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PLANNING MACHINE

The planer is a machine tool designed to


produce plane and flat surface on a work
piece which is too large or too heavy. The
work piece is securely fixed on a table
called platen, and it reciprocates
horizontally against a single edged
cutting tool. The surface machined may
be horizontal, vertical or at an angle
The planer is used for:
1. Planning flat horizontal, vertical and
curved surfaces.
2. Planning at an angle and machining
dovetails.
3. Planning slots and grooves.
The size of the planer is specified by the maximum
length of the stroke, and also by the size of the largest
rectangular solid that can be machined on it.
TYPES OF PLANER
a. Double-housing planer
The double housing planer consists of the following parts
1. Bed
The bed is very strong and rigid of box type which is made by casting process. The bed
length is finished twice the length of table with ‘V’ guide ways. The table is mounted
over the bed which houses numerous mechanisms. Cross ribs are used to rise the
strength of the bed.
2. Table
It is also a box type structure which reciprocates on the bed guide ways. It is also having
‘T’ slots as that of shaper for clamping the work piece.
3. Columns
The two long structural member along with guide ways provided on both sides of the
member. The two long columns linked by a cross rail and cross beam. The cross rail
moves on the guide ways. It carries feed mechanism and power transmission links.
4. Cross rail
It is a rigid structural member mounted between two columns and slides on the guide
ways already provided on the columns. The cross-rail can be fixed or fastened at any
height. It moves tool heads.
5. Tool heads
Maximum four tool heads can be mounted on the planer. Two on the cross rail and the
other two are on the guide ways of both the columns. It may tilt to any essential angle.
The only difference in this type is that only one vertical column is provided on one
side of the bed and other side is left free. So, large and heavier jobs can be
mounted on the table. The construction and working principle are same as that of a
double housing planer.
C .Pit planer
The working principle of this planer is same as that of other types of planer. But the table of
the planner is kept in a pit as the floor coincides with the top surface of the table. So heavy
and large work can be held and machined easily.

D. Divided Table Planer


The working principle is similar to that of a standard planer. But it has two reciprocating tables.
Generally, the time required to set the work on the planer is more. To reduce the setting time of work,
the two same machining are combined by using two tables. When the first job is machining, that first
table will be only reciprocated and the second table is stationary. On that time, the setting of work can
be carried out. After machining the first work piece, the table is taken to rest and next one work is set
on it. On that time, the second table is in machining operation.
E. Edge Planer

In this type of edge planer, the bed and table are stationary and the tool head is mounted on
a carriage. The carriage can be moved longitudinally on guide ways. A platform is provided
to stand and travel along with it while machining. It is mainly used for machining the edges
of steel plates.
Hazard
Severe lacerations, amputations, or avulsions (tearing away) can occur if the
operator’s hand or arm is fed through the machine and contacts the cutting heads.
 Serious injury can also occur from kickback. A kickback can occur when lowering
the table with the power on and the stock still in the machine

Solution
Keep the machine guards in place at all times.
Keep your hands out of the machine feeding area and allow the planer to pull the
stock through.
Never lower the table during operation and never feed stacked boards.
Keep your body to the side of the stock
SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURE
• Safety glasses must be worn at all times in work areas.
• Appropriate footwear with substantial uppers must be worn.
• Rings and jewellery must not be worn.
• Long and loose hair must be contained.
• Close fitting/protective clothing must be worn.
• Hearing protection must be worn when using this machine.

PRE-OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS


• Check workspaces are clear and no slip/trip-hazards are present.
• Check safety guards are adjusted and operate to give maximum protection.
• Do not plane stock with structural defects.
• Locate and ensure you are familiar with the operation of the ON/OFF starter and E-Stop (if
fitted).
• Set depth of cut and lock table.
• Check and lock fence in position.
• Start the dust extraction unit before using the machine.
• Faulty equipment must not be used. Immediately report suspect equipment.
OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS
•Hands must not be closer than 100mm from the cutter head when it is rotating.
•Use push blocks wherever possible.
•Never leave the machine while it is running.
•Place cupped boards with the concave side against the table.
•Plane with the grain. Hold the work piece firmly and apply even feed rate.
•Operator should stand to side of in-feed table to avoid possible kickbacks.
•Before making any adjustments switch off and wait for the cutter head to completely
stop.

HOUSEKEEPING
•Switch off and reset all guards to a fully closed position after use.
•Reset the depth of cut to zero after use.
•Leave the machine in a safe, clean and tidy state.
MILLING MACHINE

 Milling is a cutting process that uses a milling cutter to remove material


from the surface of a work piece.
 It is the process of grinding, cutting, pressing, or crushing a material in a
special machine.
 Most of the milling machine are constructed of column and knee structure
 They are classified into two main types namely Horizontal Milling Machine
and Vertical Milling Machine.
 The name Horizontal or Vertical is given to the machine by virtue of its
spindle axis.
 Horizontal machines can be further classified into Plain Horizontal and
Universal Milling Machine.
 The main difference between the two is that the table of an Universal
Milling Machine can be set at an angle for helical milling while the table of
a Plain Horizontal Milling Machine is not.
Horizontal Milling Machine

1: base 2: column 3: knee


4 & 5: table 6: over arm
7: arbor (attached to spindle)
The Horizontal Milling Machine is a very robust and sturdy machine. A variety of cutters are available to
removed/shape material that is normally held in a strong machine vice. This horizontal miller is used when a vertical
miller is less suitable. For instance, if a lot of material has to be removed by the cutters or there is less of a need for
accuracy - a horizontal milling machine is chosen.
The cutter can be changed very easily. The arbor bracket is removed by loosening
nuts and bolts that hold the arbor firmly in position. The arbor can be slid off the over
arm. The spacers are then removed as well as the original cutter. The new cutter is
placed in position, spacers slid back onto the arbor and the arbor bracket tightened
back in position.
VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE

In the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are
held in the spindle and rotate on its axis. The spindle can generally be
extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, giving the same effect),
allowing plunge cuts and drilling.
Difference Between Horizontal and Vertical Milling Machines

Horizontal milling machines have a spindle or cutters mounted on a horizontal arbor


above an X-Y table. Some horizontal mills have a table, known as universal table, that
features a rotary function for machining at different angles. Horizontal mills are optimal
for machining heavier pieces because the cutters have support from the arbor, as well
as a bigger cross-section area than a vertical mill. The design of the horizontal milling
machine allows for the rapid removal of material off of the piece one is machining.
These types of milling machines can range in size from something small enough to fit on
a tabletop to room-sized machines.

Vertical milling machines have a spindle that moves in a vertical orientation over the
table, working on the top and bottom sides of the object being machined. Vertical
milling machines lend themselves to standing machinists and detailed work. These
machines tend to be taller than they are wide since their operation is vertical, which
works well when dealing with die sinking. Die sinking is when a cavity of a particular size
and shape is machined into a steel block. The opening can then be used for molding
plastic or for forging, coining, or die-casting. Below are the two types of vertical milling
machines most commonly used.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES

• Vertical milling machine


• Horizontal milling machine
• Universal milling machine
• Simplex milling machine
• Duplex milling machine
• Triplex milling machine
• Tracer milling machine
• CNC milling machine
Universal milling machine
The basic difference between a universal horizontal milling machine and a plain horizontal milling
machine is the addition of a table swivel housing between the table and the saddle of
the universal machine. This permits the table to swing up to 45° in either direction for angular and
helical milling operations.
Simplex milling machine
A horizontal mill has the same sort but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal spindle across
the table. ... Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills have two. It is also easier to cut
gears on a horizontal mill.
Duplex milling, or milling two sides at a time, provides a more precise method than sawing for
producing rectangular work piece blanks.
Tracer Controlled Milling
Tracer controlled milling machines are equipped with copying capabilities through tracer control,
and hence car reproduce or duplicate external or internal geometries in two dimensions. Tracer
controlled milling machines are used for machining cams, grooves, contoured surfaces etc. Die
sinking and other processes involving the machining of cavities can be done on three dimension
profilers or duplicators.

CNC milling is a specific form of computer numerical controlled


(CNC) machining. Milling itself is amachining process similar to both drilling and
cutting, and able to achieve many of the operations performed by cutting and
drilling machines. Like drilling, milling uses a rotating cylindrical cutting tool.
Safe Work Procedure
Safety glasses must be worn at all times in work areas
Sturdy footwear must be worn at all times in work areas
Long and loose hair must be contained.
Close fitting/protective clothing must be worn.
Gloves must not be worn when using this machine.
Rings and jewellery must not be worn.
PRE-OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS
Locate and ensure you are familiar with all machine operations and controls.
Ensure all guards are fitted, secure and functional. Do not operate if guards are missing or faulty.
Check workspaces and walkways to ensure no slip/trip hazards are present.
Ensure cutter is in good condition and securely mounted.
Check coolant delivery system to allow for sufficient flow of coolant.
OPERATIONAL SAFETY CHECKS
Keep clear of moving machine parts.
Follow correct clamping procedures. Keep overhangs as small as possible and check work piece is secure.
Set the correct speed to suit the cutter diameter, the depth of cut and the material.
ENDING OPERATIONS AND CLEANING UP
Switch off the machine when work completed.
Remove milling cutters and store them safely.
Before making adjustments and measurements or cleaning swarf accumulations, switch
off and bring the machine to a complete standstill.
Leave the machine and work area in a safe, clean and tidy state.
Hazard
Serious injuries and entanglement can occur if the operator contacts the rotating
cutter.
Metal shavings and lubricating/ cooling fluids might also present a risk from the point
of operation area
Material might spin and strike an operator if the material is not secured to the table.
 Injuries can also occur from a projected wrench if it is left in the spindle.

Solution
Secure the work piece, either by clamping it onto the work table or by clamping it
securely in a vise that is clamped tightly to the table.

NOTE: Computer numerical controlled (CNC) mills are rapidly replacing manually fed
machines, mainly for versatility and production reasons. The increased automation does
not normally require the operator to move the hand wheels (like the traditional
machines), so operators must always keep their hands away from the point of operation.

A guard or shield that encloses the cutter head or milling bed may be considered to
protect the operator from the cutting area, flying metal shavings, and lubricating or
cooling fluids.
Make sure the tightening wrench is removed from the mill.
GUARDS
There are many ways to safeguard machines! Determine the appropriate safeguarding method.
Consider: • the type of operation and material • the size or shape of stock • the method of handling
• the physical layout of the work area • production requirements/limitations

1. Guards
Fixed, Interlocked, Adjustable, Self-adjusting
Fixed Guard Characteristics:
– A permanent part of the machine. Tools are needed for removal.
– Not dependent upon moving parts to perform its intended function.
– Constructed of sheet metal, screen, wire cloth, bars, plastic, or substantial material.
– Usually preferable to all other types because of its simplicity and permanence.
Interlocked Guard Characteristics: When this type of guard is opened/removed:
– The tripping mechanism and/or power automatically shuts off or disengages.
– The machine cannot cycle or be started until the guard is back in place.
– They may use electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic power or any combination of these.
– Replacing the guard must not automatically restart the machine.
Adjustable Guards
– These guards allow flexibility in accommodating various sizes of stock

Self-Adjusting Guards
The openings of these guards are determined by the movement of the stock.
– As the operator moves the stock into the danger area, the guard is pushed away, providing an opening which is only
large enough to admit the stock.
– After the stock is removed, the guard returns to the rest position
2. Devices
Presence-Sensing Devices
Photoelectric (optical)
– Uses a system of light sources and controls which can interrupt the machine's operating cycle. Radiofrequency
(capacitance)
– Uses a radio beam that is part of the machine control circuit.
– When the capacitance field is broken, the machine will stop or will not activate.
It may stop the machine if a hand or any part of the body is inadvertently placed in the danger area.
Pullback
– Pullback devices utilize a series of cables attached to the operator's hands, wrists, and/or arms
– This type of device is primarily used on machines with stroking action
– When the slide/ram is up between cycles, the operator is allowed access to the point of operation
Restraint
– The restraint (holdout) device utilizes cables or straps that are attached to the operator's hands at a fixed point
– The cables or straps must be adjusted to let the operator's hands travel within a predetermined safe area
-there is no extending or retracting action involved
Two Hand Controls
– Requires constant, concurrent pressure by the operator to activate the machine
– With this type of device, the operator’s hands are required to be at a safe location (on the control buttons) and at
a safe distance from the danger area.
Two Hand Trips
– This device requires concurrent application of both the operator’s control buttons to activate the machine cycle,
after which the hands are free.
– Must be far enough away to prevent intentional contact.
Gates
• Provide a barrier which is synchronized with the operating cycle of the machine in order to prevent entry to the
danger area during the hazardous part of the cycle