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# 8D- QRCI Training module

## >> Be a master of active claim management

JR
20th April • 2012
Objectives

“QRCI” !
In this module:

## You will discover the QRCI / 8D methodology (steps and

description ) and Lesson Learned Sheet (when and how to do
them).

## At the end of this training, you should be able to:

 Initiate 8D’s report
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##  apply the QRCI methodology.

 Assess 8D’s
 Initiate Lessons Learned

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## Problem Solving Tools

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Problem solving tools
Different tools :

 QRCI, 8D …

##  But always a scientific method based on PDCA :

 Understand the problem
 Look for possible causes
 Test possible causes to confirm them or eliminate them
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##  Confirm corrective actions (counter-measures)

 Monitor and confirm results
 Re-iterate if it does not work

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PDCA (or Deming wheel)

A P
Plan
C D
A P
Do
C D
A P
Check C D
A P
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C D

5
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What is a QRCI?

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What is a QRCI?
A MINDSET and MANAGEMENT approach to
immediately respond to
non-performance, solve any kind of
problems and learn lessons for the future
1st priority: secure the customer (user)
2nd priority: avoid re-occurrence

## Quick Response Continuous

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Improvement
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QRCI ….. QUICK ?

Why ?
do we need to be
quick

1. To be efficient
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## 2. To be closer to the problem

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The 6 Key Points of QRCI

##  Real workplace Where and when it happens

 Real parts What is really the defect? Compare OK (good) and
NOK (bad) parts (causes, situation,..)
 Real Data No guessing, no bla-bla
Speak with data compared to standards
 Quick Response Respond immediately
Protect customer (user) first
 Logical Thinking What is the problem?
What is/are the root cause(s)?
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## What are the countermeasures?

How do I prevent re-occurrence?
 On Job Coaching Monitor, Train, Support, Recognize
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D7
D2
QRCI Board for an 8D Analysis
BE LOGICAL ! D1

## D1 What is the problem? D3

D2 Do I have same problem elsewhere?
Plan D3 How to contain, quickly?
D4
D4 What is the root cause?
D5 (non detection and occurrence)

## Check D7 How to check effectiveness? D5

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## (How to capitalize and

transversalize ?)
D6

D8 10
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8D Methodology

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8D – The background
- An 8D-like process used by US military during WW II (STD 1520)
- 1987 FORD motor company – Team oriented problem solving –
- FAURECIA FCP FAU-S-LSG 0230 + FAU-F-LSG 0230
D1: Problem description 5W / 2H + IS / IS NOT QP by
D2: Risks on similar products and processes (plants) SQA
Supplier
reaction after
D3: Containment action
max 24h
D4: Root cause of non- detection WHY shipped/ WHY not seen ?
.. max.
D5: Root cause of occurrence WHY happened/ Why made ? 10days
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D6: Countermeasures

## D8: Lesson learned / Preventing reoccurrence 60days

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8D methodology steps

D1 – Problem description
D2 – Risks on similar products and processes
D3 – Containment actions
D4 – Root causes for non detection
D5 – Root causes for occurrence
D6 – Corrective action plan
D7 – Effectiveness (Tracking chart)
D8 – Lessons Learned and Closure
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8D – The format
FAU-F–LSG 0230

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Guideline n°1
Plant must provide precise defect description to their supplier,
including picture or photo and part manufacturing date.

picture!
Be precise!

## Provide details on supplier

manufacturing date!
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Capitalization & Transversalization of 8D
8D – problem solving report for Quality

processes

## D3. Containment In 1 day

D4. Root cause of non detection _

conformance

## D6. Countermeasure to non In 10 working days

detection and non conformance
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## D8. Lessons learned In 60 working days

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D1 : be precise !

5W / 2H
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## Be precise towards the supplier and

inside the FAURECIA QSS system …

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D1 - Problem description by 5W2H´s
CATEGORY :
- The SQA- task
Don't forget the drawing release number PF1 Disturbance of the
supply flow
PF2 Disturbance of the
production flow
What happened ? PF3 Stoppage of
FAURECIA production line
PF4 Claim from FAURECIA
Why is it a problem ? customer
PF4/SR Claim from
FAURECIA customer
related to a S/R
Where was it detected ? characteristic

## When was it detected ?

( If known, when was it created ? )

Who detected it ?
( If known, who created it ? )

## How was it detected ?

( If known, how was it created ? )
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## How many defective parts ?

( How many suspect parts ? )

## … , also a risk for other FAURECIA plants ?

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D1 - Problem description by Is / Is Not
- The SQA- task

Retained
IS IS NOT
Factors

## Scratches / dents inclusions or other Type and dimension of wetting

Wettings on the class "A" surface
cosmetic imperfections (investigate)

## Reaction between paint components Paint composition

Fibers / finger marks
Reaction between paint and substrate Raw materails

## Stress on the injected part(?) Delamination of the injected plastic

Paint aplication System(?) material Analysis of differents machines

## Paint aplication process Analysis of cleaning before or in-

After painting aplication
Part surface cleaning method line

## Painting inspection team

At the laser process Sequential injection point
Reaction between paint and substrate

## Type of material used

Part surface cleaning - materials
At the assy laser Evaluate the stress of the injected
Stress on the injected part(?)
part and on the paint

Visual inspection
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Open QRCI
Described with customer view, the problem as
stated

Put the date when you open the QRCI and the
meeting dates for the review and follow up of the
QRCI
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## Define a team with a driver and

support functions. (put names)

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D1 – Problem Description
Example of customer view

Customer view
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D1 – D3

## Description of the problem,

as detailed as possible, to
be focused only on that
problem

Installation of containment
actions

Measurement of the
problem
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D1 Problem Description (5W’s + 2H’s)
3 progressive steps to describe the problem:
1st problem
definition

Customer
view
2d problem
(re) definition once the
retained factors have
been identified
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D1 – Problem Description (5W’s + 2H’s)
Define the problem by asking the following questions (5W+2H):
•What is the problem ?
• Why is it a problem?
• Where was it detected ?
• When was it detected?
• Who detected the problem?
• How was it detected ? (describe what has enabled people to say
there is a problem)
• How many defects ?
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## By answering these questions, with facts and data, you will

describe the situation that you want to improve
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D1 Identify the problem
Purpose :
 Describe the situation, understand the problem
Method :
 Questions, NO pre-conceived idea
 5W2H :
 What, Who, When, Where, Why ?
 How and How much ?

## NO GENERAL STATEMENT, use DETAILS from the

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GEMBA,
REDUCE THE SCOPE !!

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What is GEMBA?

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Remember:
> This part aims to
describe and clearly
identify the problem as the
Faurecia view (“supplier”).
> Collect information's as
much as possible
> Let the data “talk to you”
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D1 Is / Is not analysis and Differences
IS: What did happen
IS NOT: What did not happen whereas it could have happened

What ? => between parts why this part and not that one ?

## Where ? => between plants here and not there?

=> between customers (users)
=> between defect location
=> between processes

## When ? => between days/shifts why today and not yesterday?

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How ? => between detection modes why did he see it and not me ?

How much ?=> between shifts why not (or less) on shift B ?
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Good / Bad « Parts »

In a Production
context:
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D1 IS and IS NOT / Retained factor
> Cut a big problem into small pieces

## 5W/ 2H´ s IS IS NOT Retained Remember:

1st Problem Definition (is the problem) (Is not the problem) Factors The retained factors
What is the problem ? blue pigment (migrating under
db dl, da X

## Skin TITAN SCHWARZ becoming blue db-0.3

certain conditions)
considered must be
in Spain skin has to match the air bag lid
Why is it a problem?
Specification db + - 0.25
(see VW report)
in South Africa ?
color from TRW
?
elements from our
VW Spain nok
match wih air bag lid becomes cr itical
On Visteon
“processes” that explain
Time :
DETECTED on skin Uitenhage ; on IP
? On other Titan Schwarz
Palmela
customer does not see if IP the criteria placed in the
after mount by SAS cockpit immediately mounted ? x
FOUNTAIN INN ? IS and the IS NOT.
PUEBLA ?

## RHD (processed Uitenhage) LHD (processed by Visteon Medina)

in bound transportation
(temperature in container on ?
The Formulation
When the problem happened? When was the
problem created? ship) between the columns IS
> dec 2011
? By VW Spain
db measure taken just after slush as
1ok part ; (2h to max 8h)
and IS NOT has to be
Who found the problem? Who created the
problem ?
different from the
VW Spain
some points in skin more stable Processing of the Powder X
column “Retained
Where was the problem found? Where was the
problem created? seen on recent as well as > 10 dependant of shelf life of the
Factors"
Found VW months old powders powder
cr eated FAU Uit
How the problem was found ?
Measur e db
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visual ?
NO
YES
Y
N
N

Why under some circumstances the problem occurs, but also why, under other circumstances, the
problem does not occur. Identify differences.
REDUCE THE SCOPE , Differences are potential FACTORS of occurrence and non- detection

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D2 Risks on similar products and processes
> All risky part numbers/ Objective: identify risks on
process- steps are known ! similar products and
> Concrete actions taken to processes
protect the customer (user)! TO BE DONE BEFORE D3
> D2 Results are known and taken
into consideration Purpose:
> Re-define the problem after IS/ • Warn other support or
IS NOT check, get focused operation teams that the
> Reduce the scope problem could occur on their
sites
• Learn from them if they have
had similar issues and how
they tackled them

## If similar risks on similar products, Method: Identify which other

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## processes, plants has been detected then it sites, teams, products,

will be also need containment actions there. processes could be impacted if
critical, warn other teams

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D3 Containment [Customer protection first]
Objective: Define the immediate
actions to be carried out to
protect the customer.
Typically these actions include
sorting of all parts identified as
potentially at risk, then a
temporary containment action

## Purpose :Take immediate action

to protect user from issue + Key
step when disruption is significant
(critical system unavailable, data
loss …)

## Method :Define degraded

solutions, workarounds to protect
The action is considered effective if the
user from major disruption; Check
customer (external or internal) has not that the containment measures
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received a non-conforming “parts” after the are in place and that they work
implementation of the action
> Tasks assignment to involved staff
The effectiveness is demonstrated by
monitoring the tracking chart. > Blocking of suspect batches/ sorting /
collected data taken into consideration for
In this column, we have new risks identified D4/D5!
only if defects were found in different sort
> Close communication with customer
(user) 32
D3 – Containment actions within 24h - The SUPPLIER task

“FAURECIA, we
are confident
that you are fully
protected,
we will start to
analyze the
root causes,
we will update
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D4/D5/D6
on time!”

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DEVIATION/ DEROGATION !!!

## Just in case we have to

use the parts, with
FAURECIA, to avoid
delivery problems

> Deviation

## A time- limited or quantity limited

acceptance giving to the supplier
to deliver out of specification !!
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## Signed by the SQA and the

QUALITY MANAGER
To be shared with logistic/ UAP /
controlling ….
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D3 & D7 Tracking Chart
• Follow all relevant indicator's, day by day, shift by shift
• Evaluate the impact of corrective actions on indicators
This bar represents the day of the incident. The In order to visualize the effectiveness of the actions
previous section is used to the recording of mentioned in the D6, we must entered on the tracking
historical data (3 months) chart the date of implementation of corrective actions
of the Action Plan
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D4 – D6
Investigation to the cause
of the problem
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Action Plan
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D4 / D5 Preliminary Checks
1st question to be answered: Did we follow our standards?

## Before starting the analysis ask the following questions:

 Control Plan and FMEA checked?
 Procedure checked?
 “Operators” trained and Standardized Work followed?

 ...
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## Always check existing standards before starting

investigation
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D4+ D5 > FICS Training

QSE Operations
Interior Systems
FICS analysis

##  Starting from the same hypothesis (6 M)

 But: FICS=observation of the shop floor
 But: FICS=use my eyes and my legs

##  But: FICS=translation of my observation in data

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is - is not
actual situation

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FICS analysis

FICS
 Possible causes derived from Fishbone diagram

## Factor = potential cause

 Through observation on genba
 Through comparison good/ bad parts
 Through using the 3 REAL’s

## FICS is more concrete than Fishbone

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data
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FICS analysis

On job coaching

##  Not looking for the perfect solution

 100% solution not always obvious

##  Using the Kaizen principle

 Step by step improvements
 Keeping up the momentum
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solution
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FICS analysis

Factors
Investigation
Comparison
Standard

## Factors Investigation in Comparison

to the Standard
Non Detection Creation/ Occurrence
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Factors Factors

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FICS analysis

## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = VerifyNON

DETECTION FACTOR: potential cause
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## As short why the defective part was not detected in the

and process (ex. during self-inspection)
detailed Or why occurrence factor was not detected
as  Fishbone!
possible
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FICS analysis

## CREATION / OCCURENCE FACTOR:

reasons why the part is NOK
(ex. pressure, geometry of assembly
stand, temperature, design,
standard)
Or why occurrence factor was not
detected
 Fishbone!
Short and
detailed
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## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify

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FICS analysis
STANDARD: what is the rule, the specification (as
indicated in drawing, in standardized work instruction);
the standard can be explicit or implicit
(ex. inspect visually that pillar B is free of scars)
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## CONTROL POINT: how to evaluate /

O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify measure / characterize the factor
condition
(ex. visual acc. to self-inspection instructions)

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FICS analysis

## STANDARD: what is the rule, the specification (as

indicated in drawing, in standardized work instruction);
the standard can be explicit or implicit
(ex. temperature of the mould, the number of parts in box)

## CONTROL POINT: how to

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## evaluate / measure / characterize

the factor condition
(ex. visual or with measuring device)

## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify

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FICS analysis
Observation results with data Judgement of observations findings
Comparison good / bad parts Prove what is real cause

## REAL vs. STANDARD:

X when NOK parts do
not meet the standard

STANDARD OK?:
the standard is clear.
the respect of the standard
will contribute to prevent
the problem to occur.
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## REAL SITUATION: describe the real

situation of the factor with the real
O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify
values or the observation result on
OK parts/process and on NOK
parts/process
(ex. inspection result during self inspection)
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FICS analysis
Observation results with data Judgement of observations findings
Comparison good / bad parts Prove what is real cause

## REAL SITUATION: describe the real situation of the

factor with the real values or the observation result
on OK parts/process and on NOK parts/process
(ex. measuring result during self inspection)

REAL vs.
STANDARD:
STANDARD OK?:
X when NOK parts
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## the standard is clear.

do not meet the
the respect of the
standard
standard will
contribute to prevent
O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify
the problem to occur

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FICS analysis

## INVESTIGATION ACTION: Action to prove that

the suspected factor is the real cause.
Attention: standard may be NOK, parts may be
NOK without relationship to the problem
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## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify

The factor is validated, that means the potential factor is
a cause of the problem. An analysis with the 5 WHY´s will
investigate the root cause of this factor / cause.
A corrective action D6 must be associated
(ex. set up more powerful lamps)
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FICS analysis

## INVESTIGATION ACTION: Action to prove that

the suspected factor is the real cause.
Attention: standard may be NOK, parts may be
NOK without relationship to the problem
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## The factor is validated, it means the potential factor

is a cause of the problem. An analysis with the 5
WHY´s will investigate the root cause of this factor /
cause.
O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify
A corrective action D6 must be associated
(ex. accurate temperature control) 50
FICS analysis

## Potential causes Real causes

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Root cause
Analysis using
5 Why’s needed
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FICS analysis

## Potential causes Real causes

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## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubts , V = Verify Root cause

Analysis using
5 Why’s needed 52
FICS analysis
possible non detection factors ….

Standardized work
Operators training
People availability
Rework flow
Work station ergonomics
Cycle time
Process audits
1st part OK
Polyvalence
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53
FICS analysis
possible creation factors ….

## Product and process parameters

 volume / longitude / weight
 % humidity
 quantity
 cost
 identification / traceability
 packaging
 pressure

Standardized work
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Operators training

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D4 & D5 5 Why's
Purpose :
 Identify a problem's root cause
Method :
 Ask at least 5 times, consecutively, the question
"why" regarding the problem and its probable cause
(s)
 When should it be used ?
 For each factor if it was validated
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D4 & D5 5 Why's
5 WHY’s: finding the root cause
Focus on technical WHY’s, “V”: There is evidence / action that this
not on systems ’s statement is true
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## For each validated factor, we do the analysis

with the 5 WHY´s to find the root cause of the
If check in detail and / or factor (= the real cause of the problem) and a
validation of statement is corrective action D6 must be associated for
needed, go back to FICS and each root cause.
add it as new factor 56
FICS analysis

## 5 WHY’s: finding the root cause

“V”: There is evidence
Focus on technical WHY’s, / action that this
not on systems why’s statement is true

## TEMPERATURE V INSUFFICIENT V FILTER V NOT V CHECK FILTER V MAINTENANCE

UPPER TOOL COOLING DIRTY CLEANED of COOLING SYSTEM
STANDARD
at 250°C NOT Required by
NOT According to
MAINTENANCE SPEC
TOOLING SPEC.
REQUIRING
FILTER
If check in detail and / CLEANLINESS
or validation of
statement is needed,
go back to FICS and
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## add it as new factor

For each validated factor, we do the analysis
with the 5 WHY´s to find the root cause of the
factor (= the real cause of the problem) and a
corrective action D6 must be associated for
each root cause.
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FICS analysis

## Lessons Learned Sheet

Detailed description
of only 1 problem.

## Self explainable picture of the

change. It describes the
action done on the factor /
cause which created the issue
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## Action to maintain the

changed situation and
to avoid reoccurrence.

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FICS analysis

## Lessons Learned Sheet

This is the REACTION RULE
if the factor is out of control

## This is the new FACTOR

to be kept under control.
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## This is the CONTROL POINT

to monitor / check that the
factor is in the right
condition

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FICS analysis

Sum up

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FICS analysis: SUM UP

##  Non Detection Factor: potential causes why the defective

part was not detected and/ or why the occurrence factor was
not detected
 Creation/ Occurrence Factor: reasons why the defect was
created
 Control Point: how to evaluate/ measure/ characterize the
factor condition, and afterwards how to control it in the
control plan
 Investigation Action: concrete action to prove that the
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## suspected factor, is or is not, the real cause

 5 Why’s: investigation actions to find the root cause of every
validated factor (real cause).

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FICS analysis

Exercise

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Complete ...

## REAL Parts Real vs. Standard

Factor Control Point Standard NOK Parts OK Parts Std ? OK ?
Train
Stopwatch 20' +/- 2' 30' 19'
frequency

## Diameter b Caliper 13 +/- 2 15 14

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a

b 63
Solution

## REAL Parts Real vs. Standard

Factor Control Point Standard NOK Parts OK Parts Std ? OK ?
Train
frequency
Stopwatch 20' +/- 2' 30' 19' X O
Diameter a Caliper 15 +/- 2 14 16 O X
Diameter b Caliper 13 +/- 2 15 14 O X
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## O = OK, X = NOK, ∆ = Doubt , V = Verify

a

b 64
D6 Corrective Actions
Objective: Define and implement actions to eradicate the problem.

## Create the Lessons Learned Sheet after implementing the corrective

actions. This will right away:
 Challenge the logic of the action
 Highlight the changes before/after
 Highlight the factors to be controlled to prevent reoccurrence

## In Production: check actual implementation of actions,

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## understanding and training of operators, in all shifts.

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D6 Countermeasures implemented
Modify standardized work, auto-control absence of cracks Second detector to guarantee the
and correct settlement of rubber in tool. right position in both sides.
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## Train up-date, polyvalence level. Shift A, B , C.

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D6 – Corrective actions within 10 days - The SUPPLIER task

## Challenge the Supplier 8D against following criteria :

( Root cause analysis properly done -> DIG DEEP ! )

## D4 : No inspection instruction or weak

Inspection process unclear, flow and content
Missing information
Poor gauges
Don't accept the easy
Missing POKA- YOKE, no OK first piece process
Workstation lightning, ergonomics
„It was a human error
or a new employee, we Takt- time faster than inspection time, or nothing reserved
will train him”

## D5 : Process- Setting ( no parameter sheets or no respect )

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## No Poka Yoke ( High mental workload of employees )

Does D6 reflect the Poor work instructions
control of different No respect of standardize work
root causes ???
People training status etc. etc …….
67
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D7 – D8
Tracking chart

Lesson learned

68
D7 Check effectiveness
> Follow up of defects per day/ shift … Highlight relation between actions introduced and the indicators

## Objective: Check effectiveness of D6 actions, using the

tracking chart
On the tracking chart, highlight the implementation of the
corrective actions and check if there are no reoccurrences

## Are corrective actions effective?

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## Do corrective actions prevent non-detection

and defect occurrence?

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D8 Closure

## Objective: Identify definitive changes to make sure the

problem will not occur again

##  Did we understand why we did not predict the defect?

 Objectives met?
 People informed?
 Lesson Learned sheet completed, displayed and
disseminated?
 Are all standards directly related to the problem
(PFMEA, Control Plan, SW’s, Maintenance Plan,
Property of Faurecia - Duplication prohibited

## Boundary Samples…) updated?

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D8 – Lessons learned within 60 days - The SUPPLIER task

## Challenge the Supplier 8D against following criteria :

- Any risk for reoccurrence or risk for FAURECIA ??

## Workstation documents updated ?

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Workstation modified ?
Inspection modifications ?
Boundary samples and Gauge R&R ?

## Lesson learned sheets ?

71
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Agenda

## 8D report upload process in GPS

Overall process of the 8D report /
introduction to Suppliers

## 2. Fill in your 8D 3. Attach the completed report for each

report 8D relevant step in GPS
Supplier
Side D3 step D6 step D8 step GPS

1. QP document 4. SQA validates
Faurecia sent from Faurecia the 8D report QSS
Side
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QRCI Management
QRCI MANAGEMENT Check -list
Reaction Rules set? QRCI Schedule set?
q GAP readily informed q Schedule / attendance for
of any incident? reviews?
q Line: Response rules
to stop the line and do
QRCI?
Plant Review
By Div, BG
During visits

## QRCI Layout OK?

q Dedicated zone (Gap, UAP,
Plant Plant) with flip chart?
QRCI Priority rules set? q Line QRCI close to operators?
Daily, q NOK parts for open problems
q Safety -> S/R -> customer claims ->
kept?
Customer
Quality wall -> scraps -> reworks -> pph …
Complaints

## Plant Mgr, Quality Mgr Stop at defect UAP QRCI

UAP Mgr, Supervisors, q Today's top 3 internal problems
q ALL defects analyzed at the time
Support Functions selected?
they arise, by operators, according
UAP Review to reaction rules? q Activities assigned?
Weekly q Tracking chart updated every shift?
q Customer protected? Why sent?
Plant Mgr q Impact of activities reviewed?
UAP QRCI Why made?
Daily, q Immediate actions to improve? q Weekly on job coaching by Plant
Top 3 problems Mgr + Quantity Mgr?
q Flip chart updated?
not solved by lines q Did the UAP improve something
today?
q Problem handover at shift change?
UAP Mgr
Supervisors, Support Functions Line Review Line QRCI PLANT QRCI
Daily q Review separated from problem q All customers claims tackled?
UAP Mgr solving?
q Activities Assigned?
/ Supervisors q Respect of QRCI 6 key points?
q Response time monitored?
Property of Faurecia - Duplication prohibited

## Line QRCI / Stop at defect q Commitments met?

q On job coaching by Div / BG when
At Defect (Reaction rules) q Focus on priorities?
present?
• Analyze and quick response q On job coaching by UAP Mgr?
q Effectiveness checked for all shifts? q Did the plant improve
something today?
(Supervisor) q Old problems closed first?
q Check understanding with operators?
q Standards updated at closing?
q Feedback to operators on quality
improvements at each top 5?
q Did the line improve something
today?
-1- QRCI Pocket Guide FAU -S-PSG -0230 EN V2

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The key messages

Observe

## Spend time on close

examinations
Focus on measurable
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results
Pass only Good parts to the next stage

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The basic tools….

## What are the

Most important
Quality Tools?
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## My eyes and my legs (& my camera !) to….

see/ measure/ observe/ analyze/
record… 76
Conclusion

## What are the possible pitfalls ?

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Thank You,

But you ?

today ?
Glossary

##  Initial Sample (IS)

Property of Faurecia - Duplication prohibited

##  FCP (Faurecia Core Procedure)

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Glossary

 5W 2H
 What happened ?  How detected
 Who detected ?  How many
 Where is it detected ?
 When it happened ?
 Why is it a problem?

 5Whys
 Why? / Why? / Why? / Why? / Why? / … to find root causes
Property of Faurecia - Duplication prohibited

##  FICS (Factor Investigation with comparison to standard)

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