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THE FOURTH GROUP

1. SULASTRI
2. NURUL FADILLAH
3. AYU ANGGRAENI
4. DWY PUTRI RAHMATIKA
5. IRDAWANI IDMAS
6. NAWIRAH AYU INSANI
7. AQIF ZULFAKAR
8. MUH NURASYIK
CONTENTS

TEST SPESIFICATIONS

TEST CONSTRUCTION AND


MODERATION

TRY-OUT

TEST ANALYSIS

VALIDATION
WHAT IS TEST SPESIFICATIONS ?

A test’s specifications provides


the official statement about
what the tests and how the it
tests. The specifications are the
blueprint to be followed by test
and item writers, and they are
also essential in the
establishment of the test’s
construct validity.
Test specifications are needed by a range
different people.
They are needed by thoses who produce the
test itself.
They who responsible for or interested in
establishing the test’s validity.
Teachers
Admissions officers
Specifications
for the test
writers

Spesifications Spesifications
for the tests for test
users validators
TEST
CONSTRUCTION
AND MODERATION

Test construction, which is commonly known


as item writing, is the next step in test
development after test specification have
been formulated. The item writing must be
based on the test specification, although it is
possible to look at past papers. Item writing is
the preparation of assessment tasks, which
can reveal the knowledge, and skill of students
when their responses to these tasks are
inspected.
Qualifications for test construction
The purpose and content of the test will to some
extent determine who will make the best item writers. It is
helpful if those who write the items have recent experience
teaching students who are similar to those taking the test, as
the teachers’ experience will provide insights into what such
students find casy and difficult, what interests them, their
cultural background, and so on.
Tests versus exercises
When asking, “what makes a good test constructions?”, one
might just as well ask, “what makes a good textbook writer?’
The design of a test item is very similar to the design of a
learning exercise, where learners are presented with a task or
data which they have to cope with in order to develop insights
or understanding, and through feedback (from a teacher, from
peers, from introspection and self observation), to develop a
capacity to change behaviour and thoughts.
Where to start ?
` Item writers have to begin their writing
task with the test’s specifications. This may
seem an obvious point, but it is surprising how
many writers try to begin item writing/test
constructions by looking at past papers rather
than at the specifications.
Problems with particular item types
a. General problems
b. Multiple-choice
c. Other objective-type items
d. Subjectively marked tests
Test Editing/Moderating Committees

As we have repeatedly emphasized,


no one person can possibly produce a
good test, or even a good item, without
advice. Being close to the item, as its
designer, the item writer ‘knows’ what
the item is intended to test, and will find
it difficult to see that it might in fact be
testing either something quite different,
or something in addition to what is
intended.
TRY
OUT

We do not only need to know how difficult the


test items are, but we also need to know whether they
work. This may mean that an item which is intended to
test a particular structure actually does so, or it may
mean that the item succeeds in distinguishing between
students at different levels so that the weaker ones. It is
possible to predict whether items will work without
trying them out.
The number of students on whom a test should be
trialed depends on the importance and types of test, and
the availability of suitable students. The only guiding rule
is the more the better, since the more students there are,
the less effect change will have on the result.
TEST
ANALYSIS

Test analysis is the process of looking at


something that can be used to derive test
information. The test items that have been
tried out must be analyzed to see whether
they work. This analysis will show us the
extent to which each item works.
Types of Test Analysis
 Objective tests
Facility value
 Discrimination index
 Subjective tests
For the subjectively marked tests although item analysis is in
appropriate, such as summaries, essays, and oral interviews, these tests still
need to be tried out to see whether the items elicit the intended sample of
language; whether the marking system, which should have been drafted
during the item writing stage, is usable; and whether the examiner are able
to mark consistently.
VALIDATION

The most important question of all in language testing


is validity. Test validity can be interpreted as usefulness for the
purpose. Since purposes vary, it is important to specify which
purpose applies when making a comment about validity.
Content validity refers to the extent to which the test reflects
the content represented in curriculum statements (and the
skills implied by that content). A test with high content validity
would provide a close match with the intentions of the
curriculum, as judged by curriculum experts and teachers.
Empirical
validation
Rational Construct
validition validation

THE TYPES
OF
VALIDATION
QUESTION
SESSION