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RADIATION

PHYSICS

MEYNARD Y. CASTRO, RRT


License No: 0011644
THE ATOM
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF
MATTER AND ENERGY
MATTER
• Anything that occupies space & has
mass/weight
• Can be transformed from one size, shape
& form to another

ICE  WATER  VAPOR


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF
MATTER AND ENERGY
MASS WEIGHT
• The quantity of matter • The force exerted on a
(constant) body under the influence
• Described by its energy of gravity
equivalence • Measured in: Newton (N)
• Measured in: kilogram or pounds (lb)
(kg)
TAKENOTE!!!
The primary distinguishing
characteristic of matter
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF
MATTER AND ENERGY
ENERGY
• The ability to do work
• Can be transformed from one form of
energy to another
• Cannot be created or destroyed
• SI unit: Joule
• In Radiology: electron volt (eV)
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF
MATTER
It states that matter may be
transformed from one form to
another but cannot be created or
destroyed
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF
ENERGY
It states that energy may be
transformed from one form to
another but cannot be created or
destroyed

Total amount of energy is constant


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF
MATTER AND ENERGY
THEORY OF
RELATIVITY
• Albert Einstein
• States that mass and
energy are
interchangeable
• Mass-energy
equivalence equation:
E=mc2
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

POTENTIAL
ENERGY
Energy at rest
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

KINETIC ENERGY
Energy of motion
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

CHEMICAL
ENERGY
Energy released by a
chemical reaction
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

ELECTRICAL
ENERGY
Movement of electron
through an electric
potential difference
(V)
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

THERMAL/HEAT
ENERGY
Energy in motion at
the molecular level
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

NUCLEAR ENERGY
Energy contained
within the nucleus of
an atom
7 KINDS OF ENERGY

ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY
Energy used in an
x-rays, radio waves,
microwaves visible
light
ATOMIC
STRUCTURE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE

ATOM
Fundamental building
blocks of matter
Smallest particle of an
element
Neutral charged
ATOMIC STRUCTURE

MOLECULES
Group of atoms
bonded together
Smallest particle of a
compound
CHEMICAL BONDING
COVALENT BOND IONIC BOND
• The chemical union • The bonding that
between atoms occurs because of an
formed by sharing electrostatic force
one or more pairs of between ions
electrons • Example: NaCl
• Example: H2O – Na: Z=11
– H: Z=1 – Cl: Z=17
– O: Z=8
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ELEMENT COMPOUND
• A pure chemical • Composed of two or
substance more elements
• Distinguish by its Z chemically linked
(number of protons) • Examples:
• Examples: – H 2O
– W 74 – BaSO4
– Ba 56
TAKENOTE!!!
112 identified
92 naturally occurring
20 artificially produced
PERIODIC TABLE
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ATOMIC MASS ATOMIC MASS
UNIT NUMBER (A)
• The mass of a neutral • Used when precession is
atom of an element not required
• Expresses the mass of • # of protons + # of
the atom neutrons in the nucleus
• Symbol: amu • Symbol: A
• 1 amu = ½ the mass of • Formula: protons +
carbon-12 atom neutrons
ATOMIC NOMENCLATURE

ATOMIC MASS
NUMBER
• Number protons plus
number of neutrons
• Symbol: A
ATOMIC NOMENCLATURE
CHEMICAL
SYMBOLS
• The alphabetic
abbreviations of an
element

ATOMIC NUMBER
• Number of Protons
• Symbol: Z
2 MAIN PARTS OF THE ATOM

NUCLEUS
• Central core of an atom
• Contains nucleon
• Contains nearly all mass
of the atom
• Positively charged
2 MAIN PARTS OF THE ATOM

ORBITAL SHELL
• Composed of electrons
• 7 shells: K, L, M, N, O,
P, Q
• Each shell represents
different electron binding
energy (Eb)
3 FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
ELECTRON PROTON NEUTRON

LOCATION Orbital shell Nucleus Nucleus

MASS Lightest - Heaviest

Negative Positive Neutral

CHARGED

-1 +1 0

John Joseph
DISCOVERED BY James Chadwick Eugene Goldstein
Thomson
ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

• NUMBER OF ELECTRONS (outermost


shell of an atom)
= GROUP in the periodic table
= determines the VALENCE of an atom

• NUMBER OF OUTERMOST ELECTRON


SHELL
= PERIOD in the periodic table
ELECTRON ARRANGEMENT

MAXIMUM ELECTRONS PER SHELL


• Formula: 2n2
• n = shell number (principal quantum
number)
OCTET RULE
TWO FORCES ACTING ON AN
ELECTRON
Centripetal Force
• Center-seeking force
• The force that keeps an
electron in orbit

Centrifugal Force
• Flying-out-from-the-
center force
• The force that causes an
electron to travel straight
and leave the atom
TWO FORCES ACTING ON
NUCLEUS

NUCLEON BINDING
REPULSIVE FORCE FORCE

Occurs between Holds an atomic


the protons nucleus together
due to neutron
ELECTRON BINDING ENERGY

• The strength of attachment of an electron to


the nucleus
• Symbol: Eb
• The energy required to completely remove
an electron from an atom
• The closer to the nucleus, the higher the Eb
• Inner shell: higher/larger Eb
• Outer shell: lower/smaller Eb
CONCEPT OF
THE ATOM
ANCIENT GREEKS

• “Atomos” means
indivisible
• Four substances:
earth, water, air, & fire
• Four Essences: wet,
dry, hot, & cold
DALTON ATOM

JOHN DALTON

“HOOK-AND-EYE
AFFAIR”
THOMSON ATOM

JOHN JOSEPH
THOMSON

“PLUM PUDDING”
• Plum: electrons
• Pudding: a shapeless
mass of positive
electrification
RUTHERFORD ATOM

ERNEST
RUTHERFORD

“NUCLEAR MODEL”

“ALPHA SCATTERING
EXPERIMENT”
BOHR ATOM

NEILS BOHR

“MINIATURE SOLAR
SYSTEM”
BASIC FORCES
IN NATURE
FUNDAMENTAL FORCES

MEANING ATTRACT/REPEL EXPRESSED BY

Acts in a MASS
through an
GRAVITATIONAL
associated Attract only Newton’s Law
FORCE
GRAVITATIONAL
FIELD

Acts in a CHARGE
ELECTROSTATIC through an
Attract & repel Coulomb’s Law
FORCE associated
ELECTRIC FIELD

Acts in a POLE
through an
MAGNETIC FORCE associated Attract & repel Gauss’s Law
MAGNETIC FIELD
PHYSICAL FORCES IN NATURE
TYPE DESCRIPTION

Gravitational Binds earth to the sun

Weak Involved in beta decay

Binds electrons and


Electrostatic
protons in atoms

Binds protons and neutrons


Strong
in the nucleus
FIELDS
The interactions among different
FIELD energies, forces or masses

It governs the interaction of


Gravitational Field different MASSES

It governs the interactions of


Electric Field electrostatic CHARGES

It governs the interactions of


Magnetic Field magnetic POLES
RADIOACTIVITY
RADIOACTIVE
ATOM
RADIOACTIVE ATOM
RADIOACTIVE
DECAY/DISINTEGRATION
Process by which the
RADIOACTIVITY nucleus spontaneously
Rate of decay/disintegration emits particles & energy
of radioactive material and transformed itself into
another type of atom to
Expressed in: Curie reach stability
SI unit: Becquerel
Parent: the original nuclei
Daughter: the resulting
nuclei
STABLE NUCLEI
• Stable low atomic mass (A) nuclides
– # of protons = # of neutrons
– Examples:
• C-12 has 6 protons & 6 neutrons
• Stable high atomic mass (A) nuclides
– # of neutrons > # of protons
– Example:
• W-74 has 74 protons & 110 neutrons
UNSTABLE NUCLEI
• Unstable nuclei are called radionuclides
• Very heavy radionuclides (Z>82) tend to
be unstable
• They undergo nuclear transformation
• Total energy, mass number, electric
charge are conserved
UNSTABLE NUCLEI
GROUND STATE EXCITED STATE
• Lowest energy state • Isomeric states
of the nucleus • Highest energy state
• The most stable of the nucleus
arrangement of • Always unstable
nucleons • Transform into lower
energy level, emitting
– gamma radiation
– internal conversion
electron
UNSTABLE NUCLEI
GROUND STATE EXCITED STATE
• Lowest energy state • Have long lifetimes
of the nucleus (metastable)
• The most stable – 10 -9 second

– e.g. 99mTc
arrangement of
nucleons
NUCLEAR ARRANGEMENTS

ISOTOPES ISOBAR
• Atomic nuclei that • Atomic nuclei that
have have
– same atomic number (Z) – Different atomic number (Z)
– Different atomic mass – Same atomic mass number
number (A) (A)
– Different neutron number – Different neutron number
• Examples: • Examples:
– 130I & 131I – 131I & 131Xe
NUCLEAR ARRANGEMENTS

ISOTONE ISOMER
• Atomic nuclei that • Atomic nuclei that
have have
– Different atomic number (Z) – Same atomic number (Z)
– Different atomic mass – Same atomic mass number
number (A) (A)
– Same neutron number – Same neutron number
• Examples: – Different energy state

– 130I & 131Xe • Examples:


– 99mTc  99Tc + gamma ray
NUCLEAR ARRANGEMENTS

ATOMIC MASS NEUTRON


ARRANGEMENTS ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)
NUMBER (A) NUMBER

isotoPe Same Different Different

isobAr Different Same Different

isotoNe Different Different Same

isomEr Same Same Same


MODES OF
DECAY
ALPHA DECAY
• Radionuclides emits
alpha particle (heavy
particles)
• Consisting of 2p + 2n
• Nucleus of helium
atom
• Results in:
– Z-2
– A–4
– N-2
ALPHA DECAY
• Z > 82 (most common)
• Energy: 4-7 MeV
• Least penetrating
– <0.1 mm (tissue)
• External source: little
risk
• Internal source: high
risk (ingested, inhaled,
injected)
• Absorbed by: paper
BETA MINUS DECAY
• Negatron emission
• Occurs in: neutron-
rich (proton-deficient)
nuclei
• 1n1p
• Results in:
– Z+1
– A = constant/same
– N-1
– Emission of negatron
– Emission of antineutrino
BETA MINUS DECAY
• Radionuclides
produced in nuclear
reactor
– by adding neutron to
stable nuclei
• Example:
– 59Co+neutron  60Co
• Reactor-produced
radionuclides
– Decay by a beta minus
process
BETA PLUS DECAY
• Positron emission
• Occurs in: neutron-
deficient (proton-rich)
nuclei
• 1p1n
• Results in:
– Z-1
– A = constant/same
– N+1
– Emission of positron
– Emission of neutrino
BETA PLUS DECAY
• Radionuclides
produced in cyclotron
– by adding charged-
particle to stable nuclei
• Example: 68Ga  68Zinc + 0β+
– 201Hg+deuteron  201Tl 31 30 +1
• Cyclotron-produced
radionuclides
– Decay by a beta plus
process (15O) or electron
capture (123I)
ELECTRON CAPTURE
• K-capture
• Occurs in: neutron-
deficient (protons-rich)
nuclei
• 1p1n
– By capturing electron
(most likely in the K-
shell)
• Results in:
– Z–1
– A = constant/same
– N+1
ELECTRON CAPTURE
– Emission of characteristic
x-rays
– Emission of Auger (o-zhay)
electron
• Auger process: the
process of removing
electron by a characteristic
x-rays within an atom
• Important e- capture
radionuclides:
– 67Ga, 111In, 123I,201Tl & 57Co
INTERNAL ISOMERIC
CONVERSION TRANSITION
• Inverse photoelectric • A decay involving
effect emission of gamma
• Gamma radiation from radiation
the nucleus ejects an • Example:
electron on its way out 99mTc  99Tc + γ

• Results in:
– Emission of
characteristic x-ray
– Emission of Auger
electron
DAUGHTER NUCLEUS
VALUE
Decay Mode Mass No. Atomic No. Neutron No. Comments

Emits gamma rays;


Isomeric transition A Z N Metastable if half-life is
>10-9 s

Emits negatrons &


Beta minus A Z+1 N–1
antineutrinos

Emits positrons &


Beta plus A Z–1 N+1
neutrinos

Emits neutrinos &


Electron capture A Z–1 N+1
characteristic x-rays

Dominant decay mode for


Alpha decay A–4 Z–2 N–2
Z > 82
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC
OF RADIOACTIVE ATOM
DECAY CONSTANT (λ)
• The rate of decay of radionuclides
• Formula: λ = 0.693/T1/2
– λ = decay constant
– T1/2= half life
• Example: if λ = 25% per second
Amount Remaining
Time Elapsed Original amount
decaying amount
1s 100 mCi 25 mCi 75 mCi
2s 75 mCi 19 mCi 56 mCi
3s 56 mCi 14 mCi 42 mCi
RADIOACTIVE/PHYSICAL
HALF-LIFE
• The time required for a quantity of
radioactivity to be reduced to one-half its
original value
• Every radioactive material has its own
unique half life value
• All radioactivity never disappears
– Quantity decreases but never reaches zero
• Formula: T1/2 = 0.693/λ
RADIOACTIVE DECAY
FORMULA

REMAINING ACTIVITY = ORIGINAL


ACTIVITY (0.5)n
n = number of half life
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1

On Monday at 6 am in the
morning, 100 mCi of 99Tc is
present. How much will remain on
the same day at 12 noon?
SOLUTION
• Given:
– 99Tc = 6 hrs (half life)
– Original activity = 100 mCi
– n = 1 (99Tc undergone one half life)
• Formula:
– Remaining Activity = Original Activity (0.5)n
• Solution:
– Remaining Activity = 100 mCi (0.5)1
– Remaining Activity = 50 mCi of 99Tc
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2

How many half-lives are


required before a quantity of
radioactive material has decayed to
less than 1% of its original value?
RADIOACTIVITY RADIOACTIVITY
HALF LIFE REMAINING REMAINING
(in %age) (in fraction )

0 100% 1

1 50% 1/2

2 25% 1/4

3 12.5% 1/8

4 6.25% 1/16

5 3.125% 1/32

6 1.56% 1/64

7 0.78% 1/128
SAMPLE ELEMENTS AND THEIR
HALF LIFE
ELEMENT HALF LIFE
99Tc 6 hours
131I 8 days
123I 13 hours
223Ra 11 days
226Ra 1600 years
14C 5730 years
192Ir 74 days
60Co 5.26 years
137Cs 30 years
90Sr 28 years
99Mo 66 hours
197Au 2.7 days
BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE (Tb)

• The time required for the body to


eliminate one-half of the dose of any
substances by biological processes
(perspiration, urine, feces, exhalation)
• Most radiopharmaceuticals are also
cleared from organs by various
physiologic processes
EFFECTIVE HALF-LIFE (Te)

• Encompasses both T1/2 and Tb


• Must always shorter than T1/2 & Tb

THE RELATIONSHIP
1/Te= 1/T1/2 + 1/Tb
EFFECTIVE HALF-LIFE (Te)
• Example: If the radionuclide has a physical half
life of 6 hours and a biologic half life of 3 hours,
what is the effective half life?
• Given: Te = ?; T1/2 = 6; Tb = 3
• Formula: 1/Te= 1/T1/2 + 1/Tb
• Solution:
– 1/Te= 1/6+1/3
– 1/Te= (1+2)/6
– 1/Te= 3/6
– Te= 6/3
– Te= 2 hours
ELECTRICITY,
MAGNETISM,
ELECTROMAGNETISM
ELECTRICITY
ELECTROSTATICS
• The study of stationary electric
charges
• The study of the distribution of fixed
charges

TAKENOTE!!!
ELECTRIC CHARGE

• Positive or negative
• Smallest Units:
electron (-) & proton
(+)
• Fundamental Unit
(SI): coulomb (C)
ELECTROSTATICS
ELECTRIC ELECTRIC
POTENTIAL (V) CURRENT (I)
• Measured in: volt • Measured in:
• Volt is potential Ampere
energy per unit • Ampere is one
charge coulomb of electric
• 1 V = 1 J/C charge flowing per
second
• 1 A = 1 C/s
ELECTRIFICATION
• Transfer or movement of electron from one
object to another object
• Created by:
– FRICTION: when one object is rubbed against
another
– CONTACT: when two object touch, permitting
electrons to move from one to the other
– INDUCTION: the process of electrical fields acting on
another without contact
• Most important method (used in the operation of electronic
devices)
INDUCTION MOTOR
ELECTRIFICATION

ELECTRIC
ELECTRIFIED GROUND
The object that
If object has too few
behaves as a
or too many
reservoir for stray
electrons
electric charges
COULOMB’S LAW
The electrostatic force
is directly proportional 2)
to the product of the
F = k(Q Q
a b /d
F = electrostatic force (N)
electrostatic charges
k = constant of proportionality
& inversely (9x109 for coulomb & meter)
proportional to the Qa & Qb = charges
square of the distance (Coulomb)
between them d = distance (m2)
ELECTRIC FIELD

• The lines of force that


causes charged
particles to move from
one pole to another
• Positive charge:
points outward
• Negative charge:
points toward
ELECTROSTATIC LAWS

REPULSION-
ATTRACTION
Unlike charges attract
Like charges repel
ELECTROSTATIC LAWS
• Uncharged particles
do not have electric
field
• Electric field radiate
out from positive
charge
• Electric field radiate
toward a negative
charge
ELECTROSTATIC LAWS

DISTRIBUTION
• Charges uniformly
distributed at the
surface
ELECTROSTATIC LAWS

LAW OF
CONCENTRATION
• Sharpest curvature
of a surface
ELECTROSTATIC LAWS
INVERSE SQUARE MOVEMENT
LAW
• The force between • Only negative
two charges charges move along
– Directly proportional the solid conductors
to the product of their – Protons are tightly bound
magnitudes inside the nucleus
– Inversely
proportional to the
square of distance
between them
ELECTRODYNAMICS

The study of electric charges


in motion
ELECTRIC CURRENT

Movement electrons along


the wire
TWO TYPES OF CURRENT
DIRECT CURRENT ALTERNATING CURRENT
• Electrons that flow in only • Electrons that flow
one direction alternately in opposite
• Waveform: straight line direction
• Waveform: sinusoidal
FOUR STATES OF MATTER
1.) CONDUCTOR
• Any substance through which electrons
flow easily
• Characteristics:
– Variable resistance
– Obeys Ohm’s law
– Requires voltage
• Examples: copper, aluminum & water
FOUR STATES OF MATTER
2.) INSULATOR
• Any material that does not allow electron
flow
• Characteristics:
– Does not permit electron flow
– Extremely high resistance
– Necessary with high voltage
• Examples: glass, rubber & clay
FOUR STATES OF MATTER
3.) SEMICONDUCTOR
• A material that some conditions behaves
as an insulator & as a conductor
• Characteristics:
– Can be conductive
– Can be resistive
– Basis for computers
• Examples: silicon & germanium
FOUR STATES OF MATTER
4.) SUPERCONDUCTOR
• Any material that allows electrons to flow
without resistance
• Characteristics:
– No resistance to electron flow
– No electric potential required
– Must be very cold
• Examples: niobium & titanium
ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
• A pathway that permits electrons to move
in a complete circle from their source
through the various components & back
again
TAKENOTE!!!
More complex  the greater the resistance
 decrease electric current
OHM’S LAW
• The voltage across the total circuit or any
portion of the circuit is equal to the current
times the resistance
• Formulas:
– V = IR (for voltage)
– R = V/I (for resistance)
– I = V/R (for current)
2 BASIC TYPES OF ELECTRIC
CIRCUIT

SERIES CIRCUIT
All circuit elements
are connected in a
line along the same
conductor
SAMPLE PROBLEM
• A series circuit contains three
resistive elements that have
values of 8, 12 and 15 Ω. If the
voltage is 110 V, what is the total
resistance, the current through
each resistor, and the voltage
across each resistor?
SOLUTION
• GIVEN:
– R1=8 Ω; R2=12; R3=15
– Vt=110 volts
• RULES for SERIES:
– R t = R 1 + R 2+ R 3
– It = I1 = I2 = I3
– Vt = V1 + V 2+ V3
SOLUTION
• What is the total resistance?
– Given: = R1=8; R2=12; R3=15
– Rules: Rt = R1 + R2+ R3
– Rt = 8 + 12 + 15
– Rt = 35 ohms
SOLUTION
• What is the current through each
resistor?
– Formula: It = Vt/Rt
– Rules: It = I1 = I2 = I3
– Given: Rt = 35 ohms; Vt = 110 volts
– It = 110/35
– It = 3.14 A
SOLUTION
• What is the voltage across each
resistor?
– Formula: V = IR
– Rules: Vt = V1 + V2 + V3
– Given: Rt = 35 ohms; It=I1=I2=I3=3.14 A
SOLUTION
Computing for V1: Computing for V3:
– R1= 8 ohms ; I1=3.14 A – R3= 15 ohms ; I3=3.14 A
– V1 = (3.14)(8) – V1 = (3.14)(15)
– V1 = 25.12 volts – V1 = 47.1 volts

Computing for V2: Computing for Vt:


– R2= 12 ohms ; I2=3.14 A – Vt = V1 + V2+ V3
– V2 = (3.14)(12) – Vt = 25.12 + 37.68 +
– V2 = 37.68 volts 47.1
– Vt = 109.9 V
– Vt = 110 V
2 BASIC TYPES OF ELECTRIC
CIRCUIT

PARALLEL
CIRCUIT
Elements are
connected at their
ends rather than lying
in a line along a
conductor
SAMPLE PROBLEM
• A parallel circuit contains three resistive
elements that have values of 8, 12 and 15
Ω. If the voltage is 110 V, what is the total
resistance, the current through each
resistor, and the voltage across each
resistor?
SOLUTION
• What is the total resistance
– Rules: 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
– Given: R1=8 Ω; R2=12 Ω; R3=15 Ω
– 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3
– 1/Rt = 1/8 + 1/12 + 1/15
– 1/Rt = 0.125 + 0.083 + 0.067
– 1/Rt = 0.275
– Rt = 1/0.275
– Rt = 3.63 ohms
SOLUTION

• What is the current through each


resistor?
– Rules: It = I1 + I2 + I3
– Formula: I = V/R
– Given: V=110 V; R1=8 Ω; R2=12 Ω; R3=15
Ω
SOLUTION
• Computing for I1: • Computing for I3:
– R1= 8; Vt=110 volts – R3= 15; Vt =110 volts
– I1 = 110/8 – I3 = 110/15
– I1 = 13.75 A – I3 = 7.33 A

• Computing for I2: • Computing for It:


– R2= 12; Vt =110 volts – I t = I 1 + I 2+ I 3
– I2 = 110/12 – It = 13.75 + 9.17 + 7.33
– I2 = 9.17 A – It = 30.25 A
SOLUTION
• What is the voltage across each
resistor?
– Rules: Vt = V1 = V2 = V3
– Formula: Vt = ItRt
– Given: It =30.25 A; Rt=3.57 ohms
– Vt = ItRt
– Vt = (30.25)(3.63)
– Vt = 109.8 V or 110 V
ELECTRIC POWER

• It is measured in watts (W)


• 1 W: 1 A (current) x 1 V (voltage)
• Formulas:
– P = IV
– P = I2R (for power losses)
SAMPLE QUESTIONS
• An x-ray imaging system that draws a
current of 80 A is supplied with 220 V.
What is the power consumed?

• Calculate the power loss in a circuit where


the current flowing is 100 amperes and the
total line resistance is 2 ohms.
MAGNETISM
• Fundamental property of forms of matter
• It has no smallest unit

MAGNETS
• Any material that produce magnetic field
• Has north and south pole

BIPOLAR/DIPOLAR
• Magnets that have two poles
MAGNETISM

Any charged particle


in motion creates a
magnetic field
MAGNETISM

The lines of a
magnetic field are
always closed loops
MAGNETISM
MAGNETIC MAGNETIC
PERMEABILITY SUSCEPTIBILITY

The ability of a material to The degree to which a


attract the lines of magnetic material can be magnetized
field intensity
Iron has high magnetic
Iron has high magnetic susceptibility
permeability
Wood has low magnetic
Wood has low magnetic susceptibility
permeability
TYPES OF MAGNETS

NATURAL MAGNET
• A magnet that gets
its magnetism from
the Earth
• e.g. Lodestone
TYPES OF MAGNETS

ARTIFICIAL-
PERMANENT
MAGNET
• A magnet whose
magnetism is
induced artificially
• e.g. compass
TYPES OF MAGNETS

ELECTROMAGNETS
• A coil or wire
wrapped around an
iron core that
intensifies the
magnetic field
FOUR MAGNETIC STATES OF
MATTER
1.) NONMAGNETIC – unaffected
• Wood & glass
2.) DIAMAGNETIC – weakly repelled
• Water & plastic
3.) PARAMAGNETIC – weakly attracted
• Gadolinium
4.) FERROMAGNETIC – strongly
magnetized
• Iron, nickel & cobalt
MAGNETIC LAWS

• Like magnetic poles


repel
• Unlike magnetic
poles attract
MAGNETIC LAWS

• Imaginary lines of
magnetic field enter
the south pole
• Imaginary lines of
magnetic field leave
the north pole
ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
• An electric current is induced in a circuit if
some part of that circuit is in a changing
magnetic field
• Faraday and Oersted Experiment
ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
MICHAEL
HANS OERSTED
FARADAY
He observed the current
in a changing magnetic He demonstrated that
field electricity can be used
to generate magnetic
He described the first fields
law of electromagnetic
induction
FARADAY’S LAW
ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
MICHAEL
FARADAY’S
EXPERIMENT
• Changing magnetic
field induces current
• Magnetic field
generates electricity
• Ammeter: measures
current
ELECTROMAGNETIC
INDUCTION
HANS OERSTED
EXPERIMENT
• Moving or spinning
charges induces
magnetic field
• Electricity generates
magnetic field
ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES
ELECTRIC MOTOR
• Electric current
produces
mechanical motion
• Commutator Ring:
switches the
direction of current
through the loop
ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

ELECTRIC
GENERATOR
• Mechanical motion
produces electric
current
ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

TRANSFORMER
• It changes the
intensity of
alternating voltage
& current
• Applicable only on
AC
STEP UP
TRANSFORMER
• Turns ratio greater
than 1
• N s > Np
• Vs > Vp
• Is < Ip
STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER
• Turns ratio less than
1
• Ns < Np
• Vs < Vp
• Is > Ip
INDUCTION MOTOR
• A type of motor
used with x-rays
tubes
• It powers the
rotating anode of an
x-ray tube
• 2 parts:
– Rotor
– Stator
ROTOR

Rotating part of an
electromagnetic
induction motor that

Located inside the


glass enveloper
STATOR
Stationary coil
windings
(electromagnet)

Located in the
protective housing but
outside the glass
envelope
TRANSFORMER LAW

• Voltage and number of turns are


directly proportional
SAMPLE PROBLEM
• There are 125 turns on the
primary side of a transformer and
90,000 turns on the secondary
side. If 110 V AC is supplied to
the primary winding, what is the
voltage induced in the secondary
winding?
SAMPLE PROBLEM

The secondary side of the


transformer has 300,000 turns; the
primary side has 600 turns. What is
the turns ratio?
TRANSFORMER LAW ON
CURRENT
• Current is inversely related to the number
of turns and voltage
SAMPLE PROBLEM
• The primary side of a filament
transformer has 1000 turns while
the secondary side has 500 turns.
What is the filament current if the
current through the primary
winding is 2 A?
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
CLOSED-CORE
TRANSFORMER
• A square core of
ferromagnetic
materials built up of
laminated layers of
iron
• Reduced energy
losses caused by eddy
current
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER
SHELL-TYPE
TRANSFORMER
• Has two-closed core
• Confines more of
the magnet field
lines
• More efficient than
closed-core
TYPES OF TRANSFORMER

AUTOTRANSFORMER
• Consists of one
winding and one
core
• Step up transformer
• Located in the
operating console
– controls the kVp
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF
AUTOTRANSFORMER
LINE COMPENSATOR

It measures the voltage


provided to the x-ray imaging
system and adjusts that voltage
to precisely 220 V
METERS
kVp METER mA METER
It reads voltage It monitors the x-ray tube
(not kVp) current
Located at the output It is connected at the center
terminals of the of the secondary winding of
autotransformer the high-voltage step-up
transformer
PREREADING kVp METER Rationale: ensures
electrical safety
It allows the voltage to be
monitored before an
exposure
AUTOTRANSFORMER LAW
• Same as transformer law
• Voltage is directly proportional to number
of turns
SAMPLE QUESTION
• An autotransformer connected to a
440 V supply contains 4000 turns, all
of which are enclosed by a primary
connections. If 2300 turns are
enclosed by secondary connection,
what voltage is supplied to the high-
voltage generator?
TYPES OF POWER LOSSES
RESISTANCE HYSTERESIS LOSS

Defined as electric An additional resistance


current in the copper caused by alternate
wire experiences reversal of the magnetic
resistance field caused by
alternating current
Results in heat
generation
TYPES OF POWER LOSSES
EDDY CURRENT
A current that opposes
the magnetic field that
induced it, creating a
loss of transformer
efficiency

Closed-core transformer
reduces eddy current
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION

It ensures that electrons flow from


cathode to anode only
RECTIFICATION

The process of converting


alternating current (AC) to direct
current (DC)
RECTIFIER

An electronic device that allows


current flow in only one direction
DIODE

An electronic device that


contains two electrodes
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION
HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION
• The voltage is not allowed to swing
negatively during the negative half of its
cycle
• Diodes: 0, 1 or 2
• 60 pulses/second
• Disadvantages:
– It wastes half the supply of power
– It requires twice the exposure time
HALFWAVE RECTIFICATION
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION
SELF RECTIFICATION
• A reference to the fact that electrons
cannot flow from anode to cathode in an x-
ray tube
• X-ray tube serves as the vacuum tube
rectifier
• Same waveform as half-wave
• 60 pulses/second
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION
FULL-WAVE RECTIFICATION
• The negative half-cycle corresponding to
the inverse voltage is reverse
• Diodes: 4
• 120 pulses/second
• Advantage:
– Exposure time reduced in half
TAKENOTE!!!

SINGLE PHASE GENERATORS


ARE USED IN DENTAL
RADIOGRAPHY!!!
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION
THREE-PHASE POWER
• The voltage impressed across the x-ray
tube is nearly constant
• 6 pulses/1/60 second (360 pulse/second)
• 12 pulses/1/60 second (720 pulse/second)
• Advantage:
– Voltage never drops to zero during exposure
• Disadvantages:
– Its size & cost
THREE-PHASE
VOLTAGE RECTIFICATION
HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR
• It produces a nearly constant potential
voltage waveform
• 500-25,000 pulse/sec
• Advantages:
– Much smaller
– Less costly
– More efficient
– Improves image quality at lower patient radiation
dose
• It uses INVERTER CIRCUITS
HIGH FREQUENCY
VOLTAGE RIPPLE

It a means of characterizing
voltage waveforms
WAVEFORM RIPPLE VOLTAGE

SINGLE-PHASE
Half wave 100% Varies from zero to
Full wave 100% maximum

THREE-PHASE
6-pulse 14% Never falls below
86% of maximum
value
12-pulse 4%
Never falls below
96% of maximum
value
HIGH FREQUENCY <1% Never falls below
99% of maximum
value
HEAT UNITS
SINGLE-PHASE
• HU = kVp x mA x s

THREE-PHASE 6 PULSE
• HU = 1.35 x kVp x mA x s

THREE-PHASE 12 PULSE
• HU = 1.41 x kVp x mA x s

HIGH FREQUENCY
• HU = 1.45 x kVp x mA x s
SAMPLE PROBLEM
• Calculate the heat units generated for
the following exposures.
Single-phase, rectified unit: 250 mA,
0.7 seconds, and 200 kVp?
• In three-phase 6-pulse?
• In high frequency generator?
POWER RATING

Transformer and high-voltage generator


usually are identified by the power rating in
KILOWATTS (kW)
POWER RATING
• Formula: for three-phase & high
frequency
mA x kVp
1000
• Formula: for single-phase

(0.7)
mA x kVp
1000
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2
SAMPLE PROBLEM 3

When a system with low-


voltage ripple is energized at
100 kVp, 100 ms, the
maximum possible tube
current is 800 mA. What is
the power rating?
SOLUTION
GIVEN: mA = 800; kVp = 100
FORMULA:
Power Rating = (mA x kVp)/1000
SOLUTION:
Power Rating = (800 x 100)/1000
Power Rating = (80,000 W)/1000
Power Rating = 80 kW
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY

The type of energy in x-rays,


radio waves, microwaves &
visible light
PHOTON
• The smallest quantity of any type of
electromagnetic energy
• It may be pictured as quantum
• Waveform: sinusoidal fashion
• Quantum: a small bundle of energy
PROPERTIES OF
ELECTROMAGNETIC
ENERGY
Frequency, Wavelength,
Velocity & Amplitude
FREQUENCY

• The rate of rise &


fall
• Symbol: f
• SI Unit: hertz (Hz)
• 1 Hz: 1
cycle/second
FREQUENCY

• Equal to the number


of crests or valleys
that pass the point of
an observer per unit
time
• Inversely proportional
to the wavelength
WAVELENGTH

• Distance from one


crest to another
• Distance from one
valley to another
• Distance from one
point on the sine wave
to the next
corresponding point
WAVELENGTH

• Unit: Lambda (λ)


• Inversely proportional
to the frequency
VELOCITY
c: speed of light
Constant SI Unit: 3 x 108 m/s
Constant British Unit: 186,000 mi/s

TAKENOTE!!!
AMPLITUDE

• The width of a
waveform
• It is not related to
wavelength or
frequency
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL
He showed that visible light has
both electric & magnetic
properties
THREE WAVE PARAMETERS
Velocity, Frequency &
Wavelength
Need to describe
electromagnetic energy
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
EQUATION

These are used for both sound &


electromagnetic energy
MAX PLANCK

He synthesized our
understanding of
electromagnetic radiation
PLANCK’S QUANTUM THEORY

X-rays are created with the


speed of light (c)
X-rays exist with velocity or they
do not exist at all
PLANCK’S QUANTUM EQUATION
• FORMULA: E = hf
• EQUIVALENT EQUATION
– f = E/h
– E = hc/λ
• PLANCK’S CONSTANT
– Symbol: h
• Constant:
– 4.15 x 10-15 Ev-s
– 6.63 x 10-34 J-s
ELECTROMAGNETIC
RELATIONSHIP TRIANGLE
ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

HIGHEST SHORTEST
GAMMA RAYS HIGHEST ENERGY
FREQUENCY WAVELENGTH

X-RAYS

UV RAYS

VISIBLE LIGHT

INFRARED LIGHT

MICROWAVE

LOWEST LONGEST
RF LOWEST ENERGY
FREQUENCY WAVELENGTH
3 REGIONS IMPORTANT TO
RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

VISIBLE LIGHT
REGION X-RAY REGION

viewing condition of Fundamental to


a radiographic & producing a high
fluoroscopic images quality radiograph
are critical to
diagnosis
3 REGIONS IMPORTANT TO
RADIOLOGIC SCIENCE

RADIOFREQUENCY
OTHERS
REGION
with the introduction UV light, infrared
of MRI, become light, & microwave
more important in radiation
medical imaging
INTERACTION OF
ELECTRON WITH MATTER
INTERACTION OF
ELECTRON WITH
MATTER
RADIATION
The transfer of
energy through
space

EXPOSED/
IRRADIATED
Matter that intercepts
and absorbs radiation
RADIATION
IONIZATION
The removal of
electron from the atom

Occurs when incident


x-ray energy is greater
than electron binding
energy
RADIATION
EXCITATION
Addition of energy to a
system achieved by
raising the energy of
electrons with the use
of x-rays

Occurs when incident


x-ray energy less than
electron binding energy
IONIZING RADIATION
• Any type of radiation
capable of removing
an orbital electron
from the atom with
which it interacts
• RESULTS IN:
– Ion pair
– Characteristic x-rays
• EXAMPLES: x-rays,
gamma rays & UV
light
TYPES OF IONIZING
RADIATION
PARTICULATE – with mass and charge
• Alpha radiation
• Beta radiation

ELECTROMAGNETIC – no mass, no charge


(photons) & travel in the speed of light
• Gamma rays
• X-rays
LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER (LET)

• A measure of the rate at which energy


is transferred from ionizing radiation to
soft tissue
• Another method of expressing
radiation quality
• Expressed in: keV/μm
LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER (LET)

• Diagnostic X-rays:
3 keV/μm
• As LET Increases:
– Increases the ability
to produce biologic
damage
– Increases the
probability of
interaction with the
target molecule
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
LET, RBE & OER
LOW LET LOW RBE HIGH OER
HIGH LET HIGH RBE LOW OER
SPECIFIC IONIZATION

THE NUMBER OF ION PAIRS


FORMED PER UNIT PATH
LENGTH
RANGE/PATH LENGTH

MAXIMUM DISTANCE TRAVERSE BY


IONIZING RADIATION BY
INTERACTION WITH THE MEDIUM

MEASURED IN:
MICROMETER
SPECIFIC
RANGE LET
IONIZATION
ALPHA
LOW HIGH HIGH
PARTICLE
BETA
HIGH HIGH LOW
PARTICLE
X-RAYS HIGH HIGH LOW
GAMMA RAYS HIGH HIGH LOW
ELECTRON
INTERACTION
MECHANISM
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

• It is emitted when an outer-shell electron


fills an inner-shell void
• An interaction with the INNER-SHELL of a
target atom
• Energy: very specific

TAKENOTE!!!
Only the K-characteristic x-rays of tungsten
are useful for imaging!
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION
BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION

• Slowed down radiation


• It is produced when a projectile electron
is slowed by the electric field of a target
atom nucleus
• An interaction with the NUCLEAR
FIELD of a target atom
• It results from BRAKING of projectile
electrons by the nucleus
• Energy: all or none
INTERACTION OF
RADIATION WITH
MATTER
X-RAY QUANTITY
• X-ray exposure, X-ray intensity, Radiation
exposure
• The number of x-rays in the useful beam
• Units: R, mR & mGya

Roentgen
• A measure of the number of ion pairs
produced in air by a quantity of x-rays
• SI Unit: mGya
• Exposure Rate: mR/s, mR/min or mR/mAs
X-RAY QUANTITY & mAs
• X-ray quantity is proportional to the
mAs
• Formula: I1/I2 = mAs1/mAs2
• mAs: mA x s = mC/s x s = mC
• 1 C: 6.25 x 1018 electrons
X-RAY QUANTITY & kVp
• X-ray quantity is proportional to kVp2
• Formula: I1/I2 = (kVp1/kVp2)2
• 40% Increased in kVp: doubling the
intensity
• 15% Increased in kVp: reduction of ½
in mAs
– Disadvantage: reduced image
contrast
kVp Rule
15% kVp Rule 5% kVp Rule

Increased 15% kVp Increased 5% kVp


mAs is decreased by ½ mAs is decreased by 30%

Decreased 15% kVp Decreased 5% kVp


mAs is doubled mAs is increased by 30%
X-RAY QUANTITY &
DISTANCE
• X-ray quantity is inversely proportional
to the square of the distance from the
source
• For relationship of distance and x-
ray intensity
– Inverse Square Law: I1/I2 =
(SID2/SID1)2
• For relationship of mAs and
distance
– Square Law: mAs1/mAs2 =
(SID1/SID2)2
FILTRATION
• Beam hardening
• Purpose: to reduce/absorb the number
of low-energy/low frequency/low
wavelength x-rays
• Advantages: increased beam quality &
reduces patient dose
• Disadvantage: reduced image
contrast
X-RAY QUALITY
• The penetrability of an x-ray beam
• It is measured in HVL
• PENETRABILITY: the ability of x-rays to
pass through tissue
• HIGH QUALITY X-RAYS: X-ray with high
penetrability
• LOW QUALITY X-RAYS: X-ray with low
penetrability
X-RAY QUALITY & kVp
• X-ray quality is directly proportional to
kVp
• Increasing the kVp increases the
quality of an x-ray beam
X-RAY QUALITY & FILTRATION
• X-ray quality is directly proportional to
filtration
• Increasing the filtration increases the
quality of an x-ray beam but decreases the
x-ray quantity
• Filter Materials: aluminum (Z=13), copper
(Z=29), tin (Z=50), gadolinium (Z=64) &
holmium (Z=67)
HALF VALUE LAYER
• The thickness of absorbing material
necessary to reduce the x-ray intensity to half
of its original value
• A characteristic of the useful beam
• DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY RANGE: 3-5 Al or 3-6
cm of soft tissue

TAKENOTE!!!
The best method for specifying x-ray quality
1 TVL = 3.3 HVL
ATTENUATION

• The reduction in x-
ray intensity that
results from
absorption &
scattering
ATTENUATION
• The total reduction in the number of x-rays
remaining in an x-ray beam after
penetration through a given thickness of
tissue
TAKENOTE!!!
X-ray beam quality can be identified by
voltage or filtration, but HVL is most
appropriate!
INTERACTION BETWEEN LIGHT &
ABSORBING MATERIAL

TRANSPARENCY
Not at all
(transmission)
e.g. window glass
INTERACTION BETWEEN LIGHT &
ABSORBING MATERIAL

TRANSLUCENCY
Partially
(attenuation)
e.g. frosted glass
INTERACTION BETWEEN LIGHT &
ABSORBING MATERIAL

OPACITY
Completely
(black glass)
e.g. black glass
INTERACTION BETWEEN
X-RAYS & STRUCTURE

RADIOLUCENT RADIOPAQUE

The structures that The structures that


transmit x-rays absorb x-rays
e.g. Lung tissue e.g. bones
DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION

• Different degrees of absorption in different


tissues
• Results: image contrast & formation of the
x-ray image
TAKENOTE!!!
“Differential absorption increases as the
kVp is reduced”

Radiographic Image
It results from approximately 0.5% of the x-
rays emitted by the x-ray tube
THREE TYPES OF X-RAYS IMPORTANT
IN MAKING A RADIOGRAPH
• Those scattered by Compton interaction
– Doesn’t provide diagnostic information
– Result: image noise
• Those absorbed photoelectrically
– Provides diagnostic information
– Appearance: radiopaque
• Those transmitted by the patient without
interaction
– Provides diagnostic information
– Appearance: radiolucent
LINEAR ATTENUATION
COEFFICIENT (cm-1)
• A quantitative measurement of attenuation
per centimeter of absorber
• It tells how much attenuation we can
expect from a certain thickness of tissue
FIVE WAYS OF X-RAY
INTERACTION WITH MATTER
LOW-ENERGY X-RAY
• It interacts with whole atom

MODERATE-ENERGY X-RAY
• It interacts with electrons

HIGH-ENERGY X-RAY
• It interacts with nuclei
FIVE WAYS OF X-RAY
INTERACTION WITH MATTER
• COHERENT
• COMPTON
• PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
• PAIR PRODUCTION
• PHOTODISINTEGRATION
COHERENT SCATTERING
• J.J. Thompson
• Classical or Thompson Scattering
• Occur at below 10 keV x-rays
• The incident x-ray interacts with a target atom,
causing it to become excited
• Results:
– Change in x-ray direction
– No change in its energy
– Scattered X-ray λ = Incident X-ray λ
– Scattered X-ray energy = Incident X-ray Energy
• Little importance to diagnostic radiology
COHERENT SCATTERING
COMPTON EFFECT
• The incident x-ray interacts with the outer-
shell electron & ejects it from the atom
• Compton/Secondary Electron: the
ejected electron
• Results:
– Change in x-ray direction
– reduction of its energy
– Scattered X-ray λ > Incident X-ray λ
– Scatter X-ray energy < incident x-ray energy
COMPTON EFFECT
FEATURES OF COMPTON
SCATTERING
With outer-shell electron
MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR
With loosely bound electrons
Increased penetration through tissue
without interaction

AS X-RAY ENERGY INCREASES Increase Compton Scattering relative


to photoelectric effect

Reduced Compton scattering


AS ATOMIC NUMBER OF
No effect in Compton scattering
ABSORBER INCREASES

AS MASS DENSITY OF ABSORBER Proportional increase in Compton


INCREASES scattering
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
• The incident x-ray interacts with the inner-
shell electron
• Result:
– Incident x-ray disappears

Three Products
• Characteristic x-rays
• Photoelectron (ejected electron)
• Positive atom (deficient of one electron)
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
GOOD EFFECTS
• No scattered radiation
• Produce good quality radiographic image

BAD EFFECT
• Increase radiation exposure to patient
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT
FEATURES OF PHOTOELECTRIC
EFFECT
With inner-shell electron
MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR
With tightly bound electrons
Increased penetration through tissue
without interaction

AS X-RAY ENERGY INCREASES Less photoelectric effect relative to


Compton effect

Reduced absolute photoelectric effect


AS ATOMIC NUMBER OF Increase proportionately with the cube
ABSORBER INCREASES of atomic number (Z3)

AS MASS DENSITY OF ABSORBER Proportional increase in photoelectric


INCREASES effect
FEATURES OF PHOTOELECTRIC
EFFECT
With inner-shell electron
MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR
With tightly bound electrons
Increased penetration through tissue
without interaction

AS X-RAY ENERGY INCREASES Less photoelectric effect relative to


Compton effect

Reduced absolute photoelectric effect


AS ATOMIC NUMBER OF Increase proportionately with the cube
ABSORBER INCREASES of atomic number (Z3)

AS MASS DENSITY OF ABSORBER Proportional increase in photoelectric


INCREASES effect
COMPTON & PHOTOELECTRIC
EFFECT
PAIR PRODUCTION
• Occur at 1.02 MeV x-rays
• The incident x-ray interacts with the
nuclear force field
• Results:
– X-ray disappears
– Two electrons with opposite charge appear
(positron & electron)
• Does not occur during x-ray imaging
• Useful in PET
PAIR PRODUCTION
PHOTODISINTEGRATION
• Occur at 10 MeV x-rays
• The incident x-ray interacts directly into
the nucleus
• Results:
– X-ray is absorbed by the nucleus
– Nucleon/nuclear fragment is emitted
• Does not occur in diagnostic radiology
PHOTODISINTEGRATION
OCCUR INTERACTION
INTERACTION ENERGY RESULTS
AT WITH

Change in x-ray
direction;
COHERENT LOW <10 keV Whole atom
No change in x-ray
energy
Change in x-ray
direction;
Outer-shell Reduced in x-ray
COMPTON
Electron energy;
Compton electron
MODERATE 30-150 keV
emitted

X-ray disappear;
Inner-shell
PHOTOELECTRIC Photoelectron
Electron
emitted

X-ray disappear;
Two electrons with
PAIR PRODUCTION 1.02 MeV Nucleus
opposite charge
appear
HIGH
X-ray absorbed in
the nucleus;
PHOTODISINTEGRATION 10 MeV Nucleus
Nuclear fragment
emitted
‘‘Board Exam is a
matter of preparation.
If you FAIL to
prepare, you
PREPARE to fail’’

-THE END-