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 Amino acids are required for growth, reproduction, lactation
& maintenance.

 Diet should contain EAAs – shortage of one can affect the

utilization of other.

 Most of feed ingredients are deficient in one or more EAAs

 Cereal based diets are used source of UDP – lysine defi.

 While legumes or animal based diets are used -Methionine

Rumen protected amino acids
1. Milk production
2. Reproduction
3. Transition stress
• Energy balance (lipid metabolism)
• Role in reduction of fatty livers
• Protein balance
• Antioxidant balance
• Prevention of subclinical diseases like fatty liver, ketosis, passive
immunity transfer to calf's, reduced disease resistance of cows
 Rumen protected amino acids Lys, Met are important where
milk is sold on the basis of components.
 Addition of Lys & met in diet resulted in increased milk
volume, protein & fat yield
 Improve the health and performance of animals
• Methionine as co limiting amino acid for milk protein, milk
fat synthesis and metabolic balance.
• Feeding these amino acids improve nutritional status of cows
as they are involved in physiological and metabolic processes
(Lean at al., 2013)
• Methionine, lysine & Histidine are most limiting amino
acids for milk production

• Milk protein has 7.6% lys, 2.7%met & 2.7% his

• Rumen bacteria has 7.9% lys, 2.6% met & 2.0% his

• Fish is only feedstuff having LAA composition similar to


• Cotton seed, sunflower cake, soybean meal – Histidine

• Soybean meal – Lysine

• Mustard cake – Methionine

Use of combination of protein sources
Meeting energy & N requirements of rumen microbes to
maximize microbial protein yield
Meeting amino acid need of animal through the
supplementation of protected protein or amino acid

Meet the limiting amino acids

• Reducing the CP levels & supplementing rumen protected
amino acids improves protein efficiency with out
affecting milk yield.

• Supplementation of rumen protected methionine (RPM),

Lysine during early, mid lactation increase in milk yield
(Socha et.al., 2008)

• Supplementation of RPM, Lysine during late lactation no

impact on milk yield (chung et.al., 2006)
Reproduction and embryo development
• AAs have positive effect on physiological process –
synthesis of protein - functional effects of AA – rate
limiting step.

• Methionine have functional effect- reproduction

• Cows fed with RPM showed increase in

– Dry matter intake
– Milk fat & protein percentage
– Milk volume
– Improved body condition score
Feeding rumen protected methionine
Improved body condition score (BCS)

Earlier postpartum estrous expression

Earlier first A.I.

Early pregnancy

Days open were fewer & CI is shorter

Embryo development
• AAs are more concentrated in oviduct & uterine tissue
than in the blood.
• Pregnancy, during period of embryo elongation (day 14-
18) much more con of AAs in uterine lumen.
• 10 times in concentration of Lysine, Methionine,
Histidine during pregnancy was observed
• Methionine has imp role in bovine embryo development
from morula to blasto cyst stage
Methionine metabolism
Transition stress
• Cow immune system is depressed

• Methionine supplementation - incidence of fatty liver

Methionine supplementation

• Stimulate secretion VLDLs

• Diverted to utilization in udder rather than liver


• Faster return to positive energy balance

Transition stress
• Stress is common during transition & is accentuated
during high temperatures.
• Inadequate levels of lysine & Met increase stress and
further depress the immune system.
• Supplementation of RPM reduce the stress during high
temp, particularly when combined with transition stress.
• This stimulate the immune response
• Improvement in DM intake
• Increased in milk volume
Antioxidant role
• Precursor of glutathione – primary antioxidant of

• RPM improves circulating glutathione, Increased

antioxidant activity and enhanced function of cow.
• AA balancing & use or rumen protected nutrients

• Economic benefits

• Improves health and immune status

• Improves the production of animals

Further research needed
• Supplementation of EAAs on embryo growth and survival
• If influenced then physiology and performance in the resulting

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