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Moving a casualty carries with it the very real risk that it may
aggravate his or her injury or condition.

Therefore, never move a casualty unless he or she is in

immediate danger, or must be moved to shelter while they
are waiting for medical help to arrive.

The method to choose to remove a casualty from immediate

danger will depend on the situation, the casualtys
condition, and whether there is anyone available to help.
In less urgent circumstances for example, to get a casualty to
shelter while waiting for specialist help and equipment to
arrive a more planned approach to transport, using
stretchers, can be made.
Never attempt to move a seriously ill or injured person
unless there is an immediate threat to life.
Never presume that a casualty can sit or stand without
Never move a casualty on their own when help is available.
Assess the lifting capabilities of their helpers in relation to
the task.
Make sure that everyone involved understands what is to be
Manual lifts and carries
1. Method of carrying in hands

This method is used when the person is of less weight

or is child. In this method the injured person should be
carried from below the shoulder and knees with the
hands. He should be carried comfortably.
2. Human Crutch
In this method the first aider himself stands near the
injured person holds his waist and keeps his hand on
his neck, lift him with his another hand and takes him
by giving him support.
In this method keep the injured person standing. Hold one of
his hand and keep your other hand under the two legs at the
knee area. Hold one of the leg over the knee and carry him on
your back or make the injured person sit on some height. Bend
before him keeping your back at his face. Now ask him to fold
his leg around your waist and hand around your shoulders and
now carry him slowly.
If helpers are two and wound is major
1.Four Handed Seat

Both the helper form a chair type seat by catching each others
wrist. Both helpers catch the right wrist with the left wrist of the
other and vice-versa.

After forming a seat the helpers sit behind the injured person and
ask him to sit and put both of his hands around the neck of the
helpers. Now the helpers towards the right hand should start with
the right foot and the left helper should start with the left foot
2. Two Handed Seat
This method is used when there is a hand fracture of the injured
person, and he cannot catch the helpers. Both the helpers stand face
to face by the side of the injured person and hold him by one hand
from the chest line. Now they lift him slightly and catch each others
fingers by inserting hand from the middle portion of his thighs.

The left side helper should keep his palm towards the lower side by
forming shape of hook with the help of fingers. Both should catch a
handkerchief or some cloth tightly. Now both the helpers should start
walking slowly.
3. The Fore and AFT Method
This method is used when there is no sufficient space for the

use of chair. In this method one helper catches the injured

person by putting his hands under the knees and the other

helper catches him by encircling his chest. Both the helper

carry the injured person slowly.

4. On Chairs

In this method the injured person is made to sit

on the chair and is slowly carried by the helpers.

5. Blanket Lift
If the injured person is lying on some bed sheet or blanket
then fold the bed sheet or blanket from both the sides or fold it
by means of wooden rods. Now the helpers should catch from
all sides on the instruction of one of the helper and should start
walking slowly or if stretchers is ready then put the person on
the stretchers and then carry him. Give him thick support of
some cloth at the neck.
6. Improvised method
In this method the buttons of the shirt of the injured person are
opened and the open flaps of the shirt are folded and are
caught by the helpers. The legs and head is hold by other
helpers, and the person is made to lie on stretcher. The patient
is covered by blanket and sand is kept by his neck sides. If the
hospital is far or the ground is uneven then the hips, knees
should be tied with stretchers.
If ready stretchers are available then these should ne used, otherwise
temporary stretchers can be prepared by the following methods:

The severely injured person should be transported on stretchers only.

1. By Two Sticks and Two Sacks

Two holes on each bag towards the lower margin of the bag on
either side should be made and the sticks are passed through
these holes length wise. A temporary stretcher is ready this way.
2. By two sticks and two coat or shirts

Turn the coat and the full shirt. Button them properly. Button

them properly. Keep their sleeves in the opposite direction.

Now insert the two sticks through the sleeves in both the sides.

The button portion should be kept downwards.

3. Broad wooden pieces or doors
It can be used as stretchers. But this should be

cushioned by grass, clothes or blanket before the

injured person is made to lie on it.

4. By using matting in emergency

A cloth can be tied on two wooden rods or

a sari can be tied on two wooden rods and
stretcher made.
Lifting An Injured Person
For lifting the injured person on the stretcher three helpers lay
down on the knees on one side and one sits on the other side of the
injured person. All the helpers then carry the person with their
hands and support on their knees and at the same time one other
helper keeps the stretcher in position at once. Now the helpers keep
the person on the stretcher slowly. The head is supported by
blanket or bed sheet. Now the stretcher is ready for carrying.
Carrying A Loaded Stretcher
1.Carrying by four helpers

On indication from one helper the other helpers lift the stretcher with
their inner hand up to the length of their arms. All the four helpers
proceed stepping first with their inner leg. These helpers should walk
comfortably. If the helpers become tired then the hands can be kept in
comfortable position on t the instruction of the other helper. Remember,
do not carry the stretcher with the other (outer) hand. While keeping the
stretcher on the floor or ambulance it should be kept slowly by gradually
bending yourselves, on the instruction of one of the helper and all other
helpers stand up at the same time.
2. Carrying by two helpers
One helper stands towards the head and one stands towards the foot

end. Now both the helpers stand in between the two handles of the

stretcher towards the hand and feet side and on the instruction of one,

both the helpers lift the stretcher up to the height of their limbs. Now on

the instruction of one helper both the helpers start walking. When the

hand becomes tired both the helpers can turn their hands and can keep

them in comfortable position. While keeping the stretcher down, both

the helpers bend down and slowly keep the stretcher. After keeping the

stretcher on the ground, both the helpers stand-up at the same time.
Unloading the stretcher

The injured person is unloaded from the stretcher after being

brought to the hospital or house. The methods applied for the
unloading are same as loading the patient on the stretcher described
earlier. If the injured person is lying in bed sheet or blanket then he
is picked up by the four corners with the help of four persons and is
made to lie on the bed. Then the sheet is drawn out. If the person is
lying on the blanket then the helpers sit around the person in all
sides, then they rest their hands below head, waist, chest, hips and
legs of the injured person and lift him up from the stretcher.
Rules for Carrying Casualties on
Principally, the feet of the injured person should be in front side

when he is carried on stretcher. But in some cases where the

stretcher is carried at height, on stairs, or while coming

downstairs, or if the leg is injured, the above rule is not followed.

While walking on an uneven ground the stretcher should

be carried by four helpers, wherever possible the person

should be carried on the even surface.

While crossing a ditch, the front helpers keep the stretcher on the

bank and then get down. Then they carry the stretcher for a

while. The back portion of the stretcher is kept on the bank and

the helpers get down and then all the helpers walk forward. After

crossing, the front helpers keep the stretcher on the ground,

climb up and proceed forward with the stretcher. Now the back

portion of the stretcher is kept on the ground, the helpers climb

up and again proceed.

While crossing the wall both the front helpers keep the

stretcher on the wall and climb up and get down on the other

side and proceed forward. Now the back helpers keep the

stretcher on the wall and get down on the other side and

The stretcher is kept inside the ambulance with the head end

ahead. Now the two helpers go inside the ambulance and

gently pull the stretcher inside, while the other two helpers
stand towards the foot end. When the whole stretcher gets
inside the ambulance then it is fixed in position. While
taking the stretcher out of the ambulance the two back
helpers push the stretcher slowly and the front two helpers
pull and carry the stretcher slowly and the front two helpers
pull and carry the stretcher to the full height of their arms to
carry the patient to the bed in the hospital.

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