Você está na página 1de 38

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN-VI

LITERATURE STUDY
STANDARDS OF SHOPPING MALL

SUBMITTED BY-
GARIMA (1304011)
KIRAN(1304016)
MONIKA(1304019)
ROHAN(1304030)
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 PRINCIPLES OF SCHEMATIC PLANNING
 PLANNING GUIDELINES
 GENERAL DESIGN AND PLANNING CRITERIA
• Column Spacing ,Store Depths, Clear Heights,Parking system,Parking plans,
Store sizes & layouts,Depth requirements for tenants stores or hypermarkets
 RAMPS&ESCALATORS
 TRAVELATORS
 LIFTS
 CIRCULATION AREA
 SERVICES
 LANDSCAPING
 LOOSCAPING
 WATER REQUIREMENTS
 FIXTURE REQ.
 SANITARY INSTALLATIONS
 HEAT VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
 DOOR , ACCESSIBLE TOILET,ACCESSIBLE LIFT
 STORE INTERIOR
INTRODUCTION
SHOPPING MALL
 A shopping center is a complex of retail stores end related facilities
planned as a unified group to give maximum shopping convenience to the
customer and maximum exposure to the merchandise .
 It had a two-level enclosed and ventilated mall lined with open-fronted
shops startlingly similar to today's most upto-date concept .
TYPES OF CENTERS OR SHOPPING MALL
 Neighborhood Center (Suburban) -This is a row of stores
customarily (but not always) in a strip, or line, paralleling the highway and
with parking between the line of storefronts and the highway .
Ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 sq ft of space.
A few of the newer of these centers have their retail units clustered around
an enclosed "mini-mall .“
 Intermediate or Community-Size Center -This also is usually a
strip of stores but substantially larger than the neighborhood center and
usually containing a so-called "junior“ department store as the major unit.
The parking pattern is normally similar to that of the neighborhood center.

(TIME SAVER STANDARDS)


 Regional Center (Suburban)-This contains one to four department
stores plus 50 to 100 or more satellite shops and facilities, all fronting on an
internal pedestrian mall, or shopping walkway.
Parking completely surrounds the building group so that all stores face inward
to the mall with their "backs" to the parking.
 Renewal Projects (Downtown)-Two or more shopping levels, of
department stores, shops of all sorts ,restaurants, etc .
The multilevel malls may connect directly or by bridges to other shopping
facilities, hotels, office buildings, theaters, and parking garages .
Because of high land costs, all parking is normally multidecked and can be above,
below, or, better, laterally contiguous to the shopping facilities.

(TIME SAVER STANDARDS)


PRINCIPLES OF SCHEMATIC PLANNING
 convenience and comfort for the customer.
 maximum merchandising potential for the tenant stores .
Customer convenience demands ease of vehicular access to and from the site ease
and adequacy of parking
reasonable walking distances
simple,direct pedestrian shopping routes with minimum obstructions and
inconveniences .
Strip center with curb parking-

Strip center with off-street parking-

Double-strip center with off-street parking-


Mall center with only one magnet-

Mall center with magnet centrally placed-

Cluster- type center- ''Introverted" center-


PLANNING GUIDELINES

Structural models Width (m) Notes

Small shops 5.3 to 6.0 Mostly 5.4 m


Large-space users 7.3 to 9.2 Depending on beam depth.
Single-storey buildings –larger spans

Clear ceiling Height(m) To underside of beams

Small shops 3.3 to 3.8 Sales area


3.2 to 3.6 Non-sales area
Large-space users 3.6 min. With floor: floor spacing 4 to 5 m
Goods and service docks m Notes

Typical provision for large 10.7 Allowing 1.5 m each side


space user two 15 m
articulated lorries:
Width:
Minimum clearence 4.7 Approach road -5.00m
height

Type Sales area Sales:ancillary area


Small shops Less then 280 m2 sales 45:55
area
Departmental stores 10000 to 20000 m2 45:55
Variety stores 500 to 15000 m2 50:50
Super markets 1000 to 2500 m2 60:40
Superstores 5000 to 1000 m2 of
selling space
Hypermarkets Atleast 2500 m2 sales 60:40
floor
Shopping centers 25000 &50000 m2 GLA
GENERAL DESIGN AND PLANNING CRITERIA

 Column Spacing-Often used spaces are 20, 25 and 30 ft, with the last the
most flexible.
 Store Depths-one-story stores in America, buildings are usually 120 to 140 ft
deep, sometimes more to accommodate larger stores .
If there are basements or mezzanines, the depth dimension usually can be
reduced 20 to 25 percent.
In European centers and others with many very small stores, there is a problem in
how to achieve shallow depth without incurring higher costs from greater mall
lengths in relation to floor area .
One often used and desirable device is to "dog leg," or "ell," a larger store around
a smaller store .
 Clear Heights-These vary from 10 to 14 ft or more, with 12ft a good average .
Above this clear height,there must be adequate space for air-conditioning
ducts, recessed lights, structural system, etc .
 Parking system-

The need for parking was one of the primary factors leading to the development
of the shopping center concept .
In suburban areas where almost all the trade comes by automobile, a ratio of
between 5 and 6 car spaces per 1,000 sq ft of leasable store area is mandatory .
In the central business district, where mass transportation and walk-in trade can
be counted on for a substantial part of the clientele, the ratio can go down to as
low as 2 .5 to 3 cars per 1,000 sq ft .
In the matter of parking layout, car stalls can be set at angles (say, 70'j to the
lanes,which then requires one-way traffic ,or stalls can be at 90' to the lanes,
permitting two-waytraffic .
 Parking should be within 30 meters of the main entrance the building.
 To accessible parking lots with dimension 3600mm X 5000mm.
 International symbol of accessibility painted on the ground and also on a
signpost/board.
 Directional signs guiding people to the accessible parking.
 Wheel stoppers to be provided.
Car parking Car spaces per 100 m2 gross retail area
Supermarkets, 10-12
superstores
Shopping centres 4-5
 Parking plans

• 90˚ parking • 45˚parking


• 60˚parking
 Store sizes & layouts-12 to 15 ft wide by 50 to 60 ft long in large cities ; and
15 to 18 ft. wide by 60 to 80 ft long in smaller cities .
Basements 8 to 9 ft high, in the clear, permit economical stock storage .
Ground floors are preferably approximately 12 ft high If no mezzanine is
included ; mezzanines at least 7 ft 6 inch above floor level will accommodate most
fixture heights.
Height from mezzanine floor to ceiling may be as low as 6 ft 6 in . if used for
service space only ; 7 ft is the preferred minimum for public use .
Escalators
TRAVELATORS

80 cm width 1 m width

(NEUFERT )
LIFTS
Quality Service or Acceptable Interval
20 to 25 seconds Excellent
30 to 35 seconds Good
34 to 40 seconds Fair
45 seconds Poor
Over 45 seconds Unsatisfactory
NOTE— For residential buildings longer intervals should be
permissible.

(NEUFERT )
 Passenger lift sizes from kone

 Small goods lift

Small goods lift loaded Loading from both sides Corner loading
only from one side
(KONE )
CIRCULATION AREA 31.

• Corridors should have an unobstructed


width of 1800mm.
• Level differences should be beveled.
• Thresholds and gratings should not be
more that 10mm.
• Protruding objects (more that 100mm form
the wall) to be placed either
in a niche or
above 2100mm form the floor.
• Open spaces below ramps, escalator and
stairs should be blocked out completely by
protective guard rails, raised curbs or marked
with a tactile surface.

HANDBOOK OFFICE BUILDING


- CPWD
Ventilation system
 A flow of 60m^3 is adequate for
bathroom with toilet.
 A flow of 30m^3 is adequate for a toilet.
 Size of area through which air flows
should be 100mm^2.
 The cross section area for ventilation duct
without mechanical extract should be
1500mm^2 per room(upto 8 stories)
Services connection

For upto 30 dweling units.(main


connection room)
LANDSCAPING
 It is the most important element of shopping center design.
 There are two components:interior that is the landscaping in the mall,
Exterior that is the landscaping outside the mall and in the parking area.
LOOSCAPING
The ambience of public toilets can be enhanced
further by:
(a) Introducing plants which can be easily maintained
inside the toilets as well as surrounding the public
toilets.
(b) Placing of wall pictures and illuminated with
delicate lighting. The pictures or wallpapers should
be waterproof (e.g. made of impervious material).
(c) Placing of ornaments or sculptures at the ‘dead’
corners of the toilets

Directional signage
WATER REQUIREMENTS
S .NO TYPE OF BUILDING CONSUMPTION PER DAY,
LITRES
i) Factories where bathrooms are required to 45 per head
be provided
ii) Factories where no bathrooms are required 30 per head
to be provided
iii) Hospital (including laundry):
a) Number of beds not exceeding 100 340 per head
b) Number of beds exceeding 100 450 per head
iv) Nurses’ homes and medical quarters 135 per head
v) Hostels 135 per head
vi) Hotel(up to 4 star) 180 per head
vii) Hotel(5 star and above) 320 per head
viii) Offices 45 per head
ix) Restaurants 70 per seat

x) Cinemas, concert halls and theatres 15 per seat

(National Building Code- 2005)


• Required to be installed in basement if area of basement exceeds 200 sqmt.
•Additional value given in parenthesis shall be added if basement area exceeds
•200sqmt.
R — Required ; NR — Not Required (National Building Code-
2005)
FIXTURES REQUIREMENT
FIXTURES REQUIREMENT
FIXTURES REQUIREMENT
SANITARY INSTALLATIONS
Sanitary facilities for customers in shops and shopping malls having a net sales
area more than 1000 m2 and assuming equal numbers of male and female
customers.
Urinals
Individually wall-hung urinal units shall be at least 300mm wide and the lip of the
collection area shall project from the wall by at least 300mm.
A urinal should not be set closer than 450mm from its centre to any side wall,
partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 900mm centre-to-centre between
adjacent fixtures.
There should be at least a 900mm clearance in front of the urinal to any wall, fixture
or door.
Urinals should be separated by modesty boards of not less than 300mm x 1800mm
(Height) to act as a visual barrier between urinals.
The ratio of fittings in male and female toilets shall be 3:5, for example, 1 WC and
2Urinals for male: 5 WC.s for female which is in accordance to the NEA’s COPEH.
Wash Basins
Wash basins should be substantial in size. The basins should have a minimum size of
500mm in length and 400mm in width.
Water Closets (WCs)
A WC should not be set closer than 450mm from its centre to any side wall, partition,
vanity or other obstruction.
There should be at least a 900mm clearance in front of the WC to any wall, fixture or
door.
supply a predetermined quantity of not more than 4.5 litres of water per flush after
each use.
HEAT VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
(a) Mechanical Ventilation
Where mechanical means are used for ventilation, there should be cross
ventilation and the air exchange rate should have a minimum of 15 air changes
per hour.
The exhaust air should be discharged to the exterior of the building at a
position at least 2 m above the pavement level and at least 5 m from any
window or fresh air intake.

(b) Natural Ventilation


For natural ventilation, suitable fresh air inlet grilles shall be provided to ensure
an air exchange rate of 5 air changes per hour.
Examples of good materials for toilets: -
(a) Floor
Non-slip ceramic tiles, natural stone, homogeneous tiles, terrazzo.
(b) Wall
Ceramic tiles, natural stone, homogeneous tiles, stainless steel, enamelled steel
panels, glass block, aluminium panels, phenolic cladding.
(c) Ceiling
Mineral fibre board, fibrous plaster board, Aluminium panels or strips
25.
PLANNING DESIGN CRITERIA
(Fundamental Requirements)
 The object of installing ventilation
and air conditioning facilities in
buildings shall be to provide
conditions under which people can
live in comfort, work safely and
efficiently.
 Ventilation and air conditioning
installation shall aim at controlling
and optimizing following factors in
the building:
a) Air purity and filtration,
b) Air movement,
c) Dry-bulb temperature,
d) Relative humidity,
e) Noise and vibration,
f) Energy efficiency, and
g) Fire safety.
Door
• Should provide a clear opening of 900mm.
• Be fitted with lever action locks and D shape handles of circular section,
between 800mm and 1000mm form floor level.
• Also be fitted with vision panels at least between 900mm and 1500mm
form floor level.
• Be color contrasted with the surrounding walls and should not be
heavier than 22N to open.
• A distance of 400mm to 600mm should be provided beyond the leading
edge of door
to enable a wheelchair user to maneuver and to reach the handle.
• Kick plates are recommended 300mm form the bottom, to resist wear and
tear.

Accessible Toilet
A minimum of one toilet compartment with minimum size of 2000 x 1750mm
is required on each floor having all barrier free provisions.

Accessible Lift
A minimum of one 13 passenger lift is required having all barrier free provision.

(HANDBOOK OFFICE
BUILDING
STORE INTERIOR
DIFFERENT STORE UTILITY SHELVES

RETAIL STORE PLAN MEDIUM


SUPER SHELVING MEDIUM RETAIL SHOP PLAN

HIGH RETAIL SHOP


THANK YOU