 HG
CONDENSATE
VAPOR
LOOP CONDENSATE
STEAM
SEAL PUMP

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 112


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 113


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration

A great deal of irreversibilities occur prior to the point


of boiling (point 4 at the economiser). This
irreversibility can be eliminated if the liquid is added
to the steam generator at point B instead of point 4.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 114


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration

The process of regeneration


achieves this objective by
exchanging heat between the
expanding fluid in the turbine
and the compressed fluid before
heat addition.

External irreversibility with Rankine Cycle


Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 115
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Feedwater Heating
Feed water heating is accomplished by heating the
compressed liquid in a number of finite steps in heat
exchangers (feedwater heaters) by steam that is bled
from the turbine at selected stages.
Three types of feedwater heaters:
1. Open or direct-contact type
2. Closed type with drains cascaded backward
3. Closed type with drains pumped forward.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 116


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Feedwater Heating

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 117


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Feedwater Heating
Normally, modern power plants use one open type
feedwater heater and between four and seven other
heaters.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 118


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Open or Direct-Contact Feedwater Heaters
The extraction steam is mixed directly with the
incoming subcooled water in the open or direct-
contact feedwater heater.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 119


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Open or Direct-Contact Feedwater Heaters

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 120


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Closed-type feedwater heater with drains cascaded
backward
Most commonly used type of feedwater heater in
power plants.
Shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
Feedwater pass through tubes
Bled steam passes energy to the feedwater to the
shell side as it condenses.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 121


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Closed-type feedwater heater with drains cascaded
backward

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 122


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Closed-type feedwater heater with drains cascaded
backward

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 123


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
The Deaerator
Oxygen in water entering the boiler can lead to boiler
corrosion.
A deaerator (sometimes called a deaerating heater)
takes advantage of the fact that the solubility of
oxygen in water decreases as the water gets hotter.
The oxygen is removed by spraying the untreated
boiler water onto trays in the deaerator, where it
makes intimate contact with steam rising through the
tray.
The steam heats the water while stripping the oxygen.
Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 124
Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
The Deaerator

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 125


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Impact on Efficiency
Turbine work decreases for the same mass-flow rate
because of reduced turbine mass flow rate after
bleeding.
Pump work increases.
The decrease in required heat addition in the steam
generator makes up more than the loss on net work.
Significant improvement in efficiency, which increases
with the number of feedwater heaters.
Maximum number of feedwater heaters is eight.
Beyond that there is little increase in efficiency to
justify the capital cost of the investment.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 126


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Impact on Efficiency

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 127


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
Impact on Efficiency

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 128


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Regeneration
REHEATER

SUPERHEATER

GENERATOR

BOILER

SSR SSR

ECONOMIZER
TO
REHEATER

CONDENSER
DEAERATOR
DRAIN
DRAIN COOLER
CONDENSATE
PUMP
BOILER
HP FEEDWATER LP FEEDWATER
FEED
HEATER HEATER
PUMP GENERATOR H2
AND LUBE OIL
COOLERS

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 129


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 130


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
The boiler feedwater system supplies water to the
boiler.
Sources of feedwater include returning condensate
and makeup water.
Feedwater is typically stored in a collecting tank to
ensure a steady supply of heated water is available to
the boiler.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 131


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Feedwater Control Valve
A modulating valve that opens or closes in
response to the water level transmitters.
Maintains boiler water level in steam drum.
Normally controlled by Automatic Boiler Control
System.
Air or electrically-controlled valve.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 132


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Pretreatment Equipment
Pretreatment equipment improve the quality of
the incoming water so that it may be used in the
boiler without excessive scaling and foaming,
which can reduce boiler efficiency and cause tube
failure.
Pretreatment equipment includes but is not
limited to, clarifiers, filters, softeners,
dealkalisers, decarbonators, Reverse Osmosis (RO)
units, and demineralisers.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 133


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Deaerator, Deaerating Heater, and Atmospheric
Deaerator
The presence of oxygen in the boiler system can be
a significant problem due to its corrosivity at high
temperatures.
Deaerators and deaerating heaters use heat,
typically steam, to reduce oxygen content in
water.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 134


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Deaerator, Deaerating Heater, and Atmospheric
Deaerator
They are pressurised tanks that raise the water
temperature to the point of saturation. They also
brake the incoming water into fine droplets or thin
sheets to facilitate the removal of oxygen and
other noncondensible gases.
The feedwater oxygen content can be reduced to
levels ranging from 7 to 40 parts per billion (ppb).

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 135


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Deaerator, Deaerating Heater, and Atmospheric
Deaerator
Atmospheric deaerators are typically found in
lower-pressure boiler systems.
They operate on atmospheric pressure, so that the
maximum operating temperature is 100oC.
Atmospheric deaerators cannot achieve the same
level of oxygen removal as deaerators and
deaerating heaters.
Typical oxygen level are 0.5 to1 ppm.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 136


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Deaerator, Deaerating Heater, and Atmospheric
Deaerator

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 137


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Boiler Feed Pumps (BFP)
Feedwater pumps transfer water from the
deaerator to the boiler.
They are driven by electric motors or by steam
turbines.
The booster pump provides Net Positive Suction
Head (NPSH) to the feed pump to prevent the feed
from flashing to steam at the feed pump inlet and
causing cavitation of the pump.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 138


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Boiler Feedwater System
Boiler Feed Pumps (BFP)
The feed pump then takes the feed water and
raises the pressure to the pressure of the plant
(actually, a little higher due to head losses in the
feed piping).
The water then flows through the economizer back
in to the boiler.

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 139


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Boiler Feedwater System


Non-Condensables Out

Make-Up Water

Relief Line

Steam In

Drain Line

Boiler Feedwater

Overflow
Line

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 140


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Feed
Makeup/Excess Feed System

MAKE-UP/EMERGENCY
FEED TANK

DEAERATING EXCESS
FEED TANK FEED VALVE
Pressure Log
Constant

DFT Water Level


MAKE-UP
FRESH WATER DRAIN FEED VALVE
COLLECTING TANK
d/p
Call

Variable
Pressure
Log FRESH WATER MAIN CONDENSER
(DFT Level) DRAIN COLLECTING
To
TANK PUMP
Boiler
VACUUM
MAIN FEED DRAG VALVE
BOOSTER PUMP
AIR EJECTOR CONDENSERS

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 141


Combined Cycle Power Plant Operations

Steam Power Plants

Rankine cycle
Generation
Expansion
Condensation
Regeneration
Feed

Section 2 Haward Technology Middle East 142