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# PHY400

## PHYSICS FOR NON-MAJOR

EXPERIMENT 3
MOMENTUM AND ENERGY
Muhammad Amirul Bin Nor Hazri (2017420536)
Wan Nurisma Adilla Bt Wan Ismail (2017420534)
Nur Hajar Fairuz Bt Mohd Alfi (2017420556)
Objective : To determine the velocity of a horizontally projected object (a
metal ball) fired from a spring gun.

Apparatus: Spring gun, metal ball, block, meter ruler, electronic balance.

## Theory : To calculate the speed before the collision, the conservation of

momentum is used to predict the motion of the block
immediately before and after the collision of the ball with the
pendulum.
m1u1 + m2u2 = (m1 + m2)V
mub + Mu0p = (m +M)V

V= -------- equation (1)
+
To calculate the speed after collision, the initial kinetic energy of the pendulum
must be converted into gravitational potential energy or the pendulum rises.

(M+m)0V2 = (M+m)0gh

V = 2 ------- equation(2)

To calculate the initial velocity of the ball is by adding equation 1 into equation
2 forming :

= 2
+

+
Ub = 2 ----- equation (3)

## The uncertainty of the initial velocity of the ball :

+
= + +
+
P
R
set up the
O apparatus as
shown
C weight the metal
ball and block
E
D
the gun was
U released and the
height of the
R catcher from the
platform was

E tabulate all
measured.

measurements
Results

Trial h2 x 10-2 (m) 0.01 h1 x 10-2 (m) 0.01 h = h2 - h1 (m) 0.02 u (m/s)

## 1 14.00 3.50 10.50 4.02

2 14.90 3.50 11.40 4.21
3 15.10 3.50 11.60 4.24
4 12.10 3.50 8.60 3.65
5 18.00 3.50 14.50 4.74
6 14.80 3.50 11.30 4.19
7 15.10 3.50 11.60 4.24
8 16.70 3.50 13.20 4.53
9 16.00 3.50 12.50 4.40
10 12.80 3.50 9.30 3.80
average 0.1145 4.22

## Mass of metal ball, m = 64.0g (0.1) = 0.064kg

Mass of pendulum, M = 116.0g (0.1) = 0.116kg
C uncertainty of u, u =
+
+

+

+
A
2104 1104 0.02
L =
0.18
+
0.064
+
0.1145
4.22
C
U = 0.75ms-1

## L Thus, u = 4.22 (0.75ms-1)

A
T
I
O
N
S
CONCLUSION
1/ Conservation of mechanical energy and
Post- conservation of linear momentum.
Based on our objective, we able lab
Questions 2/ The kinetic energy is not conserved in this collision
to determine the initial velocity with its
as kinetic energy before collision is not equal to kinetic
uncertainty which is 4.22 (0.75ms-1 ). energy after collision.
There was uncertainty due to the loosen
3/ yes, this experiment can be improvised by making
catcher of the pendulum making the metal sure that the ball must be held tightly to pendulum after
the collision. Next, the height of the pendulum need to
ball to slipped. Thus, we must make sure
be measured accurately without uncertainty.
that the pendulums catcher have high
4/ Height.
friction to enable catching the metal ball.
5/